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  • 1. Antoniou, A. C.
    et al.
    Beesley, J.
    McGuffog, L.
    Sinilnikova, O. M.
    Healey, S.
    Neuhausen, S. L.
    Ding, Y. C.
    Rebbeck, T. R.
    Weitzel, J. N.
    Lynch, H. T.
    Isaacs, C.
    Ganz, P. A.
    Tomlinson, G.
    Olopade, O. I.
    Couch, F. J.
    Wang, X.
    Lindor, N. M.
    Pankratz, V. S.
    Radice, P.
    Manoukian, S.
    Peissel, B.
    Zaffaroni, D.
    Barile, M.
    Viel, A.
    Allavena, A.
    Dall'Olio, V.
    Peterlongo, P.
    Szabo, C. I.
    Zikan, M.
    Claes, K.
    Poppe, B.
    Foretova, L.
    Mai, P. L.
    Greene, M. H.
    Rennert, G.
    Lejbkowicz, F.
    Glendon, G.
    Ozcelik, H.
    Andrulis, I. L.
    Thomassen, M.
    Gerdes, A. -M
    Sunde, L.
    Cruger, D.
    Jensen, U. B.
    Caligo, M.
    Friedman, E.
    Kaufman, B.
    Laitman, Y.
    Milgrom, R.
    Dubrovsky, M.
    Cohen, S.
    Borg, A.
    Jernström, H.
    Lindblom, A.
    Rantala, J.
    Stenmark-Askmalm, M.
    Melin, B.
    Nathanson, K.
    Domchek, S.
    Jakubowska, A.
    Lubinski, J.
    Huzarski, T.
    Osorio, A.
    Lasa, A.
    Durán, M.
    Tejada, M. -I
    Godino, J.
    Benitez, J.
    Hamann, U.
    Kriege, M.
    Hoogerbrugge, N.
    Van Der Luijt, R. B.
    Van Asperen, C. J.
    Devilee, P.
    Meijers-Heijboer, E. J.
    Blok, M. J.
    Aalfs, C. M.
    Hogervorst, F.
    Rookus, M.
    Cook, M.
    Oliver, C.
    Frost, D.
    Conroy, D.
    Evans, D. G.
    Lalloo, F.
    Pichert, G.
    Davidson, R.
    Cole, T.
    Cook, J.
    Paterson, J.
    Hodgson, S.
    Morrison, P. J.
    Porteous, M. E.
    Walker, L.
    Kennedy, M. J.
    Dorkins, H.
    Peock, S.
    Godwin, A. K.
    Stoppa-Lyonnet, D.
    De Pauw, A.
    Mazoyer, S.
    Bonadona, V.
    Lasset, C.
    Dreyfus, H.
    Leroux, D.
    Hardouin, A.
    Berthet, P.
    Faivre, L.
    Loustalot, C.
    Noguchi, T.
    Sobol, H.
    Rouleau, E.
    Nogues, C.
    Frénay, M.
    Vénat-Bouvet, L.
    Hopper, J. L.
    Daly, M. B.
    Terry, M. B.
    John, E. M.
    Buys, S. S.
    Yassin, Y.
    Miron, A.
    Goldgar, D.
    Singer, C. F.
    Dressler, A. C.
    Gschwantler-Kaulich, D.
    Pfeiler, G.
    Hansen, T. V. O.
    Jnson, L.
    Agnarsson, B. A.
    Kirchhoff, T.
    Offit, K.
    Devlin, V.
    Dutra-Clarke, A.
    Piedmonte, M.
    Rodriguez, G. C.
    Wakeley, K.
    Boggess, J. F.
    Basil, J.
    Schwartz, P. E.
    Blank, S. V.
    Toland, A. E.
    Montagna, M.
    Casella, C.
    Imyanitov, E.
    Tihomirova, L.
    Blanco, I.
    Lazaro, C.
    Ramus, S. J.
    Sucheston, L.
    Karlan, B. Y.
    Gross, J.
    Schmutzler, R.
    Wappenschmidt, B.
    Engel, C.
    Meindl, A.
    Lochmann, M.
    Arnold, N.
    Heidemann, S.
    Varon-Mateeva, R.
    Niederacher, D.
    Sutter, C.
    Deissler, H.
    Gadzicki, D.
    Preisler-Adams, S.
    Kast, K.
    Schönbuchner, I.
    Caldes, T.
    De La Hoya, M.
    Aittomäki, K.
    Nevanlinna, H.
    Simard, J.
    Spurdle, A. B.
    Holland, H.
    Chen, X.
    Platte, R.
    Chenevix-Trench, G.
    Easton, D. F.
    Common breast cancer susceptibility alleles and the risk of breast cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: Implications for risk prediction2010In: Cancer Research, ISSN 0008-5472, E-ISSN 1538-7445, Vol. 70, no 23, p. 9742-9754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The known breast cancer susceptibility polymorphisms in FGFR2, TNRC9/TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, and 2q35 confer increased risks of breast cancer for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. We evaluated the associations of 3 additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs4973768 in SLC4A7/NEK10, rs6504950 in STXBP4/COX11, and rs10941679 at 5p12, and reanalyzed the previous associations using additional carriers in a sample of 12,525 BRCA1 and 7,409 BRCA2 carriers. Additionally, we investigated potential interactions between SNPs and assessed the implications for risk prediction. The minor alleles of rs4973768 and rs10941679 were associated with increased breast cancer risk for BRCA2 carriers (per-allele HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03-1.18, P = 0.006 and HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.19, P = 0.03, respectively). Neither SNP was associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 carriers, and rs6504950 was not associated with breast cancer for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers. Of the 9 polymorphisms investigated, 7 were associated with breast cancer for BRCA2 carriers (FGFR2, TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, 2q35, SLC4A7, 5p12, P = 7 × 10-11 - 0.03), but only TOX3 and 2q35 were associated with the risk for BRCA1 carriers (P = 0.0049, 0.03, respectively). All risk-associated polymorphisms appear to interact multiplicatively on breast cancer risk for mutation carriers. Based on the joint genotype distribution of the 7 risk-associated SNPs in BRCA2 mutation carriers, the 5% of BRCA2 carriers at highest risk (i.e., between 95th and 100th percentiles) were predicted to have a probability between 80% and 96% of developing breast cancer by age 80, compared with 42% to 50% for the 5% of carriers at lowest risk. Our findings indicated that these risk differences might be sufficient to influence the clinical management of mutation carriers.

  • 2. Antoniou, A. C.
    et al.
    Sinilnikova, O. M.
    McGuffog, L.
    Healey, S.
    Nevanlinna, H.
    Heikkinen, T.
    Simard, J.
    Spurdle, A. B.
    Beesley, J.
    Chen, X.
    Neuhausen, S. L.
    Ding, Y. C.
    Couch, F. J.
    Wang, X.
    Fredericksen, Z.
    Peterlongo, P.
    Peissel, B.
    Bonanni, B.
    Viel, A.
    Bernard, L.
    Radice, P.
    Szabo, C. I.
    Foretova, L.
    Zikan, M.
    Claes, K.
    Greene, M. H.
    Mai, P. L.
    Rennert, G.
    Lejbkowicz, F.
    Andrulis, I. L.
    Ozcelik, H.
    Glendon, G.
    Gerdes, A. -M
    Thomassen, M.
    Sunde, L.
    Caligo, M. A.
    Laitman, Y.
    Kontorovich, T.
    Cohen, S.
    Kaufman, B.
    Dagan, E.
    Baruch, R. G.
    Friedman, E.
    Harbst, K.
    Barbany-Bustinza, G.
    Rantala, J.
    Ehrencrona, H.
    Karlsson, P.
    Domchek, S. M.
    Nathanson, K. L.
    Osorio, A.
    Blanco, I.
    Lasa, A.
    Benítez, J.
    Hamann, U.
    Hogervorst, F. B. L.
    Rookus, M. A.
    Collee, J. M.
    Devilee, P.
    Ligtenberg, M. J.
    van der Luijt, R. B.
    Aalfs, C. M.
    Waisfisz, Q.
    Wijnen, J.
    van Roozendaal, C. E. P.
    Peock, S.
    Cook, M.
    Frost, D.
    Oliver, C.
    Platte, R.
    Evans, D. G.
    Lalloo, F.
    Eeles, R.
    Izatt, L.
    Davidson, R.
    Chu, C.
    Eccles, D.
    Cole, T.
    Hodgson, S.
    Godwin, A. K.
    Stoppa-Lyonnet, D.
    Buecher, B.
    Léoné, M.
    Bressac-de Paillerets, B.
    Remenieras, A.
    Caron, O.
    Lenoir, G. M.
    Sevenet, N.
    Longy, M.
    Ferrer, S. F.
    Prieur, F.
    Goldgar, D.
    Miron, A.
    John, E. M.
    Buys, S. S.
    Daly, M. B.
    Hopper, J. L.
    Terry, M. B.
    Yassin, Y.
    Singer, C.
    Gschwantler-Kaulich, D.
    Staudigl, C.
    Hansen, T. V. O.
    Barkardottir, R. B.
    Kirchhoff, T.
    Pal, P.
    Kosarin, K.
    Offit, K.
    Piedmonte, M.
    Rodriguez, G. C.
    Wakeley, K.
    Boggess, J. F.
    Basil, J.
    Schwartz, P. E.
    Blank, S. V.
    Toland, A. E.
    Montagna, M.
    Casella, C.
    Imyanitov, E. N.
    Allavena, A.
    Schmutzler, R. K.
    Versmold, B.
    Engel, C.
    Meindl, A.
    Ditsch, N.
    Arnold, N.
    Niederacher, D.
    Deißler, H.
    Fiebig, B.
    Suttner, C.
    Schönbuchner, I.
    Gadzicki, D.
    Caldes, T.
    de la Hoya, M.
    Pooley, K. A.
    Easton, D. F.
    Chenevix-Trench, G.
    Common variants in LSP1, 2q35 and 8q24 and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers2009In: Human Molecular Genetics, ISSN 0964-6906, E-ISSN 1460-2083, Vol. 18, no 22, p. 4442-4456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genome-wide association studies of breast cancer have identified multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with increased breast cancer risks in the general population. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the minor alleles at three of these SNPs, in FGFR2, TNRC9 and MAP3K1, also confer increased risks of breast cancer for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Three additional SNPs rs3817198 at LSP1, rs13387042 at 2q35 and rs13281615 at 8q24 have since been reported to be associated with breast cancer in the general population, and in this study we evaluated their association with breast cancer risk in 9442 BRCA1 and 5665 BRCA2 mutation carriers from 33 study centres. The minor allele of rs3817198 was associated with increased breast cancer risk only for BRCA2 mutation carriers [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.07-1.25, P-trend = 2.8 × 10-4]. The best fit for the association of SNP rs13387042 at 2q35 with breast cancer risk was a dominant model for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers (BRCA1: HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.04-1.25, P = 0.0047; BRCA2: HR = 1.18 95% CI: 1.04-1.33, P = 0.0079). SNP rs13281615 at 8q24 was not associated with breast cancer for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, but the estimated association for BRCA2 mutation carriers (per-allele HR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.98-1.14) was consistent with odds ratio estimates derived from population-based case-control studies. The LSP1 and 2q35 SNPs appear to interact multiplicatively on breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers. There was no evidence that the associations vary by mutation type depending on whether the mutated protein is predicted to be stable or not. 

  • 3.
    Bergman, Annika
    Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    On the genetics of hereditary breast/ovarian cancer: BRCA1, BRCA2 and beyond2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Bergman, Annika
    et al.
    Department of Medical and Clinical genetics, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Abel, Frida
    Department of Medical and Clinical genetics, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Behboudi, Afrouz
    Department of Medical and Clinical genetics, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Yhr, Maria
    Department of Medical and Clinical genetics, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Jan
    Department of Medical and Clinical genetics, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svensson, Jan H.
    Department of Medical and Clinical genetics, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Per
    Department of Medical and Clinical genetics, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nordling, Margareta
    Department of Medical and Clinical genetics, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    No germline mutations in supposed tumour suppressor genes SAFB1 and SAFB2 in familial breast cancer with linkage to 19p.2008In: BMC Medical Genetics, ISSN 1471-2350, E-ISSN 1471-2350, Vol. 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The scaffold attachment factor B1 and B2 genes, SAFB1/SAFB2 (both located on chromosome 19p13.3) have recently been suggested as tumour suppressor genes involved in breast cancer development. The assumption was based on functional properties of the two genes and loss of heterozygosity of intragenic markers in breast tumours further strengthened the postulated hypothesis. In addition, linkage studies in Swedish breast cancer families also indicate the presence of a susceptibility gene for breast cancer at the 19p locus. Somatic mutations in SAFB1/SAFB2 have been detected in breast tumours, but to our knowledge no studies on germline mutations have been reported. In this study we investigated the possible involvement of SAFB1/SAFB2 on familiar breast cancer by inherited mutations in either of the two genes.

    RESULTS: Mutation analysis in families showing linkage to the SAFB1/2 locus was performed by DNA sequencing. The complete coding sequence of the two genes SAFB1 and SAFB2 was analyzed in germline DNA from 31 affected women. No missense or frameshift mutations were detected. One polymorphism was found in SAFB1 and eight polymorphisms were detected in SAFB2. MLPA-anlysis showed that both alleles of the two genes were preserved which excludes gene inactivation by large deletions.

    CONCLUSION: SAFB1 and SAFB2 are not likely to be causative of the hereditary breast cancer syndrome in west Swedish breast cancer families.

  • 5.
    Bergman, Annika
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Göteborg University, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Einbeigi, Zakaria
    Department of Oncology, Göteborg University, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Ulrica
    Department of Mathematical Statistics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Taib, Ziad
    Department of Mathematical Statistics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Wallgren, Arne
    Department of Oncology, Göteborg University, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Per
    Department of Oncology, Göteborg University, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Wahlström, Jan
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Göteborg University, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Martinsson, Tommy
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Göteborg University, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Nordling, Margareta
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Göteborg University, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    The western Swedish BRCA1 founder mutation 3171ins5; a 3.7 cM conserved haplotype of today is a reminiscence of a 1500-year-old mutation2001In: European Journal of Human Genetics, ISSN 1018-4813, E-ISSN 1476-5438, Vol. 9, no 10, p. 787-793Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most recurrent BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation in Sweden is the BRCA1 mutation 3171ins5. In the western part of Sweden this mutation accounts for as much as 77% of identified mutations in these two genes. Our aim was to analyse in detail the haplotype and founder effects of the 3171ins5 and furthermore attempt to estimate the time of origin of the mutation. In the study we included eighteen apparently unrelated families with hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer. At least one individual in each family had previously tested positive for the 3171ins5 mutation. Polymorphic microsatellite markers were used for the haplotype analyses. The markers were located within or flanking the BRCA1 gene spanning a region of 17.3 cΜ. We found several different haplotypes both for disease alleles and for the normal alleles. However, a conserved haplotype of 3.7 cΜ was observed in the 3171ins5 carriers spanning over four markers located within or very close to the BRCA1 gene. As this haplotype was not present in any of the normal controls it is highly likely that this is a mutation identical by descent, i.e. a true founder. The results from the haplotype analyses were used to estimate the age of the mutation. Estimations based on the Pexcess and linkage disequilibrium gives a first appearance of the mutation sometime around the 6th century, approximately 50 generations ago.

  • 6.
    Bergman, Annika
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Flodin, Anna
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Engwall, Yvonne
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Arkblad, Eva L.
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Berg, Kerstin
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Einbeigi, Zakaria
    Oncology, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/östra, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Martinsson, Tommy
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Wahlström, Jan
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Per
    Oncology, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/östra, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Nordling, Margareta
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    A high frequency of germline BRCA1/2 mutations in western Sweden detected with complementary screening techniques2005In: Familial Cancer, ISSN 1389-9600, E-ISSN 1573-7292, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 89-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dominant inheritance is presumed in 6-10% of breast and ovarian cancers. Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are the most commonly identified causative genes in such families. The frequency of mutation carriers with breast/ovarian cancer depends on the population studied, and display considerable variation that coincides with ethnic and geographical diversity. Mutation analyses were performed in 143 families registered at the Cancer Genetic Counseling Clinic of western Sweden. In a thorough mutation screening procedure, the entire BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were analyzed using a combination of complementary mutation detection techniques. Mutations in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 were detected in 36% (52 out of 143) of all screened families. All families were clinically evaluated regarding age at diagnosis, type of cancer and number of cancer cases in the family. Among high-risk families, the mutation detection rate was 39% (46 out of 117). The detection rate observed among families with cases of ovarian cancer (42 out of 62, 68%), was substantially higher than in families with only breast cancer (10 out of 81, 12%). Age at ovarian cancer did not seem to have an effect on the detection rate. The analyses revealed 11 frameshift mutations, 4 nonsense mutations and 2 large deletions. Notably, the BRCA1 c.3171ins5 mutation accounted for 34 of 52 (65%) identified mutations. Seven mutations are novel: BRCA1c.409_410del; c.1912T>G; c.2228_2229del; c.3029delA; c.3433delA, a large deletion covering exons 1-3 of BRCA1and one BRCA2 mutation; BRCA2c.6287_6290del. We have shown that the founder mutation BRCA1 c.3171ins5 has a great influence on western Swedish breast/ovarian cancer families along with a high number of mutations unique for the region. In order to achieve a high mutation detection rate we suggest a combination of several detection techniques. 

  • 7.
    Bergman, Annika
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Per
    Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Berggren, Jonna
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Martinsson, Tommy
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Björck, Karin
    Swegene Bioinformatics, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Staffan
    Swegene Bioinformatics, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Wahlström, Jan
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Wallgren, Arne
    Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Nordling, Margareta
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Genome-wide linkage scan for breast cancer susceptibility loci in Swedish hereditary non-BRCA1/2 families: Suggestive linkage to 10q23.32-q25.32007In: Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer, ISSN 1045-2257, E-ISSN 1098-2264, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 302-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The two breast cancer genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 were identified more than 10 years ago and, depending on population, mutations in these genes are responsible for a varying percentage of familial breast cancer. In more than half the families, the increased risk of breast cancer cannot be explained by mutations in these genes, and the goal of this study was to locate novel susceptibility genes. One of the main difficulties in identifying the cause of hereditary non-BRCA1/BRCA2 breast cancer is genetic heterogeneity, possibly due to multiple, incompletely penetrant susceptibility genes, along with ethnic and geographic differences. In this study, one large family and 13 small to medium-sized families with multiple cases of breast cancer were analyzed by genome-wide linkage analysis. The genome scan was performed by genotype analysis of 10,000 SNP markers on microarrays. The strongest evidence of linkage (HLOD 2.34) was obtained on chromosome region 10q23.32-q25.3. A further two regions were identified, with LOD scores above 2.10 on 12q14-q21 and 19p13.3-q12. In a subset of families of western Swedish origin, two regions generated LOD scores exceeding 1.8: 10q23.32-q25.3 and 19q13.12-q13.32. The large family in the study exceeded LOD 1.5 in three regions: 10q23.32-q25.3, 19q13.12-q13.32, and 17p13. Our results indicate that one or more of the suggested regions may harbor genes that are involved in the development of breast cancer. 

  • 8.
    Bergman, Annika
    et al.
    Lundberg Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Pathology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sahlin, Pelle
    Department of Plastic Surgery, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Emanuelsson, Monica
    Oncology Center, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.
    Carén, Helena
    Department of Clinical Genetics, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Tarnow, Peter
    Department of Plastic Surgery, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Martinsson, Tommy
    Department of Clinical Genetics, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Grönberg, Henrik
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stenman, Göran
    Lundberg Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Pathology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Germline mutation screening of the Saethre-Chotzen-associated genes TWIST1 and FGFR3 in families with BRCA1/2-negative breast cancer2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Hand Surgery, ISSN 0284-4311, E-ISSN 1651-2073, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 251-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Saethre-Chotzen syndrome is one of the most common craniosynostosis syndromes. It is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder with variable expression that is caused by germline mutations in the TWIST1 gene or more rarely in the FGFR2 or FGFR3 genes. We have previously reported that patients with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome have an increased risk of developing breast cancer. Here we have analysed a cohort of 26 women with BRCA1/2-negative hereditary breast cancer to study whether a proportion of these families might have mutations in Saethre-Chotzen-associated genes. DNA sequence analysis of TWIST1 showed no pathogenic mutations in the coding sequence in any of the 26 patients. MLPA (multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification)-analysis also showed no alterations in copy numbers in any of the craniofacial disorder genes MSX2, ALX4, RUNX2, EFNB1, TWIST1, FGFR1, FGFR2,FGFR3, or FGFR4. Taken together, our findings indicate that mutations in Saethre-Chotzen-associated genes are uncommon or absent in BRCA1/2-negative patients with hereditary breast cancer.

  • 9.
    Björk, Jan
    et al.
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Karolinska Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Åkerbrant, Helena
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Karolinska Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Iselius, Lennart
    Department of Surgery, Karolinska Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Bergman, Annika
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Engwall, Yvonne
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wahlström, Jan
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Martinsson, Tommy
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nordling, Margareta
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hultcrantz, Rolf
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Karolinska Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Periampullary adenomas and adenocarcinomas in familial adenomatous polyposis: Cumulative risks and APC gene Mutations2001In: Gastroenterology, ISSN 0016-5085, E-ISSN 1528-0012, Vol. 121, no 5, p. 1127-1135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background & Aims: Patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) have a high prevalence of duodenal adenomas, and the region of the ampulla of rater is the predilection site for duodenal adenocarcinomas. This study assessed the risk of stage IV periampullary adenomas according to the Spigelman classification and periampullary adenocarcinomas in Swedish FAP patients screened by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). The genotype of patients with stage IV periampullary adenomas and periampullary adenocarcinomas was also investigated. Methods: A retrospective study of 180 patients screened by EGD in 1982-1999 was undertaken. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to evaluate cumulative risk. Mutation analysis was carried out in patients with periampullary adenocarcinomas diagnosed outside the screening program, in addition to patients in the screening group with stage IV periampullary adenomas and adenocarcinomas. Results: Periampullary adenoma stage IV was diagnosed in 14 patients (7.8%), with a cumulative risk of 20% at age 60 years. Periampullary adenocarcinoma was diagnosed in 5 patients (2.8%), with a cumulative risk of 10% at age 60. Three of the adenocarcinomas occurred in patients with stage IV periampullary adenomas compared with 2 in patients with less severe periampullary adenomatosis at screening (odds ratio, 31; 95% confidence interval, 4.6-215). Fifteen (88%) of the APC gene mutations were detected; 12 of these were located downstream from codon 1051 in exon 15. Conclusions: The life time risk of severe periampullary lesions in FAP patients is high, and an association between stage IV periampullary adenomas and a malignant course of the periampullary adenomatosis is strongly suggestive. Mutations downstream from codon 1051 seem to be associated with severe periampullary lesions.

  • 10. Chenevix-Trench, G.
    et al.
    Milne, R. L.
    Antoniou, A. C.
    Couch, F. J.
    Easton, D. F.
    Goldgar, D. E.
    An international initiative to identify genetic modifiers of cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: The Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (CIMBA)2007In: Breast Cancer Research, ISSN 1465-5411, E-ISSN 1465-542X, Vol. 9, no 2, article id 104Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations exhibit variable penetrance that is likely to be accounted for, in part, by other genetic factors among carriers. However, studies aimed at identifying these factors have been limited in size and statistical power, and have yet to identify any convincingly validated modifiers of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 phenotype. To generate sufficient statistical power to identify modifier genes, the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (CIMBA) has been established. CIMBA contains about 30 affiliated groups who together have collected DNA and clinical data from approximately 10,000 BRCA1 and 5,000 BRCA2 utation carriers. Initial efforts by CIMBA to identify modifiers of breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers have focused on validation of common genetic variants previously associated with risk in smaller studies of carriers or unselected breast cancers. Future studies will involve replication of findings from pathway-based and genome-wide association studies in both unselected and familial breast cancer. The identification of genetic modifiers of breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers will lead to an improved understanding of breast cancer and may prove useful for the determination of individualized risk of cancer amongst carriers. 

  • 11.
    Einbeigi, Z.
    et al.
    Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden, Sweden.
    Bergman, Annika
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden, Sweden.
    Kindblom, L.-G.
    Department of Pathology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden, Sweden.
    Martinsson, T.
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden, Sweden.
    Meis-Kindblom, J. M.
    Department of Pathology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden, Sweden.
    Nordling, M.
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden, Sweden.
    Suurküla, M.
    Department of Pathology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden, Sweden.
    Wahlström, J.
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden, Sweden.
    Wallgren, A.
    Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden, Sweden.
    Karlsson, P.
    Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden, Sweden.
    A founder mutation of the BRCA1 gene in Western Sweden associated with a high incidence of breast and ovarian cancer2001In: European Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0959-8049, E-ISSN 1879-0852, Vol. 37, no 15, p. 1904-1909Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe and characterise a founder mutation of the BRCA1 gene in western Sweden. Of 62 families screened for BRCA mutations, 24 had BRCA1 mutations and two had BRCA2 mutations. Tumours that occurred in family members were histologically reviewed and mutational status was analysed using archival paraffin-embedded tissues. The same BRCA1 mutation, 3171ins5, was found in 16 families who were clustered along the western coast of Sweden. Mutation analysis revealed a maternal linkage in 13 families and a paternal linkage in 3. There was complete agreement between mutation analysis results obtained from blood and archival tissues. The penetrance of breast or ovarian cancer by age 70 years was estimated to be between 59 and 93%. There were no differences in survivals between breast or ovarian cancer patients with the mutation and age-matched controls. Thus, a predominant BRCA1 gene founder mutation associated with a high risk of breast and ovarian cancer has been identified and found to occur in a restricted geographical area, thereby allowing timely and cost-effective mutation screening using blood samples or archival histological material. 

  • 12. Engel, C.
    et al.
    Versmold, B.
    Wappenschmidt, B.
    Simard, J.
    Easton, D. F.
    Peock, S.
    Cook, M.
    Oliver, C.
    Frost, D.
    Mayes, R.
    Evans, D. G.
    Eeles, R.
    Paterson, J.
    Brewer, C.
    McGuffog, L.
    Antoniou, A. C.
    Stoppa-Lyonnet, D.
    Sinilnikova, O. M.
    Barjhoux, L.
    Frenay, M.
    Michel, C.
    Leroux, D.
    Dreyfus, H.
    Toulas, C.
    Gladieff, L.
    Uhrhammer, N.
    Bignon, Y. -J
    Meindl, A.
    Arnold, N.
    Varon-Mateeva, R.
    Niederacher, D.
    Preisler-Adams, S.
    Kast, K.
    Deissler, H.
    Sutter, C.
    Gadzicki, D.
    Chenevix-Trench, G.
    Spurdle, A. B.
    Chen, X.
    Beesley, J.
    Olsson, H.
    Kristoffersson, U.
    Ehrencrona, H.
    Liljegren, A.
    Van Der Luijt, R. B.
    Van Os, T. A.
    Van Leeuwen, F. E.
    Domchek, S. M.
    Rebbeck, T. R.
    Nathanson, K. L.
    Osorio, A.
    Ramón Y Cajal, T.
    Konstantopoulou, I.
    Benítez, J.
    Friedman, E.
    Kaufman, B.
    Laitman, Y.
    Mai, P. L.
    Greene, M. H.
    Nevanlinna, H.
    Aittomäki, K.
    Szabo, C. I.
    Caldes, T.
    Couch, F. J.
    Andrulis, I. L.
    Godwin, A. K.
    Hamann, U.
    Schmutzler, R. K.
    Association of the variants CASP8 D302H and CASP10 V410I with breast and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers2010In: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, ISSN 1055-9965, E-ISSN 1538-7755, Vol. 19, no 11, p. 2859-2868Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The genes caspase-8 (CASP8) and caspase-10 (CASP10) functionally cooperate and play a key role in the initiation of apoptosis. Suppression of apoptosis is one of the major mechanisms underlying the origin and progression of cancer. Previous case-control studies have indicated that the polymorphisms CASP8 D302H and CASP10 V410I are associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in the general population.

    Methods: To evaluate whether the CASP8 D302H (CASP10 V410I) polymorphisms modify breast or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, we analyzed 7,353 (7,227) subjects of white European origin provided by 19 (18) study groups that participate in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). A weighted cohort approach was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).

    Results: The minor allele of CASP8 D302H was significantly associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer (per-allele HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76-0.97; Ptrend = 0.011) and ovarian cancer (per-allele HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.53-0.89; Ptrend = 0.004) for BRCA1 but not for BRCA2 mutation carriers. The CASP10 V410I polymorphism was not associated with breast or ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    Conclusions: CASP8 D302H decreases breast and ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers but not for BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    Impact: The combined application of these and other recently identified genetic riskmodifiers could in the future allow better individual risk calculation and could aid in the individualized counseling and decision making with respect to preventive options in BRCA1 mutation carriers.

  • 13. Johnatty, S. E.
    et al.
    Couch, F. J.
    Fredericksen, Z.
    Tarrell, R.
    Spurdle, A. B.
    Beesley, J.
    Chen, X.
    Gschwantler-Kaulich, D.
    Singer, C. F.
    Fuerhauser, C.
    Fink-Retter, A.
    Domchek, S. M.
    Nathanson, K. L.
    Pankratz, V. S.
    Lindor, N. M.
    Godwin, A. K.
    Caligo, M. A.
    Hopper, J.
    Southey, M. C.
    Giles, G. G.
    Justenhoven, C.
    Brauch, H.
    Hamann, U.
    Ko, Y. -D
    Heikkinen, T.
    Aaltonen, K.
    Aittomäki, K.
    Blomqvist, C.
    Nevanlinna, H.
    Hall, P.
    Czene, K.
    Liu, J.
    Peock, S.
    Cook, M.
    Platte, R.
    Gareth Evans, D.
    Lalloo, F.
    Eeles, R.
    Pichert, G.
    Eccles, D.
    Davidson, R.
    Cole, T.
    Cook, J.
    Douglas, F.
    Chu, C.
    Hodgson, S.
    Paterson, J.
    Hogervorst, F. B. L.
    Rookus, M. A.
    Seynaeve, C.
    Wijnen, J.
    Vreeswijk, M.
    Ligtenberg, M.
    Van Der Luijt, R. B.
    Van Os, T. A. M.
    Gille, H. J. P.
    Blok, M. J.
    Issacs, C.
    Humphreys, M. K.
    McGuffog, L.
    Healey, S.
    Sinilnikova, O.
    Antoniou, A. C.
    Easton, D. F.
    Chenevix-Trench, G.
    No evidence that GATA3 rs570613 SNP modifies breast cancer risk2009In: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, ISSN 0167-6806, E-ISSN 1573-7217, Vol. 117, no 2, p. 371-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GATA-binding protein 3 (GATA3) is a transcription factor that is crucial to mammary gland morphogenesis and differentiation of progenitor cells, and has been suggested to have a tumor suppressor function. The rs570613 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in intron 4 of GATA3 was previously found to be associated with a reduction in breast cancer risk in the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility project and in pooled analysis of two case-control studies from Norway and Poland (P trend = 0.004), with some evidence for a stronger association with estrogen receptor (ER) negative tumours [Garcia-Closas M et al. (2007) Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16:2269-2275]. We genotyped GATA3 rs570613 in 6,388 cases and 4,995 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) and 5,617 BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). We found no association between this SNP and breast cancer risk in BCAC cases overall (ORper-allele = 1.00, 95% CI 0.94-1.05), in ER negative BCAC cases (ORper-allele = 1.02, 95% CI 0.91-1.13), in BRCA1 mutation carriers RRper-allele = 0.99, 95% CI 0.90-1.09) or BRCA2 mutation carriers (RRper-allele = 0.93, 95% CI 0.80-1.07). We conclude that there is no evidence that either GATA3 rs570613, or any variant in strong linkage disequilibrium with it, is associated with breast cancer risk in women. 

  • 14.
    Kanter-Smoler, Gunilla
    et al.
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Genetics, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fritzell, Kaisa
    The Swedish Polyposis Registry, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rohlin, Anna
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Genetics, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Engwall, Yvonne
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Genetics, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hallberg, Birgitta
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Genetics, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bergman, Annika
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Genetics, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Meuller, Johan
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Genetics, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Grönberg, Henrik
    Department of Medical Epidemiology, Biostatistics Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Per
    Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Björk, Jan
    The Swedish Polyposis Registry, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordling, Margareta
    AstraZeneca RandD Mölndal, Structural Chemistry Laboratory, SC425, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Clinical characterization and the mutation spectrum in Swedish adenomatous polyposis families2008In: BMC Medicine, ISSN 1741-7015, E-ISSN 1741-7015, Vol. 6, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The dominantly inherited condition familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is caused by germline mutations in the APC gene. Finding the causative mutations has great implications for the families. Correlating the genotypes to the phenotypes could help to improve the diagnosis and follow-up of patients.

    Methods: Mutation screening of APCand the clinical characterization of 96 unrelated FAP patients from the Swedish Polyposis Registry was performed. In addition to generally used mutation screening methods, analyses of splicing-affecting mutations and investigations of the presence of low-frequency mutation alleles, indicating mosaics, have been performed, as well as quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect lowered expression of APC.

    Results: Sixty-one different APC mutations in 81 of the 96 families were identified and 27 of those are novel. We have previously shown that 6 of the 96 patients carried biallelic MUTYH mutations. The 9 mutation-negative cases all display an attenuated or atypical phenotype. Probands with a genotype (codon 1250-1464) predicting a severe phenotype had a median age at diagnosis of 21.8 (range, 11-49) years compared with 34.4 (range, 14-57) years among those with mutations outside this region (P < 0.017). Dense polyposis (> 1000) occurred in 75% of the probands with a severe phenotype compared with 30% in those with mutations outside this region. The morbidity in colorectal cancer among probands was 25% at a mean age of 37.5 years and 29% at a mean age of 46.6 years.

    Conclusion: Using a variety of mutation-detection techniques, we have achieved a 100% detection frequency in classical FAP. Probands with APC mutations outside codon 1250-1464, although exhibiting a less-severe phenotype, are at high risk of having a colorectal cancer at diagnosis indicating that age at diagnosis is as important as the severity of the disease for colorectal cancer morbidity. © 2008 Kanter-Smoler et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  • 15. Osorio, A.
    et al.
    Milne, R. L.
    Pita, G.
    Peterlongo, P.
    Heikkinen, T.
    Simard, J.
    Chenevix-Trench, G.
    Spurdle, A. B.
    Beesley, J.
    Chen, X.
    Healey, S.
    Neuhausen, S. L.
    Ding, Y. C.
    Couch, F. J.
    Wang, X.
    Lindor, N.
    Manoukian, S.
    Barile, M.
    Viel, A.
    Tizzoni, L.
    Szabo, C. I.
    Foretova, L.
    Zikan, M.
    Claes, K.
    Greene, M. H.
    Mai, P.
    Rennert, G.
    Lejbkowicz, F.
    Barnett-Griness, O.
    Andrulis, I. L.
    Ozcelik, H.
    Weerasooriya, N.
    Gerdes, A. -M
    Thomassen, M.
    Cruger, D. G.
    Caligo, M. A.
    Friedman, E.
    Kaufman, B.
    Laitman, Y.
    Cohen, S.
    Kontorovich, T.
    Gershoni-Baruch, R.
    Dagan, E.
    Jernström, H.
    Askmalm, M. S.
    Arver, B.
    Malmer, B.
    Domchek, S. M.
    Nathanson, K. L.
    Brunet, J.
    Ramón Y Cajal, T.
    Yannoukakos, D.
    Hamann, U.
    Hogervorst, F. B. L.
    Verhoef, S.
    Garcíla, E. B. G.
    Wijnen, J. T.
    Van Den Ouweland, A.
    Easton, D. F.
    Peock, S.
    Cook, M.
    Oliver, C. T.
    Frost, D.
    Luccarini, C.
    Evans, D. G.
    Lalloo, F.
    Eeles, R.
    Pichert, G.
    Cook, J.
    Hodgson, S.
    Morrison, P. J.
    Douglas, F.
    Godwin, A. K.
    Sinilnikova, O. M.
    Barjhoux, L.
    Stoppa-Lyonnet, D.
    Moncoutier, V.
    Giraud, S.
    Cassini, C.
    Olivier-Faivre, L.
    Révillion, F.
    Peyrat, J. -P
    Muller, D.
    Fricker, J. -P
    Lynch, H. T.
    John, E. M.
    Buys, S.
    Daly, M.
    Hopper, J. L.
    Terry, M. B.
    Miron, A.
    Yassin, Y.
    Goldgar, D.
    Singer, C. F.
    Gschwantler-Kaulich, D.
    Pfeiler, G.
    Spiess, A. -C
    Hansen, T. V. O.
    Johannsson, O. T.
    Kirchhoff, T.
    Offit, K.
    Kosarin, K.
    Piedmonte, M.
    Rodriguez, G. C.
    Wakeley, K.
    Boggess, J. F.
    Basil, J.
    Schwartz, P. E.
    Blank, S. V.
    Toland, A. E.
    Montagna, M.
    Casella, C.
    Imyanitov, E. N.
    Allavena, A.
    Schmutzler, R. K.
    Versmold, B.
    Engel, C.
    Meindl, A.
    Ditsch, N.
    Arnold, N.
    Niederacher, D.
    Deiler, H.
    Fiebig, B.
    Varon-Mateeva, R.
    Schaefer, D.
    Froster, U. G.
    Caldes, T.
    De La Hoya, M.
    McGuffog, L.
    Antoniou, A. C.
    Nevanlinna, H.
    Radice, P.
    Benítez, J.
    Evaluation of a candidate breast cancer associated SNP in ERCC4 as a risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Results from the consortium of investigators of modifiers of BRCA1/BRCA2 (CIMBA)2009In: British Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0007-0920, E-ISSN 1532-1827, Vol. 101, no 12, p. 2048-2054Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In this study we aimed to evaluate the role of a SNP in intron 1 of the ERCC4 gene (rs744154), previously reported to be associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in the general population, as a breast cancer risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Methods: We have genotyped rs744154 in 9408 BRCA1 and 5632 BRCA2 mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) and assessed its association with breast cancer risk using a retrospective weighted cohort approach. Results: We found no evidence of association with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 (per-allele HR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.93-1.04, P0.5) or BRCA2 (per-allele HR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89-1.06, P0.5) mutation carriers. Conclusion: This SNP is not a significant modifier of breast cancer risk for mutation carriers, though weak associations cannot be ruled out.

  • 16.
    Thorell, Kaisa
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bergman, Annika
    Department of Pathology, Lundberg Laboratory for Cancer Research, SU/Sahlgrenska, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Carén, Helena
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Staffan
    Department of Mathematical Statistics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kogner, Per
    Childhood Cancer Research Unit, Karolinska Institute, Astrid Lindgren Childrens Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Martinsson, Tommy
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Abel, Frida
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Verification of genes differentially expressed in neuroblastoma tumours: A study of potential tumour suppressor genes2009In: BMC Medical Genomics, ISSN 1755-8794, E-ISSN 1755-8794, Vol. 2, article id 53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: One of the most striking features of the childhood malignancy neuroblastoma (NB) is its clinical heterogeneity. Although there is a great need for better clinical and biological markers to distinguish between tumours with different severity and to improve treatment, no clear-cut prognostic factors have been found. Also, no major NB tumour suppressor genes have been identified.

    Methods: In this study we performed expression analysis by quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR) on primary NB tumours divided into two groups, of favourable and unfavourable outcome respectively. Candidate genes were selected on basis of lower expression in unfavourable tumour types compared to favourables in our microarray expression analysis. Selected genes were studied in two steps: (1) using TaqMan Low Density Arrays (TLDA) targeting 89 genes on a set of 12 NB tumour samples, and (2) 12 genes were selected from the TLDA analysis for verification using individual TaqMan assays in a new set of 13 NB tumour samples.

    Results: By TLDA analysis, 81 out of 87 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed between groups, of which 14 have previously been reported as having an altered gene expression in NB. In the second verification round, seven out of 12 transcripts showed significantly lower expression in unfavourable NB tumours, ATBF1, CACNA2D3, CNTNAP2, FUSIP1, GNB1, SLC35E2, and TFAP2B. The gene that showed the highest fold change in the TLDA analysis, POU4F2, was investigated for epigenetic changes (CpG methylation) and mutations in order to explore the cause of the differential expression. Moreover, the fragile site gene CNTNAP2 that showed the largest fold change in verification group 2 was investigated for structural aberrations by copy number analysis. However, the analyses of POU4F2 and CNTNAP2 showed no genetic alterations that could explain a lower expression in unfavourable NB tumours.

    Conclusion: Through two steps of verification, seven transcripts were found to significantly discriminate between favourable and unfavourable NB tumours. Four of the transcripts, CACNA2D3, GNB1, SLC35E2, and TFAP2B, have been observed in previous microarray studies, and are in this study independently verified. Our results suggest these transcripts to be markers of malignancy, which could have a potential usefulness in the clinic. 

  • 17.
    Vujic, Mihailo
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/East, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Bergman, Annika
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/East, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Romanus, Bertil
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/East, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Wahlström, Jan
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/East, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Martinsson, Tommy
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/East, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hereditary multiple and isolated sporadic exostoses in the same kindred: identification of the causative gene (EXT2) and detection of a new mutation, nt112delAT, that distinguishes the two phenotypes.2004In: International Journal of Molecular Medicine, ISSN 1107-3756, E-ISSN 1791-244X, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 47-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) is a well known autosomal dominant hereditary orthopedic disorder. Isolated exostoses, on the other hand, occur as sporadic events or as secondary post-traumatic sequel. The occurrence of solitary exostoses in individuals from pedigrees affected with HME may distort conclusions about carrier status and/or diagnosis. Both conditions are potentially malignant and both are associated with genetic alterations in either EXT1 or EXT2 genes. In this study, we present a seven-generation family from western Sweden consisting of 170 blood relatives, 38 of whom had multiple cartilaginous exostoses, while 8 had isolated exostoses. Linkage analysis aimed to discern one of the known EXT genes demonstrated linkage of the HME phenotype to the EXT2 gene. Subsequent mutation analysis revealed a novel mutation, nt112delAT, in this gene. All carriers of the detected mutation had multiple exostoses, indicating full penetrance. None of the pedigree members with isolated exostoses were carriers of the detected mutation. Two of the mutation carriers developed chondrosarcoma yielding a 5.2% risk of malignant development for this mutation. The detection of this mutation has enabled us to provide appropriate genetic counseling concerning this complex situation.

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