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  • 1. Aarset, Bernt
    et al.
    Foss, Lene
    Fakultet for biovitenskap, fiskeri og økonomi - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    Norway's cod farming industry: Adaption, imitation or innovation?1996In: Aquaculture development: Social dimensions of an emerging industry / [ed] C. Bailey, S. Jentoft & P. Sinclair, Westview Press, 1996, p. 43-57Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Amble, Nina
    et al.
    Arbeidsforskningsinstituttet AFI - Høgskolen i Oslo og Akershus.
    Foss, Lene
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiT - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    Erfaring fra arbeid med kvinne- og kjønnsperspektivet i bedrifts- og organisasjonsutvikling2005In: Nytt arbeidsliv - nye former for kunnskapsproduksjon / [ed] K. Fossestøl & O. Eikeland, Arbeidsforskningsinstituttet , 2005, p. 83-107Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3. Berg, Nina Gunnerud
    et al.
    Foss, LeneFakultet for biovitenskap, fiskeri og økonomi - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    Entreprenørskap: Kjønn, livsløp og sted2002Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 4. Castriotta, E.
    et al.
    Foss, Lene
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiT i Tromsø - UiT Norges arktiske universitet.
    Henry, Colette
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiT i Tromsø - UiT Norges arktiske universitet.
    Moi, C.
    Mapping the intellectual structure of women's entrepreneurship research: A bibliometric analysis2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Claussen, Tor
    et al.
    Avdeling for økonomi, språk og samfunnsfag - Høgskolen i Østfold.
    Foss, Lene
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiT - UiT Norges arktiske universitet.
    Johnsen, Hans Christian Garmann
    Agderforskning - NORCE Norwegian Research Centre AS.
    Kvadsheim, Henrik
    Institutt for medie- og samfunnsfag - Universitetet i Stavanger.
    Levin, Morten
    Institutt for industriell økonomi og teknologiledelse - Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet.
    Løvland, Jarle
    Entreprenørskap, innovasjon og regional utvikling - Nordlandsforskning.
    Ravn, Johan Elvemo
    Institutt for industriell økonomi og teknologiledelse - Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet.
    Epilogue. Research on enterprise development: Lessons learned2002In: Researching enterprise development: Action research on the cooperation between management and labour in Norway / [ed] M. Levin, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2002, p. 239-246Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6. Coleman, S.
    et al.
    Henry, C.
    Orser, B.
    Foss, Lene
    School of Business & Economics, UiT—The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Welter, Friederike
    University of Siegen, Germany.
    Policy Support for Women Entrepreneurs’ Access to Financial Capital: Evidence from Canada, Germany, Ireland, Norway, and the United States2018In: Journal of small business management (Print), ISSN 0047-2778, E-ISSN 1540-627XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This cross-country study documents policies and practices designed to increase women entrepreneurs’ access to financial capital in Canada, Germany, Ireland, Norway, and the United States. Drawing on feminist theory, we examine assumptions of policy alongside the eligibility criteria, rules and regulations of practices. Our findings reveal that four of the five country policies examined were predicated on a neo-liberal perspective that positions women entrepreneurs as economic assets. We offer insights into opportunities for modernizing policies and practices in ways that will enhance the legitimacy of a more diverse array of women entrepreneurs and increase their access to financial capital. 

  • 7. Coleman, S.
    et al.
    Henry, C.
    Orser, B.
    Foss, Lene
    Welter, Friederike
    Women’s Enterprise Financial Policies and Programs: A Comparative Analysis of Canada, Germany, Ireland, Norway and the U.S2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Foss, Lene
    Fakultet for biovitenskap, fiskeri og økonomi - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    Entreprenørskap og nettverk2006In: Entreprenørskap på norsk / [ed] O. R. Spilling, Fagbokforlaget, 2006, p. 193-216Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Foss, Lene
    Fakultet for biovitenskap, fiskeri og økonomi - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    Fra Alta til Lierne: Scootermagasin for distrikts-Norge2002In: NyskapingsNorge / [ed] O. R. Spilling, Fagbokforlaget, 2002, p. 79-82Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10. Foss, Lene
    'Going against the grain . . .' construction of entrepreneurial identity through narratives2004In: Narrative and discursive approaches in entrepreneurship: A second movements in entrepreneurship / [ed] Daniel Hjorth & Chris Steyaert, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2004, p. 80-104Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Foss, Lene
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiT - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    Innovasjon gjennom akademisk entreprenørskap: Nye samarbeidsmodeller for utdanning av entreprenører2013In: Hva er Innovasjon? Perspektiver i norsk innovasjonsforskning. Bind 2: Organisasjon og medvirkning - En norsk modell? / [ed] H. C. G. Johnsen & Ø. Pålshaugen, Cappelen Damm Akademisk, 2013, p. 215-238Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Foss, Lene
    Universitetet i Tromsø - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    Med ryggen mot markedet? Kveiteoppdrett som et eksempel på en gryende næring2000In: Magma - Tidsskrift for økonomi og ledelse, ISSN 1500-0788, E-ISSN 1500-6069, Vol. 1, p. 65-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gryende næringer («emerging industries») er kjennetegnet av høy grad av teknologisk og strategisk usikkerhet. I denne artikkelen argumenteres det for at entreprenører i gryende næringer møter utfordringer med å legitimere nyetableringen i sine omgivelser samt å redusere ekstern usikkerhet. På bakgrunn av økonomiske, sosiologiske, organisasjons- og markedsføringsteoretiske resonnementer antar vi at entreprenører kan legitimere seg i omgivelsene og redusere usikkerhet ved å investere i egen kompetanse, bygge nettverksrelasjoner, integrere andre ledd i produksjonskjeden og vektlegge markedet.

  • 13.
    Foss, Lene
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiT - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    Praktisk entreprenørskapsutdanning i nord – veien å gå2013In: Hvor går Nord-Norge? Bind 3. Politiske tidslinjer / [ed] S. Jentoft, J. I. Nergård & K. A. Røvik, Orkana Forlag, 2013, p. 285-302Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Foss, Lene
    Department of Social Science and Marketing, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
    Research on entrepreneur networks: The case for a constructionist feminist theory perspective2010In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 83-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The paper aims to clarify how a gendered analysis of entrepreneurial networks may benefit by the use of a constructionist (post-structuralist) perspective.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper makes use of a discourse analysis: first, the paper reviews a selection of empirical research articles from 1980 to 2008 on gender and networks in entrepreneurship research in order to convey the main research question, the hypotheses, the methodology and the main findings. Second, the paper identifies in a broader literature the hegemonic statements that characterize the discourse of gender and networks.

    Findings – The main findings of the studies reviewed is that there are no major differences in the networks of female and male entrepreneurs. Research on the significance of gender for entrepreneurial success indicates that there is probably more variation within than between sex categories with regard to network activities. This may be an indication that empiricist feminism and standpoint feminism have outplayed their role as approaches to the study of gender and networks in entrepreneurial settings. The discourse analysis reveals five hegemonic statements: entrepreneurs use social networks strategically, women are disadvantaged compared to men and therefore cannot network effectively, weak ties are the source of men's success; strong ties are women's drawback and, finally, women are inherently relational.

    Research limitations/implications – Methodologically, the current status of research on networks, gender and entrepreneurship demonstrates that most of the knowledge is gained through cross-sectional surveys. Typically, the majority of studies on entrepreneurship, due to the methods chosen, does not allow for first-hand, real and authentic experiences of entrepreneurial lives. Acknowledging the presence of the speaker can be done in various ways. Entrepreneurs may reveal their thoughts, their experience and reflections only if the relationship between the researcher and the researched is symmetrical. Narrative approaches are suggested in order to “tap” the voice – and thus the stories – of the acting entrepreneurs.

    Practical implications – Theoretically, the discourse is limited by the lack of an explicit “gendered” perspective. The analysis of the texts reveals an implicit empiricist feminist approach, resulting in networks and entrepreneurship as well as gender and networks being portrayed in a very special and limited way.

    Originality/value – The findings of the discursive approach to research texts on gender and entrepreneurial networks, is that the discourse is limited with regard to both theory and method. This paper has shown that the discourse in the research field is limited, and that the field needs to be challenged by other disciplinary procedures regulating what counts as knowledge. 

  • 15. Foss, Lene
    Resources, networks and entrepreneurship: A survey of 153 starters and 84 non-starters in the cod farming industry in Norway1993In: Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 1993: Proceedings of the thirteenth annual Babson College entrepreneurship research conference / [ed] N. C. Churchill, S. Birley, J. Doutriaux, E. J. Gatewood, F. S. Hoy & W. E. Wetzel, 1993Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Foss, Lene
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiT i Tromsø - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    Revisiting research on gender in entrepreneurial networks2017In: The Routledge Companion to Global Female Entrepreneurship / [ed] C. Henry, T. Nelson, & K. V. Lewis, London: Routledge, 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Foss, Lene
    Fakultet for biovitenskap, fiskeri og økonomi - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    Samovarteateret: Kulturproduksjon i industrielle omgivelser2002In: NyskapingsNorge / [ed] O. R. Spilling, Fagbokforlaget, 2002, p. 67-65Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18. Foss, Lene
    The loci of power: Developing the entrepreneurial architecture of universities2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Foss, Lene
    Fakultet for biovitenskap, fiskeri og økonomi - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    The Norwegian paradox: World champion in gender equality - looser in female management recruitment2005In: Anthology for Kjell Grønhaug in celebration of his 70th birthday, Fagbokforlaget, 2005, p. 237-358Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Foss, Lene
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiT - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    The university–industry interface: A collaborative arena2012In: Creating collaborative advantage: innovation and knowledge creation in regional economies / [ed] H. C. G. Johnsen & J. R. Ennals, Farnham: Gower Publishing Ltd., 2012, p. 209-222Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Foss, Lene
    et al.
    Fakultet for biovitenskap, fiskeri og økonomi - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    Agustsson, B.
    Borch, O. J.
    Senneseth, K.
    Developing the fish processing industry1998In: Development coalitions in working life: The 'Entreprise Development 2000' program in Norway / [ed] B. Gustavsen, T. Colbjørnsen & Ø. Pålshaugen, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1998, p. 77-91Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Foss, Lene
    et al.
    Fakultet for biovitenskap, fiskeri og økonomi - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    Gabrielsen, Hanne C.
    Fakultet for biovitenskap, fiskeri og økonomi - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    Kontakt mellom lederskap og ansatte. Hva betyr organisasjonens formelle og fysiske struktur og dens demokrati?1999In: Medbestemmelse og medvirkning. Bedriftsutvikling mot år 2000 / [ed] E. Falkum, L. Eldring & T. Colbjørnsen, Fafo , 1999, p. 121-152Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Foss, Lene
    et al.
    Fakultet for biovitenskap, fiskeri og økonomi - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    Gabrielsen, Hanne C.
    Fakultet for biovitenskap, fiskeri og økonomi - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    Leker like barn best? Betydningen av kjønn og kultur for kontaktmønsteret i organisasjoner2002In: Nordiske organisasjonsstudier, ISSN 1501-8237, Vol. 4, no 3/4, p. 7-40Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Foss, Lene
    et al.
    Institutt for samfunns- og markedsfag, Norges fiskerihøgskole, Universitetet i Tromsø.
    Gabrielsen, Hanne C.
    Institutt for samfunns- og markedsfag, Norges fiskerihøgskole, Universitetet i Tromsø.
    Likt eller ulikt? - Entreprenørers holdninger til kompetanseanskaffelse2002In: Beta, ISSN 0801-3322, E-ISSN 1504-3134, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 51-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [no]

    Har kvinnelige og mannlige etablerere like eller ulike holdninger til hvem de kunne tenke seg å rekruttere til bedriften? I denne artikkelen utvikles to strategier for anskaffelse av kompetanse: En likhetsstrategi, der etablereren ønsker å rekruttere noen som er mest mulig lik seg selv, det være seg utdanning, erfaring eller kjønn. En kompletteringsstrategi som uttrykker et ønske om å rekruttere noen som er vesensforskjellig fra seg selv. Ut fra et standpunktfeministisk kjønnsperspektiv kan en forvente at kvinnelige etablerere uttrykker holdninger til rekruttering i tråd med en likhetsstrategi. Men i følge Kanters tese om homososial reproduksjon (brødreskapsrekruttering) er det menn som ønsker likhet. Analyser av et kvantitativt og kvalitativt intervjumateriale med 48 etablerere fra tre fylker i Norge viser at kvinner ikke velger likhet i større grad enn menn. I vurdering av faglig kompetanse ønsker halvparten av både menn og kvinner ansatte som har mer utdanning ßenn dem selv (kompletteringsstrategi) mens den andre halvdelen la stor vekt på at de ansatte hadde samme fagbakgrunn og erfaring som dem selv (likhetsstrategi). Både mannlige og kvinnelige etablerere ønsker ansatte med like verdier og holdninger som dem selv (likhetsstrategi). Når det gjelder ansattes kjønn ønsker de ansatte med motsatt kjønn enn seg selv (kompletteringsstrategi). Dataene antyder at kontekstuelle faktorer som bransje, bedriftsstørrelse og etablereres egen utdanning har betydning for valg av strategi for anskaffelse av kompetanse. Vi anmoder videre forskning å benytte et postmodernistisk kjønnsperspektiv, hvor en får frem kvinner og menns ulike holdninger innad i sine grupper og som er utformet i relasjon til den videre kontekst bedriften befinner seg innenfor.

  • 25.
    Foss, Lene
    et al.
    School of Business and Economics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Gibson, D. V.
    IC2 (Innovation, Creativity, Capital) Institute, University of Texas at Austin, United States.
    The entrepreneurial university: Case analysis and implications2015In: The Entrepreneurial University: Context and Institutional Change / [ed] Lene Foss & David v. Gibson, Taylor & Francis, 2015, p. 249-279Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26. Foss, Lene
    et al.
    Gibson, D.
    Vorley, T.
    Where does the power reside? Institutionalizing the entrepreneurial turn in universities2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Foss, Lene
    et al.
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiT - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    Gibson, David V.University of Texas at Austin - University of Texas at Austin.
    The Entrepreneurial University - Context and Institutional Change2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 28. Foss, Lene
    et al.
    Gibson, David V.
    The entrepreneurial University: Context and Institutional Change2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Foss, Lene
    et al.
    School of Business and Economics, UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Henry, C.
    Doing gender in innovation: A thematic review and critique of the literature2016In: Research Handbook on Gender and Innovation / [ed] Gry A. Alsos, Ulla Hytti & Elisabet Ljunggren, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016, p. 17-48Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30. Foss, Lene
    et al.
    Henry, Colette
    Doing Gender in Innovation: an exploratory study2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Foss, Lene
    et al.
    University of Tromsø, Norway.
    Henry, Colette
    University of Tromsø, Norway.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Review of Policy and Practice Implications in Gender and Entrepreneurship Research2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scholars across all discipline areas are increasingly being asked to demonstrate the impact of their research (Mohrman et al., 2001; Steyaert, 2011). In so doing, entrepreneurship researchers have become aware of the considerable disparity between the knowledge generated by academic scholars and that which can be usefully employed by entrepreneurs and managers in practice (Steffens et al., 2013). With specific regard to women’s entrepreneurship, while scholars have proved that gender does matter (Brush et al., 2010, Kelley et al., 2012), and that entrepreneurship in itself is a gendered phenomenon (Jennings & Brush, 2013), the extent to which gender scholars have been concerned with the actual impact of their research has not been evidenced to the same extent. However, assessing impact can be a highly complex issue, involving both subjective and objective assessments, often on a longitudinal basis (Storey, 2000; Henry et al., 2005). Thus, by way of proxy, we consider the manner in which scholars articulate the intended impact of their research to be an important first step toward a robust assessment of impact over time. With this in mind, this paper seeks to critically explore the articulated policy and practice implications of women’s entrepreneurship research. Our key objective is to consider whether there has been a notable shift in focus with regard to such implications since the first studies on female entrepreneurship appeared, and if so, to consider whether there is a link between such a shift and the different theoretical perspectives[1] adopted.  

    We draw on a comprehensive data set compiled from the gender and entrepreneurship literatures over a 30-year period. Consistent with Denyer & Neely (2004), we conducted a systematic literature review (SLR) of relevant empirical papers published in top tier journals. For the purposes of this paper, consistent with Katz (2003) and Brush (2007), we focused on articles published in the ‘Big Five’ entrepreneurship journals (i.e. ERD, ETP, JBV, JSBM, SBE) between 1983 and 2012. We compare the different levels of focus on policy and practice implications between the three decades included in our review, and highlight notable variances. The paper builds on and contributes to extant literatures by furthering our understanding of policy and practice implications in gender and entrepreneurship research.

    The paper is organised as follows. In the first section we discuss the issue of policy and practice implications, how this has attracted increased attention in the social sciences and the particular tradition within the field of entrepreneurship. The second section focuses on the development of gender perspectives in entrepreneurship research, outlining the particular questions that have guided our empirical study. The third section details the methodology, and this is followed by the presentation of our findings, which are subsequently discussed. Finally, some concluding remarks are provided, with an indication of avenues worthy of future research.

    [1] For example, gender as a variable (GAV), feminist standpoint theory (FST) and post-structural feminism (PSF).

     

  • 32.
    Foss, Lene
    et al.
    School of Business and Economics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Henry, Colette
    School of Business and Economics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Mikalsen, Geir H.
    School of Business and Economics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Women’s entrepreneurship policy research: a 30-year review of the evidence2019In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 409-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on women’s entrepreneurship policy as a core component of the entrepreneurial ecosystem. We use a systematic literature review (SLR) approach to critically explore the policy implications of women’s entrepreneurship research according to gender perspective: feminist empiricism, feminist standpoint theory, and post-structuralist feminist theory. Our research question asks whether there is a link between the nature of policy implications and the different theoretical perspectives adopted, and whether scholars’ policy implications have changed as the field of women’s entrepreneurship research has developed. We concentrate on empirical studies published in the “Big Five” primary entrepreneurship research journals (SBE, ETP, JBV, JSBM, and ERD) over a period of more than 30 years (1983–2015). We find that policy implications from women’s entrepreneurship research are mostly vague, conservative, and center on identifying skills gaps in women entrepreneurs that need to be “fixed,” thus isolating and individualizing any perceived problem. Despite an increase in the number of articles offering policy implications, we find little variance in the types of policy implications being offered by scholars, regardless of the particular theoretical perspective adopted, and no notable change over our 30-year review period. Recommendations to improve the entrepreneurial ecosystem for women from a policy perspective are offered, and avenues for future research are identified.

  • 33.
    Foss, Lene
    et al.
    University of Stavanger, Norway.
    Iakovleva, T.
    University of Stavanger, Norway.
    Kickul, J.
    University of Stavanger, Norway.
    Oftedal, E.
    University of Stavanger, Norway.
    Solheim, A.
    University of Stavanger, Norway.
    Entrepreneurial challenges in commercializing product innovations: A case study of entrepreneurs' experiences in the Norwegian petroleum sector2011In: Entrepreneurship and technological change / [ed] L. Cassia, T. Minola & S. Paleari, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011, p. 205-234Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Foss, Lene
    et al.
    School of Business & Economics, UiT—The Arctic University of Norway, Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Iakovleva, Tatiana
    Stavanger School of Business, Stavanger University, Stavanger, Norway.
    Kickul, Jill
    Berkeley Center for Entrepreneurship and Innovation, NYU Stern School of Business, New York, NY, USA.
    Oftedal, Elin Merethe
    School of Business & Economics, UiT—The Arctic University of Norway, Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Solheim, Anne
    iPax, Stavanger, Norway.
    Taking innovations to market: The role of strategic choice and the evolution of dynamic capabilities2011In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, ISSN 1465-7503, E-ISSN 2043-6882, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 105-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How are innovations taken to market? Both theoretically and empirically, the process of commercialization has received scant attention. This study investigates the early commercialization process of three innovative firms in the Norwegian petroleum industry. The authors argue that the role of strategic choice is important for the processes these firms use to create and build their own dynamic capabilities. In this regard, they address the central question of what role the strategic choice of the firm plays in the process, creation and evolution of its dynamic capabilities during the early stage of commercialization. The authors' findings reveal that certain dynamic capabilities are emphasized and appear to be more relevant to the strategic intentions of the CEO or entrepreneurial team. Two firms, whose strategic intent was to commercialize and exit, were more inclined to build an adaptive capability, while the firm intending to commercialize and to stay in the market stressed the importance of absorptive capability. Common to all three cases is the finding that adaptive and absorptive capabilities seem to enhance their innovative capabilities, which are essential for commercializing innovations.

  • 35.
    Foss, Lene
    et al.
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiT - UiT Norges arktiske universitet.
    Kvadsheim, Henrik
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiT - UiT Norges arktiske universitet.
    Ravn, Johan Elvemo
    Teknologiledelse - SINTEF AS.
    Networking as an action research practice2002In: Researching enterprise development: action research on the cooperation between management and labour in Norway / [ed] M. Levin, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2002, p. 185-205Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Foss, Lene
    et al.
    Fakultet for biovitenskap, fiskeri og økonomi - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    Ljunggren, Elisabet
    Nordlandsforskning.
    Kvinners entreprenørskap i Norge2006In: Perspektiver på entreprenørskap / [ed] J. I. Jenssen, L. Kolvereid & T. Erikson, Cappelen Damm Høyskoleforlaget, 2006, p. 265-280Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 37. Foss, Lene
    et al.
    Ljunggren, Elisabet
    Women's entrepreneurship in Norway: Recent trends and future challenges2006In: Growth-oriented women entrepreneurs and their businesses: A global research perspective / [ed] C. G. Brush, N. M. Carter, E. J. Gatewood, P. G. Greene & M. M. Hart, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2006, p. 154-183Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Foss, Lene
    et al.
    Fakultet for biovitenskap, fiskeri og økonomi - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    Moldenæs, Turid
    Institutt for sosiologi, statsvitenskap og samfunnsplanlegging - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    Bedre forskere og bedre brukere av forskning? En integrert modell for samarbeidet mellom forskere og brukere2000In: Forskning og bedriftsutvikling: nye samarbeidsforsøk / [ed] Ø. Pålshaugen & T. U. Qvale, Arbeidsforskningsinstituttet , 2000, p. 195-230Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Foss, Lene
    et al.
    Fakultet for biovitenskap, fiskeri og økonomi - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    Moldenæs, Turid
    Institutt for sosiologi, statsvitenskap og samfunnsplanlegging - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    Lederskapets oppslutning: Hva betyr formell struktur?1999In: Medbestemmelse og medvirkning. Bedriftsutvikling mot år 2000, Fafo , 1999, p. 91-120Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Foss, Lene
    et al.
    University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
    Moldenæs, Turid
    University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
    The engaged researcher - From translator to literary change agent2007In: Systemic Practice and Action Research, ISSN 1094-429X, E-ISSN 1573-9295, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 27-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we reflect upon an integrated approach to action research. The role of the engaged researcher is empirically addressed by using longitudinal field experiences. We take a narrative approach and tell three stories from the field. In analysing the stories we propose a transition of the role of the engaged researcher, from that of a translator of general theory and contextual practices to one of a literary change agent. The literary change agent inspires practitioners by means as concepts, metaphors and storytelling. We suggest that the narrative approach can bring a new and critical flavour to the previously under-explored area of the role of the researcher in action research. 

  • 41.
    Foss, Lene
    et al.
    Fakultet for biovitenskap, fiskeri og økonomi - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    Nordhaug, Odd
    Bedriftsutvikling i teori og praksis2005Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Foss, Lene
    et al.
    Tromsø University Business School, Tromsø, Norway.
    Oftedal, Elin M.
    Tromsø University Business School, Tromsø, Norway.
    Iakovleva, Tatiana
    Stavanger Business School, Stavanger, Norway.
    Action-based education in academic entrepreneurship: A new role of the student?2013In: Cooperation, clusters, and knowledge transfer: Universities and firms towards regional competitiveness / [ed] João J.M. Ferreira, Mário Raposo, Roel Rutten & Attila Varga, Berlin: Springer, 2013, p. 249-263Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scope of entrepreneurship programs offered by academia has expanded significantly in many areas around Europe, Asia, North America, Australia, and New Zealand (Gartner and Vesper 1994). With reference to the theory of planned behavior and the literature on entrepreneurship education, research has confirmed that students taking entrepreneurship programs increase their competencies and strengthen their intention towards self-employment (Fayolle et al. 2006; Mwasalwiba 2010; Sanches 2010). In examining the literature, more economic oriented studies with ex ante and ex post survey responses find that students learn about their entrepreneurial aptitude through entrepreneurship education (von Graevenitz 2010). Based on previous research, Dutta et al. (2011) conclude that specialized entrepreneurship education has a significant positive impact on the likelihood of future venture creation. However, a diverse and broad-based educational experience seems to make a critical difference in terms of the entrepreneurs’ personal income and net worth. Thus, the former facilitates venture creation, whereas the latter adds to entrepreneurial success. Further, it has been noted that academic entrepreneurship is regarded as an experience or outcome, rather than a clearly defined role (Jain et al. 2009). Interestingly, in research on entrepreneurial universities (83 studies in all) revealing organizational designs that enhance commercialization of university innovations, a focus on entrepreneurial education is totally missing. The term academic entrepreneurship has been treated as a task academics can perform, but not as a role in itself (Jain et al. 2009). Thus, a blank spot in previous literature is knowledge on how the new action-based entrepreneurship programs offered by universities affect the role of students (Foss and Lozano 2012; Ollila and Williams-Middleton 2011; Rasmussen and Sørheim 2006). 

  • 43.
    Foss, Lene
    et al.
    Fakultet for biovitenskap, fiskeri og økonomi - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    Ravn, Johan E.
    Kvadsheim, Henrik
    Creating new research practice2002In: Researching enterprise development: action research on the cooperation between management and labour in Norway / [ed] M. Levin, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2002, p. 165-184Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Foss, Lene
    et al.
    Fakultet for biovitenskap, fiskeri og økonomi - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    Solnørdal, Mette Talseth
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiT i Tromsø - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    You should not underestimate the importance of relations…” Linking science, capital and business in commercialising knowledge2008In: Integrated and Participatory Innovation / [ed] T. Claussen, T. Haga & R. Ennals, Kingston Business School , 2008, p. 223-249Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 45. Foss, Lene
    et al.
    Vyakarnam, Shailendra
    A repertory grid analysis of entrepreneurs’ constructs in evaluating commercialization successes and failures in the Cambridge biotech cluster2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Foss, Lene
    et al.
    University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
    Woll, Kristin
    University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
    Moilanen, Mikko
    University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
    Creativity and implementations of new ideas: Do organisational structure, work environment and gender matter?2013In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 298-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper uses a combination of organisation theory, gender theory and the work environment to study the generation and implementation of new ideas in organisations. How do employees' perceptions of organisational structure and the work environment affect idea generation and implementation, and how does gender moderate this relationship?

    Design/methodology/approach: The study develops and tests a structural equation model using data from a survey of a large Norwegian energy corporation. Survey items are measured using five-point scales and show good internal consistency levels. Exploratory factor analyses are used to ensure internal consistency, and confirmatory factor analyses are used to assess the fit of the model. Convergent and discriminant validity tests are also performed. Common method bias and invariance are evaluated across the female and male samples.

    Findings: The theoretical model had a better fit for the male sample than the female sample, indicating that men's innovations were better captured than women's. The relationship between creativity and implementation is moderated by gender: women's ideas are not implemented to the same degree as men's. Work pressure has a positive effect on creativity; support from colleagues affects both idea generation and implementation, though support from managers does not.

    Research limitations/implications: The study has the usual limitations of cross-sectional surveys. The findings confirm that the two phases of the innovation process (idea generation and implementation) depend on similar intrinsic motivational factors in the work environment. However, implementing ideas also depends on decision-making authority.

    Practical implications: Managers should be aware of how to increase innovative potential among employees. Employees should be given decision-making authority and work in an environment with supportive colleagues. The gendered findings in the study indicate that more attention should be paid to women's innovations in male-dominated corporations.

    Originality/value: The study integrates research from disciplines that traditionally do not communicate into one theoretical framework to explore the conditions for employee-driven innovation. The findings highlight the need for developing gender-neutral innovation measures and understanding context-embedding innovation processes. 

  • 47. Ghassim, B.
    et al.
    Foss, Lene
    The School of Business and Economics, UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Understanding the micro-foundations of internal capabilities for open innovation in the minerals industry: a holistic sustainability perspective2018In: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is indisputable that achieving sustainability in the minerals industry requires a holistic approach to innovation that utilizes the breadth of knowledge found outside the industry. While providing a myriad of opportunities, this open approach to innovation would also be challenging in that companies need to have sufficient absorptive capacity, i.e. the ability to ‘recognize’ ‘assimilate’ and ‘exploit’ external knowledge when developing their processes and products. Despite recent theoretical advances, we do not yet fully understand the determinants of these three components of absorptive capacity for innovations aimed at sustainability. By employing a qualitative design with data obtained from 16 interviews conducted within Norway's minerals industry, this study explores the skills and routines that comprise micro-foundations of the capabilities for absorptive capacity. The analysis reveals that, in order to achieve recognition, companies need to firstly keep abreast of technological and market changes that emanate from sustainability transition, and secondly increase their awareness about social issues. Accordingly, assimilation depends on the established routines for facilitating dissemination of internal knowledge, whereas exploitation occurs by means of the piloting of innovative new solutions. This paper contributes to the sustainability-oriented innovation literature by demonstrating how companies in sustainability-sensitive industries could benefit from various types of external knowledge in their innovation activities. It also provides some insights into the nature of open innovation and absorptive capacity beyond high-tech industries and research and development-based knowledge.

  • 48.
    Ghassim, Babak
    et al.
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiT - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    Foss, Lene
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiT i Tromsø - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    The effect of non-spatial proximities on sustainability-oriented innovation in peripheral regions: Evidence from Norway’s minerals industry2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Gibson, David V.
    et al.
    IC2 Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, USA.
    Foss, Lene
    School of Business and Economics, UiT - The Arctic University of Norway.
    Developing the entrepreneurial university: Architecture and institutional theory2017In: World Technopolis Review, ISSN 2234-4594, Vol. 6, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the diverse environmental contexts of universities worldwide there is a need for a theoretical orientation that addresses the entrepreneurial university in a range of settings. Applying the institutional perspective this research explores how universities are strongly influenced by, as well as active influencers in, their surrounding environment. To do this, we examine case narratives of two universities in each of the following countries: Norway, Sweden, Finland, the UK, and the U.S. Analysis focuses on five entrepreneurial dimensions as defined by Nelles and Vorley (2010a): Structures, Systems, Leadership, Strategies, and Culture while examining the impact of regional and national context at regulative, normative, and cognitive levels of analysis. We address two research questions: How do universities interact with their institutional context in developing entrepreneurially and what actors and forces are most important in motivating institutional change in developing a university's entrepreneurial architecture?

  • 50. Gibson, David V.
    et al.
    Foss, Lene
    The entrepreneurial University: Context and Institutional Change2015Conference paper (Refereed)
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