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  • 1.
    Aarikka-Stenroos, Leena
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Management CITER (Center for Innovation and Technology Research), Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Peltola, Tero
    Department of Industrial Management CITER (Center for Innovation and Technology Research), Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Rikkiev, Andrei
    Department of Industrial Management CITER (Center for Innovation and Technology Research), Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Saari, Ulla A.
    Department of Industrial Management CITER (Center for Innovation and Technology Research), Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Multiple facets of innovation and business ecosystem research: the foci, methods and future agenda2016In: ISPIM Innovation Symposium, Manchester: The International Society for Professional Innovation Management (ISPIM) , 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An ecosystem approach to innovation and business has become increasingly relevant in contemporary research but research knowledge is scattered across divergent disciplines. The aim of this study is thus, on the basis of an extensive, multidisciplinary literature review to integrate the extant knowledge on innovation and business ecosystems and analyze how they are conceptualized, analyzed, captured and depicted. By conducting a systematic multi-phase content analysis of over 230 articles selected from the Web of Science, we will build a comprehensive picture on the research streams of innovation/business ecosystem research, the used methods, foci, illustrations/visualizations of business/innovation ecosystems and build a research agenda for future research. This article contributes by providing a structured analysis on this multi-disciplinary research area, aggregating the current knowledge and generating a research agenda on innovation/business ecosystems - a theme that is emergent, multifaceted, and crucial to innovative companies as well as researchers in the fields of innovation, management, technology and marketing.

  • 2.
    Kotilainen, Kirsi
    et al.
    Faculty of Business and Built Environment, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Saari, Ulla A.
    Faculty of Business and Built Environment, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Policy influence on consumers' evolution into prosumers-empirical findings from an exploratory survey in Europe2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy sector is in transition to a flexible and sustainable energy system based on renewable energy sources. This complex transition is affecting multiple levels in the sociotechnical system. One driver of the transition is climate change that enforces the policy push from the macro level to change the way energy is produced, delivered, and used. As part of the energy system evolution, the role of the end user in the energy sector is undergoing profound changes, and consumers are increasingly being empowered to participate actively in the production and use of energy. This article investigates how policies might affect consumers' interests in becoming prosumers of energy. We explore consumers' attitudes toward using renewable energy technologies (RET) by means of an empirical consumer survey that was conducted in five European countries. The partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) method was utilized to analyze the survey results. Our findings suggest that both economic and non-economic policies affect consumer attitudes toward using renewable energy technologies. We conclude that policies have different effects on consumers and prosumers, who have already made the decision to adopt renewable energy solutions. Based on the findings, we propose a set of policy and managerial implications. 

  • 3.
    Kotilainen, Kirsi
    et al.
    Industrial Engineering and Management, Faculty of Management and Business, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
    Saari, Ulla A.
    Industrial Engineering and Management, Faculty of Management and Business, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
    Mäkinen, Saku J.
    Industrial Engineering and Management, Faculty of Management and Business, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
    Ringle, Christian M.
    Institute of Human Resource Management and Organizations, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg, Germany.
    Exploring the microfoundations of end-user interests toward co-creating renewable energy technology innovations2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 229, p. 203-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy market transition, which is enabled by new affordable energy technologies and digitalization, opens novel opportunities for developing innovative energy solutions. These new technologies facilitate energy consumers to become local energy prosumers i.e. consumers and producers of energy using renewable energy sources. Hence, a central question for innovating new solutions emerges: how energy consumers and prosumers would engage in co-creating value and novel solutions with industry players? This article explores the microfoundations of energy consumers' and prosumers’ interest to participate in co-creation activities with energy industry actors. Using survey data from five European countries and by applying variance-based structural equation modeling, we find that rewards and personal characteristics influence the interest to engage in co-creation activities. Specifically, the microfoundations of the interest are built upon the need for improvements, the intrinsic rewards, and the personal adopter characteristics. Additionally, we find differing microfoundations of interest for energy consumers and prosumers. We further discuss managerial and theoretical implications of our findings and highlight avenues for future research. 

  • 4.
    Leal Filho, Walter
    et al.
    Research and Transfer Centre “Sustainable Development and Climate Change Management”, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Ulmenliet, Germany.
    Saari, Ulla A.
    Center for Innovation and Technology Research, Laboratory of Industrial and Information Management, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Fedoruk, Mariia
    Department of Ecological Economics, Institute for Ecological Economics and Management, Ukrainian National Forestry University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Lviv, Ukraine.
    Iital, Arvo
    Water and Environmental Engineering Research Group, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Moora, Harri
    Stockholm Environment Institute Tallinn Centre, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Klöga, Marija
    Water and Environmental Engineering Research Group, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Voronova, Viktoria
    Water and Environmental Engineering Research Group, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia.
    An overview of the problems posed by plastic products and the role of extended producer responsibility in Europe2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 214, p. 550-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastic products are easy and convenient for our everyday use, but their negative impacts on human health and the environment cannot be overlooked. The negative impacts and effects of plastic waste are now widely known and have been subject of much recent media coverage, both in Europe and on a global level. Faced with increasing amounts of plastic waste, the European Union as a whole and many European governments in particular, are currently revising the policy options available to cope with the problem. One of the tools which may be deployed with a view to reducing the pressures posed by plastic waste, is the Extended Producer Responsibility principle. It is considered to be one of the major waste management policy instruments that support the implementation of the European waste hierarchy. Its application may assist in fostering the collection and recycling of waste streams that contain plastic. This paper presents an overview of the problems posed by plastic waste, and outlines their environmental dimensions. It discusses the role of the Extended Producer Responsibility principle and provides some recommendations that may be useful in enhancing extended producer responsibility.

  • 5.
    Mäkinen, Saku J.
    et al.
    Laboratory of Industrial and Information Management, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Valta, Jussi
    Laboratory of Industrial and Information Management, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Kotilainen, Kirsi
    Laboratory of Industrial and Information Management, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Saari, Ulla A.
    Laboratory of Industrial and Information Management, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Prosumers’ digital business models for electric vehicles: Exploring microfoundations for a balanced policy approach2019In: Digital business models: Driving transformation and innovation / [ed] A. Aagaard, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, p. 227-254Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mäkinen et al. provide an indispensable view of business model opportunities for electric vehicle (EV) prosumers in the future energy market. The digitalization of energy markets has started a transformation to smart grids where information flows bi-directionally end to end between energy production and consumption. The chapter explores how prosumers can create, deliver, and capture value with EVs in future energy systems. Focusing on prosumers’ digital business models (DBMs), the chapter illustrates the complex interdependencies between various activities and actors needed in the development of an energy system. In addition to demonstrating prosumers’ EV DBMs and the current state of readiness in value creation, delivery, and capture, Mäkinen et al. develop a balanced policy approach that is based on these DBM microfoundations.

  • 6.
    Saari, Ulla A.
    Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Eco-friendliness in the brand experience of high-tech products2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus in this research is to develop a brand measurement scale for measuring how consumers experience eco-friendliness when reflecting on global high-tech brands. The aim is to examine can the eco-friendliness dimension in the brand experience of a high- tech brand be measured with a brand experience measurement scale by extending the research of Brakus et al. (2009). This research topic was selected because also high-tech companies are facing the need to analyze how consumers view the eco-friendliness of their brands in order to create greener products that could also benefit the financial performance of the company (Siegel, 2009). Eco-friendliness can be seen as an important factor for consumers when they are purchasing e.g. fast-moving consumer goods (McDonald et al., 2009) and automobiles (Kim, 2011). However, it is not still considered to be so relevant when buying consumer electronics or high-tech products and this is an area that has not been researched as extensively (McDonald et al., 2009). This dissertation focuses on this research gap and investigates how eco-friendliness can be measured in the brand experience of high-tech products.

    The approach in this dissertation is empirical and the research has been conducted as a replication and extension of the existing brand experience measurement scale (BBX scale) developed earlier by Brakus et al. (2009). The BBX scale was developed further and extended with a fifth dimension for eco-friendliness to get a better understanding of the concept of eco-friendliness in the brand experience. In the design of the study, the eco-friendliness dimension was created on the basis of the attested dimensions in the BBX model, including affective, behavioral, intellectual and sensory dimensions. The theoretical background of this dissertation is based in management of high-tech innovations and especially consumer behavior and brand management research in this domain. The research includes empirical data collected in a web survey in Finland that was analyzed by using the original BBX model and two different models portraying extensions of the BBX model that also included items on eco-friendliness.

    The contribution of this study is that theoretically brand experience was proved to have also an eco-friendliness dimension in addition to the affective, behavioral, intellectual and sensory dimensions included in the original BBX scale. This study succeeded in modelling the general brand experience of mobile phones based on the original BBX model and it was also confirmed that eco-friendliness is an additional, uniquely identifiable fifth dimension in the brand experience of high-tech brands. The implication of this finding is that high-tech companies should also take into account eco-friendliness that has become increasingly important in the management of corporate value and brands in the global competition (Mohr et al., 2010, Keller, 2013) in order to respond to the needs of green consumers (Chatterjee et al., 2010, Aaker, 2011, Kotler, 2011, Ottman, 2011, Accenture and UN_Global_Compact, 2014).

  • 7.
    Saari, Ulla A.
    et al.
    Tampere University of Technology, Department of Industrial and Information Management, Center for Innovation and Technology Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Aarikka-Stenroos, Leena
    Tampere University of Technology, Department of Industrial and Information Management, Center for Innovation and Technology Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Boedeker, Stina
    University of Tampere, Research Services, Tampere, Finland.
    Köppä, Leena
    Tampere University of Technology, Innovation Services, Tampere, Finland.
    Langwaldt, Jörg
    Tampere University of Technology, Research Services, Tampere, Finland.
    Assessing the usefulness of an early idea development tool among experienced researchers2017In: CERN IdeaSquare Journal of Experimental Innovation, E-ISSN 2413-9505, Vol. 1, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We test a novel ideation tool developed for early idea development among experienced academic researchers. We presented the tool called the Impact Canvas to experienced researchers and allowed them to test it. This paper analyses their perceptions of the tool: its usability and visual appeal, content elements, ability to facilitate collaboration, and motivate on a personal level. The majority of the researchers considered the tool useful and inspiring. Our findings imply that experienced researchers would benefit from a structured approach in the early idea development phase and it could be supported by such a tool as the Impact Canvas.

  • 8.
    Saari, Ulla A.
    et al.
    Center for Innovation and Technology Research (CITER), Laboratory of Industrial and Information Management, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Aarikka-Stenroos, Leena
    Center for Innovation and Technology Research (CITER), Laboratory of Industrial and Information Management, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Köppä, Leena
    Innovation Services/Y-kampus, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Langwaldt, Jörg
    Research Services, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Boedeker, Stina
    Funding Services, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Mäkinen, Saku J.
    Laboratory of Industrial and Information Management, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Sustainable business model ideation and development of early ideas for sustainable business models: Analyzing a new tool facilitating the ideation process2019In: Sustainable business models: Innovation, implementation and success / [ed] A. Aagaard, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, p. 119-150Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents an early ideation tool, the Impact Canvas® (IC), that has been specifically designed to involve different kinds of stakeholders in the early stages of the business and research ideation process. The authors discuss how a tool can support the ideation process and how the IC tool has been designed to incorporate different elements for the development of sustainable and impactful ideas. The usefulness of the tool when cooperating in a multidisciplinary team is described. The authors report feedback from users of the tool that supports the perception of the user-friendliness and usefulness of the tool. The chapter concludes with a description of how the IC tool is being further developed to support a more multidisciplinary approach to research and business ideation.

  • 9.
    Saari, Ulla A.
    et al.
    Center for Innovation and Technology Research, Department of Industrial and Information Management, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Baumgartner, Rupert J.
    Institute of Systems Sciences, Innovation and Sustainability Research, University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Mäkinen, Saku J.
    Center for Innovation and Technology Research, Department of Industrial and Information Management, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Eco-friendly brands to drive sustainable development: Replication and extension of the brand experience scale in a cross-national context2017In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 7, article id 1286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to explore how consumers perceive eco-friendliness in their brand experiences and how this can be measured cross-nationally. This is a replication-extension study based on an existing brand experience scale. Data were collected in India and Finland from smartphone users (N = 1008). The fitness of the brand experience model is validated cross-nationally with structural equation modeling. The empirical data consisting of consumers' responses on the Apple, Samsung, and Nokia brands confirm that there is a unique dimension of eco-friendliness in the general brand experiences of consumers, and it is generalizable cross-nationally in India and Finland. The study presents a consumer-focused measure of sustainable development that could be used to track how consumers perceive the eco-friendliness of brands. The paper links consumer experiences that guide sustainable consumption behavior to the macro-level management of sustainable development. This paper extends previous research on brand experience measurement by testing cross-nationally a scale including a dimension for measuring eco-friendliness. The brand experience measurement scale could aid companies in tracking the success of their sustainable development initiatives on the brand level.

  • 10.
    Saari, Ulla A.
    et al.
    Department of Industrial and Information Management, Center for Innovation and Technology Research, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Fritz, Morgane M. C.
    Institute of Systems Sciences, Innovation and Sustainability Research, University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Mäkinen, Saku J.
    Department of Industrial and Information Management, Center for Innovation and Technology Research, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Baumgartner, Rupert J.
    Institute of Systems Sciences, Innovation and Sustainability Research, University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Designing green marketing across industries: A conceptual framework and implications for consumers and transdisciplinary research2018In: Handbook of sustainability science and research / [ed] Walter Leal Filho, Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 581-596Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding what marketing messages trigger sustainable consumer behavior is one of the key issues for companies to be able to design effective green marketing. The goal of this paper is to present a conceptual framework for a green marketing approach that includes product, industry, production processes, and supply chain specific considerations to be utilized in the design of green product marketing for the mass markets. Based on a literature review, we have created a conceptual framework with industry-specific aspects on the basis of unique features in seven industrial sectors that are of relevance to the personal needs of consumers from an environmental perspective, but are focusing on the product-specific aspects of the marketed products. The originality of this study lies in the proposition that green marketing should use the actual product features as a starting point and not focus only on green consumers. The greenness of a product should be an additional dimension that adds to the competitiveness of the product when compared to conventional products. Theoretically, we propose that a transdisciplinary approach that integrates sustainable supply chain management perspectives to green marketing would benefit companies designing green marketing approaches and consumers making green product choices. 

  • 11.
    Saari, Ulla A.
    et al.
    Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Mäkinen, Saku
    Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Alinikula, Petteri
    Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Consumers' views on eco-friendliness as a dimension of a high-tech brand2014In: Going Green - CARE INNOVATION 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-tech companies are facing the need to perform deeper analysis of how consumers view the eco-friendliness of their brands, in order to create green product and marketing strategies. The focus of this paper is to study whether consumers associate eco-friendliness with high-tech brands, and what kinds of consumers are most pro-environmental based on demographics. The key finding of this research is that consumers consider also eco‐friendly aspects when reflecting on high‐tech brands on four dimensions also used to measure general brand experience: the sensory, affective, behavioral and intellectual dimensions. Demographically, women consider eco‐friendliness more in association with high‐tech brands than men across all of the four brand experience dimensions. In addition, mature consumers consider on the intellectual and sensory brand dimensions more eco‐friendly aspects than young consumers. There are no statistically significant differences in the responses based on the educational background of the respondents.

  • 12.
    Saari, Ulla A.
    et al.
    Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Mäkinen, Saku J.
    Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Exploring how brand experience measurement could be used for integrating marketing and R&D2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a brand experience survey done on global mobile phone brands, we have analysed how brand experiences impact brand loyalty and are associated to prior product selections. We have created two conceptual models after doing exploratory factor analysis (EFA) on data collected from Finland (N=468). Our findings indicate that brand experiences of mobile phone brands consist of intellectual, sensory, behavioural, and eco-friendliness related aspects, and that the affective dimension that has earlier been linked to brand experiences is in fact associated more with brand loyalty. Also the perception of eco-friendliness in the brand experience can have an impact on brand loyalty and it is reflected in the product selection. Thus we suggest that integrated marketing and innovation management concentrate on improving the emotions consumers have towards a brand and measure this dimension to track how the brand has succeeded to deliver intellectual, sensory, behavioural and eco-friendliness related brand experiences.

  • 13. Saari, Ulla A.
    et al.
    Mäkinen, Saku J.
    From replication to further scale development: A case study of incorporating an eco-friendliness dimension in an existing consumer experience scale2019In: SAGE research methods cases: Part 2, London: Sage Publications, 2019Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study describes how we developed a new dimension for measuring eco-friendliness in an existing brand experience measurement scale. We also replicated the original scale to test its generalizability in other countries. Extensions and replications of existing frameworks are important for validating current theories and testing their reliability, even though these research approaches are not yet commonly applied in marketing and business research. In this case study, we describe the research stages that we went through when replicating and extending the scale in two different countries: a small Western country and a large non-Western country. This case study also briefly presents the statistical methods we used (e.g., principal components analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling). Replications and extensions of existing frameworks with new dimensions for sustainability-related constructs could aid the field of business and management to further develop more theories on advancing sustainable business.

  • 14.
    Saari, Ulla A.
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Management, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Mäkinen, Saku J.
    Department of Industrial Management, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Measuring brand experiences cross-nationally2017In: Journal of Brand Management, ISSN 1350-231X, E-ISSN 1479-1803, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 86-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for reliable and valid metrics for tracking consumers' experiences of products and brands cross-nationally is becoming ever more important as companies are increasingly operating in international markets. Brand experiences associated with global brands can manifest themselves very differently in different parts of the world; thus, the scales developed to track brand experiences should be validated cross-nationally. This research tests and revises an existing brand experience measurement scale cross-nationally in two countries that have very different cultural settings. Based on the findings from a survey with a sample of 1008 respondents, the authors propose a revised and shortened scale that provides more reliable and valid measurement results of brand experiences of global high-tech brands. In general, the results demonstrate the need for tests on the cross-national applicability of measurement scales and, even further, they underline the importance of replication research.

  • 15.
    Saari, Ulla A.
    et al.
    Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Mäkinen, Saku J.
    Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Baumgartner, Rupert J.
    Is eco-friendliness driving customer product choice in technology markets?2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study is to examine how eco-friendliness in the brand experience impacts product selection, and how product selection induces green brand loyalty among customers and consumers. A conceptual model is tested with empirical data collected with a web survey on mobile phone brands. The findings of this research indicate that eco-friendliness in the brand experience influences positively product selection and green brand loyalty for some global brands. Thefindings also point out that technology firms should seriously consider their sustainability and eco-friendliness strategies in their technology commercialization activities.

  • 16.
    Saari, Ulla A.
    et al.
    Laboratory of Industrial and Information Management, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Mäkinen, Saku J.
    Laboratory of Industrial and Information Management, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Järventausta, Pertti
    Laboratory of Electrical Energy Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Vilkko, Matti
    Laboratory of Automation and Hydraulic Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Systä, Kari
    Laboratory of Pervasive Computing, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Kotilainen, Kirsi
    Laboratory of Industrial and Information Management, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Valta, Jussi
    Laboratory of Industrial and Information Management, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Björkqvist, Tomas
    Laboratory of Automation and Hydraulic Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Laukkarinen, Teemu
    Laboratory of Pervasive Computing, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Engaging students in cross-disciplinary research and education—A processual approach to educational development2019In: Handbook of sustainability science and research / [ed] Walter Leal Filho, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 353-363Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The creation of future sustainable and efficient energy systems requires a cross-disciplinary approach in engineering education. In order for energy-related engineering students to be prepared for real-world situations after their studies, it is important that, while they are still studying, they obtain the basic skills for handling different concepts, theoretical frameworks and solution types created in the various disciplines involved. At the Tampere University of Technology (TUT), a cross-disciplinary team was formed from four different departments in three different faculties to create a platform for research and education purposes on the university campus. The purpose was to coordinate research and provide students with a wider picture and a concrete implementation of the different layers and aspects that need to be taken into account when creating innovative solutions for future digital energy systems. The creation of the platform started from a successful student ideation competition that produced many viable solutions. This paper describes the bottom-up incremental process by which the cross-disciplinary platform was created. The innovative solutions created in the student ideation competition convinced the university organization that the cross-disciplinary collaboration should have a more permanent platform on the university campus, allowing researchers and students to incorporate more sustainability and systemic aspects into their work, and having a positive impact on the sustainable energy consumption on the campus. 

  • 17.
    Saari, Ulla A.
    et al.
    Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Mäkinen, Saru
    Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Study on the capability to measure stakeholders’ brand experiences with a consumer-centric measurement framework2016In: Global Marketing Conference Proceedings 2016 Hong Kong, July 21 - 24, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The target of this paper is to introduce a general brand experience measurement scale that can be used to measure brand experiences of the stakeholders of a company. It is proposed that also stakeholders’ brand experiences can be measured with a measurement scale developed for consumer marketing research.

    In literature, there are various different kinds of individual brand constructs andmeasurement frameworks that have been developed for tracking consumers’ brand perceptions; however, these models have not been frequently used to measure brand-related aspects outside consumer-centric situations. The tracking of stakeholders’ brand experiences can help companies to position their brands better in the tightening global competition where also stakeholders have a critical role and can influence the performance of the company (Hult, Mena, Ferrell, & Ferrell, 2011).

    Brands are experienced via stimuli that can be either controlled by the company,including, for example, advertisements, logos, sales environments, sales packages, and services, or then they are out of their control, for example, brand related information can spread freely on the social media or by word-of-mouth (Brakus, Schmitt, & Zarantonello, 2009; Keller, 2013). Thus, it can be said that the measurement of brand experiences can give valuable information to the company on what is the status and reputation of the brand. However, it is not only the customers or consumers that have brand experiences, also stakeholders encounter brands and the way they experience them on the personal level can have a major impact on how they interact and promote the brand in other contexts. Some B2B marketing theories have brought up the importance of understanding long-term relationships between buyers and sellers, including experiences associated with the relationship (Hadjikhani & LaPlaca, 2013) as well as purchase risks (Brown, Zablah, Bellenger, & Johnston, 2011).

    Brand experiences can be measured, for example, with a measurement scale (Brakus et al., 2009) that has been extended with an eco-friendliness dimension (Saari, 2016). This model has been tested with consumers, and this paper argues that the same scale can be useful for monitoring the brand experiences of other stakeholders as well. The extended brand experience scale can be used to monitor whether consumers and stakeholders experience a certain brand to be ecofriendly, and how positively or negatively they are inclined towards the eco-friendliness of the brand experiences.

    With the raising focus on stakeholders’ important role in solving environmentalproblems, the role of stakeholder marketing becomes more critical for a company (Homburg, Stierl, & Bornemann, 2013). And in this situation it becomes also more crucial to follow up what are the brand experiences of stakeholders. The stakeholders’ brand experiences can give a strong indication is the company implementing its strategy correctly and are all the essential elements transparently and authentically communicated to the stakeholders, especially with regard to the environmental development activities that are reflected in the eco-friendliness dimension of brand experiences.Keywords: brand experience; brand .measurement scales; stakeholders’ brandexperiences; stakeholder marketing.

    References:

    Brakus, J. J., Schmitt, B. H., & Zarantonello, L. (2009). Brand Experience: What Is It? How Is It Measured? Does It Affect Loyalty? Journal of Marketing, 73(3), 52-68.

    Brown, B., Zablah, A., Bellenger, D., & Johnston, W. (2011). When do B2B brands influence the decision making of organizational buyers? An examination of therelationship between purchase risk and brand sensitivity. International Journal ofResearch in Marketing, 28 (3), 194-204.

    Hadjikhani, A., & LaPlaca, P. (2013). Development of B2B marketing theory.Industrial Marketing Management, 42(3), 294-305.

    Homburg, C., Stierl, M., & Bornemann, T. (2013). Corporate Social Responsibility in Business-to-Business Markets: How Organizational Customers Account for Supplier Corporate Social Responsibility Engagement. Journal of Marketing,77(6), 54-72.

    Hult, G. T. M., Mena, J. A., Ferrell, O. C., & Ferrell, L. (2011). Stakeholdermarketing: a definition and conceptual framework. AMS Rev, 1, 44–65.

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