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  • 1.
    Alpízar, Francisco
    et al.
    Environment for Development (EfD), Center for Central America, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica.
    Martinsson, Peter
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nordén, Anna
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Lund University, Sweden.
    Do entrance fees crowd out donations for public goods? Evidence from a protected area in Costa Rica2015In: Environment and Development Economics, ISSN 1355-770X, E-ISSN 1469-4395, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 311-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate how different levels of entrance fees affect donations for a public good, a natural park. To explore this issue, we conducted a stated preference study focusing on visitors' preferences for donating money to raise funds for a protected area in Costa Rica given different entrance fee levels. The results reveal that there is incomplete crowding out of donations when establishing an entrance fee.

  • 2.
    Alpízar, Francisco
    et al.
    Environment for Development Center for Central America, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica.
    Nordén, Anna
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pfaff, Alexander
    Duke University, Sanford School of Public Policy, Durham, NC, United States.
    Robalino, Juan
    Environment for Development Center for Central America, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica.
    Spillovers from targeting of incentives: Exploring responses to being excluded2017In: Journal of Economic Psychology, ISSN 0167-4870, E-ISSN 1872-7719, Vol. 59, p. 87-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing set of policies involve transfers conditioned upon socially desired actions, such as attending school or conserving forest. However, given a desire to maximize the impact of limited funds by avoiding transfers that do not change behavior, typically some potential recipients are excluded on the basis of their characteristics, their actions or at random. This paper uses a laboratory experiment to study the behavior of individuals excluded on different bases from a new incentive that encourages real monetary donations to a public environmental conservation program. We show that the donations from the individuals who were excluded based on prior high contributions fell significantly. Yet the rationale used for exclusion mattered, in that none of the other selection criteria used as the basis for exclusion resulted in negative effects on contributions. 

  • 3.
    Alpízar, Francisco
    et al.
    Research Program in Economics and Environment for Development, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica.
    Nordén, Anna
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Pfaff, Alexander
    Sanford School of Public Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States.
    Robalino, Juan
    Research Program in Economics and Environment for Development, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica.
    Unintended effects of targeting an environmental rebate2017In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 181-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When designing schemes such as conditional cash transfers or payments for ecosystem services, the choice of whom to select and whom to exclude is critical. We incentivize and measure actual contributions to an environmental public good to ascertain whether being excludedfrom a rebate can affect contributions and, if so, whether the rationale for exclusion influences such effects. Treatments, i.e., three rules that determine who is selected and excluded, are randomly assigned. Two of the rules base exclusion on subjects’ initial contributions. The third is based upon location and the rationales are always explained. The rule that targets the rebate to low initial contributors, who have more potential to raise contributions, is the only rule that raised contributions by those selected. Yet by design, that same rule excludes the subjects who contributed the most initially. They respond by reducing their contributions even though their income and prices are unchanged.

  • 4.
    Kasimir, Åsa
    et al.
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    He, Hongxing
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Coria, Jessica
    Environmental Economics Unit, Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nordén, Anna
    Environmental Economics Unit, Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Land use of drained peatlands: Greenhouse gas fluxes, plant production, and economics2018In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 24, no 8, p. 3302-3316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drained peatlands are hotspots for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which could be mitigated by rewetting and land use change. We performed an ecological/economic analysis of rewetting drained fertile peatlands in a hemiboreal climate using different land use strategies over 80 years. Vegetation, soil processes, and total GHG emissions were modeled using the CoupModel for four scenarios: (1) business as usual—Norway spruce with average soil water table of −40 cm; (2) willow with groundwater at −20 cm; (3) reed canary grass with groundwater at −10 cm; and (4) a fully rewetted peatland. The predictions were based on previous model calibrations with several high-resolution datasets consisting of water, heat, carbon, and nitrogen cycling. Spruce growth was calibrated by tree-ring data that extended the time period covered. The GHG balance of four scenarios, including vegetation and soil, were 4.7, 7.1, 9.1, and 6.2 Mg CO2eq ha−1 year−1, respectively. The total soil emissions (including litter and peat respiration CO2 + N2O + CH4) were 33.1, 19.3, 15.3, and 11.0 Mg CO2eq ha−1 year−1, respectively, of which the peat loss contributed 35%, 24%, and 7% of the soil emissions for the three drained scenarios, respectively. No peat was lost for the wet peatland. It was also found that draining increases vegetation growth, but not as drastically as peat respiration does. The cost–benefit analysis (CBA) is sensitive to time frame, discount rate, and carbon price. Our results indicate that the net benefit was greater with a somewhat higher soil water table and when the peatland was vegetated with willow and reed canary grass (Scenarios 2 and 3). We conclude that saving peat and avoiding methane release using fairly wet conditions can significantly reduce GHG emissions, and that this strategy should be considered for land use planning and policy-making. 

  • 5.
    Nordén, Anna
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Payment types and participation in payment for ecosystem services programs: Stated preferences of landowners2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Because the effectiveness of payment for ecosystem services (PES) programs depends on landowners’ engagement, understanding the relationship between the type of payment and participation is a key issue. This paper reports on a choice experiment that quantifies landowners’ preferences for cash and educational in-kind payment. The main results indicate a positive correlation between participation in a PES contract and the magnitude of the cash payment, while participation seems uncorrelated with the magnitude of the educational inkind payment. In addition, we investigate the mix of payment types and heterogeneity in preferences, which can help policymakers design strategies to increase participation.

  • 6. Nordén, Anna
    et al.
    Coria, Jessica
    Jönsson, A. M.
    Lagergren, Fredrik
    Lehsten, Veiko
    What is the preference of Swedish forestry stakeholders - biodiversity or production goals?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Healthy and productive forests benefit us all, but what are the priorities of those directly managingour Swedish forests? This brief presents a comparison of the preferences of key stakeholdersregarding Swedish forest management and biodiversity protection. According to the SwedishForest Act production and environmental goals should be regarded as equally important. Our studyfinds that forest owners, public forestry officials and employees at industrial forestry companiesand forest owners’ associations prefer management practices that promote production rather thanbiodiversity protection.

  • 7.
    Nordén, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Coria, Jessica
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lagergren, Fredrik
    Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lehsten, Veiko
    Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Divergence in stakeholders' preferences: Evidence from a choice experiment on forest landscapes preferences in Sweden2017In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 132, p. 179-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A great deal of biodiversity can be found in private forests, and protecting it requires taking into consideration the preferences of key stakeholders. In this study, we examine divergence in stakeholders' preferences for forest attributes across the general public, private non-industrial forest owners and public and private forest officials in Sweden by conducting a discrete choice experiment. Our results indicate that citizens have a positive valuation of biodiversity protection. Moreover, their valuation is statistically significantly higher than those of forest owners. Interestingly, our results suggest that both forest owners and forest officials have a strong orientation towards production, with higher valuation than the general public of the common management practice of even aged stands and clear felling. Even though the Swedish Forestry Act regards production and environmental goals as equally important, we find that forest officials prefer management practices that promote production rather than biodiversity protection. 

  • 8.
    Nordén, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Earth System Science, Stanford University, United States.
    Persson, U. M.
    Department of Environmental Earth System Science, Stanford University, United States.
    Alpizar, Francisco
    Center for Tropical Agricultural Research and Education Costa Rica, Turrialba, Costa Rica.
    Incentives, impacts and behavioural issues in the context of payment for ecosystem services programmes: Lessons for REDD+2013In: Globalization and development: Rethinking interventions and governance / [ed] Arne Bigsten, London: Routledge, 2013, p. 147-167Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The last decade has witnessed a rapid increase in the popularity – both in theory and practice – of payments for ecosystem services (PES) as an environmental policy tool in developing countries (Pattanayak et al. 2010; Ferraro 2011). An early review by Landell-Mills and Porras (2002) found approximately 200 incipient PES schemes in developing countries, and the numbers have only increased since then (Pattanayak et al. 2010). Although often small in scale, a few countries have established nationwide PES schemes: Costa Rica has its Pagos por Servicios Ambientales (PSA) programme, which, since its inception in 1997, has made payments for forest conservation (primarily) on nearly half a million hectares of land; China has its Sloping Lands Conservation Programme (SLCP), which has thus far contracted 12 million hectares for reforestation in an attempt to stem soil erosion; and Mexico has its Pago de Servicios Ambientales Hidrológicos (PSAH) programme, which compensates beneficiary communities for preserving 600,000 hectares of forest (Pattanayak et al. 2010).

  • 9. Persson, U. M.
    et al.
    Alpízar, Francisco
    Nordén, Anna
    Realizing REDD+ – which role for PES2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This brief presents a framework that can be used to assess the potential impact of Payments for Environmental Services (PES) schemes. Insights from this framework challenge claims to general cost-efficiency of PES, suggesting that impacts will depend greatly on the context in which PES is implemented. In light of this, the role that PES policies can play in realizing REDD+ is discussed.

  • 10.
    Villalobos, Laura
    et al.
    Climate Change and Sustainable Development Sector, Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, DC, USA.
    Coria, Jessica
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nordén, Anna
    Centre for Environment and Sustainability (GMV), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Has forest certification reduced forest degradation in Sweden?2018In: Land Economics, ISSN 0023-7639, E-ISSN 1543-8325, Vol. 94, no 2, p. 220-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper estimates the effects of certification of nonindustrial private forest owners on forest degradation in Sweden-one of the countries with the largest total area of certified forests. We rely on official forest inventory data, information on certification status, and impact evaluation methods to identify the causal effect of certification on three key environmental outcomes. We find that certification has not halted forest degradation in that it has not improved any of the environmental outcomes. Moreover, for forest certification to have an effect, the standards should be tightened and the monitoring and enforcement of forest certification schemes strengthened.

1 - 10 of 10
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