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  • 1.
    Hashim, Sumaya
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Project Change Dissertation Introduction of Video-Based Open Education Resources(OER) in a Third Level Educational Institution [Masters dissertation]2014Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental characteristic for an individual to actively participate in a society is tobe literate (Martin, 2008). Consequently, digital literacy is an essential quality in ourera. The European Commission (2013b) reported that by 2030 90% of jobs willrequire digital skills. In September 2013 the European Commission announced the launch of 'Open Up Education' initiative (European Commission, 2013b) to improve the digital literacy in Europe through Open Educational Resources (OER).

    The overall aim of this change project was to introduce video-based educationalresources in not-for-profit, third level educational institution. Literature review wasconducted to identify the benefits and challenges of OER and the methods andmediums of delivering OER. Senior and Swailies' change model was used as framework for the change. Different environmental tools were used to diagnose thesituation and change champions were approached to do a pilot video to gaincommitments for the vision. Gantt chart was used when developing an action plan toimplement the change.

    Mixed methods approaches of qualitative and quantitative analysis were used to assess and evaluate the change by using Jacob's change model. Overall the change agent is confident that the overall aim and objectives for the project has beenachieved successfully with the biggest organisational impact is the fact that thecollege now has official contribution to the international OER movement. 

  • 2.
    Hashim, Sumaya
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO).
    The interplay between women entrepreneurs and different forms of masculinityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Hashim, Sumaya
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. College of Business, AlFaisal University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    Women entrepreneurs in the Gulf States: Taking stock and moving forward2023In: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 35, no 9-10, p. 841-884Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Gulf States have dedicated much attention and many resources to entrepreneurship, particularly in supporting women entrepreneurship. These efforts are reflected in the increase in research focused on women entrepreneurs in the Gulf States. The vast majority of relevant studies have explored the reasons for the low engagement of women in the economic sphere. Recent works have shifted attention to the agency of women entrepreneurs. However, most of the literature has applied Western epistemology without challenging and unpacking the unique contextual dimensions that influence women's entrepreneurial activities in the Gulf States. This study thus systematically reviews the literature on women entrepreneurship in the Gulf States, increases the understanding of how these women are 'doing context' by discussing three different conceptualizations of how they enact and do context in the Gulf States, and proposes future research avenues for developing context-specific epistemologies.

  • 4.
    Hashim, Sumaya
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Women Entrepreneurship: Masculinity, Legitimacy and Well-being2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overarching research purpose of this dissertation is to understand how women entrepreneurs establish and grow their businesses in a patriarchal society. This research question is addressed through the compilation of four research papers. The first research paper is a literature review that synthesizes current literature on women entrepreneurs in the Gulf States and identifies possible research avenues.

    The remaining three papers are empirical studies that use Bahrain, one of the Gulf States, as an empirical setting. The first empirical study challenges the assumption of entrepreneurship as a gendered phenomenon and sets out to understand entrepreneurship as a new phenomenon in a context that is male dominated. It draws on masculinity theory to understand the interplay between women entrepreneurs and the different forms of masculinity enacted by men. The second empirical study challenges the persistent traditional representation of the male entrepreneur as the founder and leader of a family business by using legitimacy-as-perception as a theoretical lens to investigate how female-led family ventures gain legitimacy from family and non-family members. The third empirical study challenges the stereotypical view of women entrepreneurs in developing countries by drawing on eudaimonic well-being literature to understand why and how some women start or grow a business after initiating a divorce, while others do not.

    The dissertation makes several contributions to (women) entrepreneurship and to the different theories that it adopts in various ways. First, the dissertation extends women entrepreneurship literature by showing how women entrepreneurs influence their social context to attain royal awards, deal with different forms of masculinity enacted by men, and rebuild their eudaimonic well-being through their entrepreneurial activities. Second, the dissertation introduces the notion of “Asabiyyah” to explain the unique social makeup that informs the behavior of women entrepreneurs. Third, the dissertation contributes to the theoretical lenses that it adopts, for instance to the legitimacy-as-perception lens by showing the reciprocal nature of legitimacy. It broadens the masculinity theory by bringing attention to “own-business” as an institution where the private and the public spheres overlap and organize gender relations. This dissertation also contributes to the growing literature on eudaimonic well-being by offering an understanding of the interplay between entrepreneurship, engagement in meaningful activities, and eudaimonic well-being, an area that has largely remained a black box. Last but not least the dissertation offers several practical implications to further improve and foster entrepreneurship for women in Bahrain.

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  • 5.
    Hashim, Sumaya
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Entrepreneurial Activity as a Source of Meaning in Life2021In: Proceedings of The Annual Meeting of The Academy of Management, Academy of Management , 2021, Vol. 2021, no 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research, we ask why and how some women start or grow a business after initiating divorce, while others will not. Grounded on an in-depth study of 24 women who experienced divorce in a patriarchal society, we develop a framework that identifies two pathways. The first pathway is followed by those women who felt trapped in their marriage and engaged in entrepreneurial activities as part of an overall process of self-discovery and self-development that enabled them to search for and find new sources of meanings, while the second pathway is followed by those women who felt discontent with their marriage, remarried but did not engage in entrepreneurship. Our emergent theoretical framework explains the importance of entrepreneurship to attain eudaimonic well-being following an adversity, thereby expanding the scope of entrepreneurship research.

  • 6.
    Hashim, Sumaya
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Naldi, Lucia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    I can do more than a man! The legitimacy route of female-led family ventures in Bahrain2019In: Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 2019: Proceedings of the 39th Annual Babson College Entrepreneurship Research Conference (BCERC), Wellesley, MA: Babson College , 2019, p. 385-390Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Hashim, Sumaya
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    McAdam, M.
    DCU Business School, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland.
    Nordqvist, M.
    Department of Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Technology, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    An exploration of women entrepreneurs “doing context” in family business in the Gulf States2024In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Drawing on indigenous theory of Ibn Khaldun, the rise and fall of States, this paper explores the agency of women entrepreneurs in family business in Bahrain and the underlying enablers in supporting and facilitating the exercise of this agency. This study attempts to move beyond the Western-centric studies to reflect and bring to light the unique institutional settings of the Gulf States. Design/methodology/approach: The research builds on a rich qualitative single case of a family business based in Bahrain. The single case study methodology was motivated by the potential for generating rich contextual insights. Such an approach is particularly valuable to gain a more holistic and deeper understanding of the contextualized phenomenon and its complexity. Findings: In this study the authors show how women entrepreneurs take two different paths to enter and become involved in the family business, the barriers they are subjected to and the active role they play in dismantling the challenges to the extent that they become the main mediators between the family business and central institutions in society. Originality/value: By incorporating indigenous theory with Western family business concepts, the study extends existing understanding of women entrepreneurs in family business by underscoring the agency that women entrepreneurs have in “doing context” and the role that women play in strengthening common cause and destiny within the family and the business by building and drawing on different forms of loyalty.

  • 8.
    Hashim, Sumaya
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Naldi, Lucia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Entrepreneurial Activity as a Source of Meaning in Life2021Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Hashim, Sumaya
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Naldi, Lucia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    From entrapment to enraptured: Eudaimonic well-being through entrepreneurial activityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Hashim, Sumaya
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Naldi, Lucia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO).
    “The royal award goes to…”: Legitimacy processes for female-led family ventures2021In: The Journal of Family Business Strategy, ISSN 1877-8585, E-ISSN 1877-8593, Vol. 12, no 3, article id 100358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A notable phenomenon in the Gulf States, and in Bahrain in particular, is the increasing number of female-led family ventures. This phenomenon is surprising because women are reported to face many legitimacy challenges when establishing a family business in an Arab society, in which social and economic decisions are male-dominated. Thus, we explore how female-led family ventures gain legitimacy in an Arab society. We employ a multiple case-study approach to investigate three longitudinal cases. We develop a process model of legitimacy formation for female-led family ventures. The legitimacy formation consists of three main phases: individual legitimacy, market validity and royal validity. Our model suggests that meritocracy carves out and informs most decisions and activities throughout the phases of the legitimacy formation. Additionally, we identify four different interconnecting forces (family/business spillover, large voices, bargaining power and influence on family norms) that, if present, accelerate the legitimacy formation. Our analysis also suggests that there are interactions and reciprocal relationships among the founders and the people with whom they interact that can both influence and be influenced by the process of legitimacy formation.

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