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  • 1.
    Engstrom, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Forsell, Eskil
    Uppsala University.
    Hagen, Johannes
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Stefánsson, Arnaldur
    Uppsala University.
    Increasing the Take-Up of the Housing Allowance Among Swedish Pensioners: A Field Experiment2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a randomized field experiment in the Swedish pension system, we investigate whether receiving an information letter affects the take-up rate of the housing allowance for pensioners. We also investigate whether the framing of the information letter affects take-up. The results show that simple information letters had a dramatic effect on the application rate and subsequent take-up rate: the baseline application rate in the targeted control population was only 1.4 percent while the corresponding rates in the different treatment groups were between 9.9 and 12.1 percent. The letter that addressed common misconceptions about the benefit caused significantly higher submission and acceptance rates. The letters had a substantial economic effect on the applicants. We estimate that the applicants, induced by the treatment, increased their monthly income by around 10 percent.

  • 2.
    Engström, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Forsell, Eskil
    Spotify.
    Hagen, Johannes
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Stefansson, Arnaldur
    Uppsala universitet.
    Bostadstillägg för pensionärer: ett randomiserat informationsexperiment2018In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 29-37Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Många äldre med låga inkomster ansöker inte om bostadstillägg för pensionärer trots att de kan ha rätt till det. En viktig fråga är därför hur man kan få fler berättigade att ansöka. Vi har tillsammans med Pensionsmyndigheten genomfört ett randomiserat informationsexperiment riktat till populationen av potentiellt berättigade pensionärer. Ungefär var tionde pensionär som fick ett brev (behandlingsgruppen) ansökte om bostadstillägg inom fyra månader jämfört med drygt en av hundra som inte fick ett brev (kontrollgruppen). Andelen avslag i behandlingsgruppen var dock något högre.

  • 3.
    Engström, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Forsell, Eskil
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hagen, Johannes
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Stefánsson, Arnaldur
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Increasing the Take-Up of the Housing Allowance Among Swedish Pensioners: A Field Experiment2019In: International Tax and Public Finance, ISSN 0927-5940, E-ISSN 1573-6970, , p. 38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a randomized field experiment in the Swedish pension system, we investigate whether receiving an information letter affects the take-up rate of the housing allowance for pensioners. We also investigate whether the framing of the information letter affects take-up. The results show that simple information letters had a significant effect on the application rate and subsequent take-up rate: The baseline application rate in the targeted control population was only 1.4%, while the corresponding rates in the different treatment groups were between 9.9 and 12.1%. However, while the applications in the control group were accepted in almost 3 out of 4 cases, up to 50% of the applications in the treatment group were declined. The lower conditional acceptance rate in the treatment group seems to be largely driven by wealth, which the Pensions Agency cannot observe prior to submission. Information campaigns aimed at increasing benefit take-up therefore need careful design in situations with imperfect targeting.

  • 4.
    Engström, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Hagen, Johannes
    Uppsala universitet.
    Income underreporting among the self-employed: a permanent income approach2017In: European Economic Review, ISSN 0014-2921, E-ISSN 1873-572X, Vol. 92, p. 92-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The consumption based method to estimate underreporting among self-employed, introduced by Pissarides andWeber (1989), is one of the workhorses in the empirical literature on tax evasion/avoidance. We show that failure to account for transitory income fluctuations in current income may overestimate the degree of underreporting by around 40 percent. Previous studies typically use instrumental variable methods to address the issue. In contrast, our access to registry based longitudinal income measures allows a direct approach based on more permanent income measures. This also allows us to evaluate the performance of a list of instruments widely used in the previous literature. Our analysis shows that capital income is the most suitable instrument in our application, while education and housing related measures do not seem to satisfy the exclusion restrictions.

  • 5.
    Hagen, Johannes
    Uppsala universitet.
    A history of the Swedish pension system2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides an extensive overview of the history of the Swedish pension system. Starting with the implementation of the world's first universal public pension system in 1913, the report discusses the political as well as the economic background to each major public pension reform up until today. It presents the rules and the institutional details of these reforms and discuss their implications for retirement behavior, the general state of the economy and the political environment. Parallel to the development of the public pension system, a comprehensive and quite complex occupational pension system has emerged. This report describes the historical background and the institutional details of the four largest agreement-based occupational pension schemes in Sweden.

  • 6.
    Hagen, Johannes
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Country case: Sweden2017In: Pension Savings: The Real Return, 2017 Edition: A research report by Better Finance / [ed] M. Klages & Á. R. Toscano, Brussels: Better Finance , 2017, p. 442-468Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Hagen, Johannes
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Country case: Sweden2019In: Pension Savings: The Real Return, 2019 Edition: A research report by Better Finance / [ed] J. Šebo & Ş. D. Voicu, Brussels: Better Finance , 2019, p. 453-478Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish pension system contains a great variety of different retirement savings products with over SEK 5.8 trillion (€565 billion) in managed capital. There are funded components in each of the three pillars. In the public pension system, 2.5% of earnings are allocated to the premium pension, whereas the default fund, AP7 Såfa, has had an average real rate of return of 5.8% compared to the 2.9% of all other funds over the last 17 years. The second pillar is dominated by four large agreement-based pension plans, covering more than 90% of the workforce. These have largely transitioned from a pay-as-you-go (PAYG) system to a funded system.

  • 8.
    Hagen, Johannes
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Country case: Sweden2018In: Pension Savings: The Real Return, 2018 Edition: A research report by Better Finance / [ed] J. Šebo & Ş. D. Voicu, Brussels: Better Finance , 2018, p. 438-460Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish private pensions market is quite diversified, consisting of a great variety of different retirement savings products with over SEK 5.3 trillion (€559 billion) in managed capital. In terms of pensions, Swedish households hold €405 billion of assets in pension funds and €112 billion in life insurance reserves. Rather than relying on the PAYG system, the Swedish system tends to rely on private savings products. When it comes to returns, however, the AP7 Safa fund has been the best-performing over the last 16 years, with an average real return rate of 8.56%.

  • 9.
    Hagen, Johannes
    Uppsala universitet, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Essays on pensions, retirement and tax evasion2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Essay I: This essay provides an overview of the history of the Swedish pension system. Starting with the implementation of the public pension system in 1913, it outlines the key components of each major pension reform up until today along with a discussion of the main trade-offs and concerns that policy makers have faced. It also describes the historical background of the four largest occupational pension plans in Sweden and the mutual influence between these plans and the public pension system.       

    Essay II: Despite the fact that the increasing involvement of the private sector in pension provision has brought more flexibility to the pay-out phase of retirement, little is known about the characteristics of those who choose to annuitize their pension wealth and those who do not. I combine unique micro-data from a large Swedish occupational pension plan with rich national administrative data to study the choice between life annuities and fixed-term payouts with a minimum payout length of 5 years for 183,000 retiring white-collar workers. I find that low accumulation of assets is strongly associated with the choice of the 5-year payout. Consistent with individuals selecting payout length based on private information about their mortality prospects, individuals who choose the 5-year payout are in worse health, exhibit higher ex-post mortality rates and have shorter-lived parents than annuitants. Individuals also seem to respond to large, tax-induced changes in annuity prices.           

    Essay III: This essay estimates the causal effect of postponing retirement on a wide range of health outcomes using Swedish administrative data on cause-specific mortality, hospitalizations and drug prescriptions. Exogenous variation in retirement timing comes from a reform which raised the age at which broad categories of Swedish local government workers were entitled to retire with full pension benefits from 63 to 65. The reform caused a remarkable shift in the retirement distribution of the affected workers, increasing the actual retirement age by more than 4.5 months. Instrumental variable estimation results show no effect of postponing retirement on the overall consumption of health care, nor on the risk of dying early. There is evidence, however, of a reduction in diabetes-related hospitalizations and in the consumption of drugs that treat anxiety.

    Essay IV (with Per Engström): The consumption based method to estimate underreporting among self-employed, introduced by Pissarides and Weber (1989), is one of the workhorses in the empirical literature on tax evasion/avoidance. We show that failure to account for transitory income fluctuations in current income may overestimate the degree of underreporting by around 40 percent. Previous studies typically use instrumental variable methods to address the issue. In contrast, our access to registry based longitudinal income measures allows a direct approach based on more permanent income measures. This also allows us to evaluate the performance of a list of instruments widely used in the previous literature. Our analysis shows that capital income is the most suitable instrument in our application, while education and housing related measures do not seem to satisfy the exclusion restrictions.

  • 10.
    Hagen, Johannes
    Nationalekonomiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Hälsoeffekter av senarelagd pensionering2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten studerar effekten av senarelagd pensionering på individens hälsa. För detta utnyttjas en reform som innebar att pensionsåldern höjdes från 63 till 65 år för flertalet yrkesgrupper inom kommun- och landstingssektorn, framför allt inom den kvinnodominerade sektorn vård och omsorg. Resultaten visar att senarelagd pensionering troligtvis inte påverkar individens hälsa, som mäts med hjälp av data på slutenvårdsinläggningar, läkemedelsförskrivningar och dödlighet. Under antagandet att resultatet för offentliganställda kvinnor kan generaliseras till andra yrkesgrupper kan alltså en höjd pensionsålder ha en positiv effekt på samhällsekonomin i form av högre arbetsutbud utan att be-höva öka kostnaderna för hälso- och sjukvård.

  • 11.
    Hagen, Johannes
    Uppsala universitet, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Pension principles in the Swedish pension system2017In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 65, no 1, p. 28-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the role of pension principles of funding and benefit provision for the development of the Swedish pension system. Focusing on four major public pension reforms in the twentieth century, it discusses why certain pension principles were used and under what circumstances they were more or less likely to change. The analysis shows that change was implemented to a large extent as a response to the previous pension system failing to fulfil its intended purpose in terms of financial stability, work incentives and redistribution.

  • 12.
    Hagen, Johannes
    Uppsala universitet.
    The determinants of annuitization: evidence from Sweden2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses unique micro data from a Swedish occupational pension plan to study the determinants of annuitization. The data is merged with national administrative data to create a large data set with rich individual background characteristics. The pension can either be withdrawn as a life annuity or during a fixed number of years with a minimum of ve years. Low accumulation of assets is strongly associated with the choice of the 5-year payout. Consistent with the predictions of a life-cycle model, retirees who choose the 5-year payout are in worse health and exhibit higher ex-post mortality rates than annuitants. I alsofind that the parents of annuitants live longer than the parents of those who choose the 5-year payout. This suggests that individuals form expectations about how long they are likely to live based on the life-span patterns of their parents and take this into account when they decide whether to annuitize or not.

  • 13.
    Hagen, Johannes
    Uppsala universitet, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    The determinants of annuitization: evidence from Sweden2015In: International Tax and Public Finance, ISSN 0927-5940, E-ISSN 1573-6970, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 549-578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the fact that the increasing involvement of the private sector in pension provision has brought more flexibility to the pay-out phase of retirement, little is known about the characteristics of those who choose to annuitize their pension wealth and those who do not. I combine unique micro-data from a large Swedish occupational pension plan with rich national administrative data to study the choice between life annuities and fixed-term payouts with a minimum payout length of 5 years for 183,000 retiring white-collar workers. I find that low accumulation of assets is strongly associated with the choice of the 5-year payout. Consistent with individuals selecting payout length based on private information about their mortality prospects, individuals who choose the 5-year payout are in worse health, exhibit higher ex-post mortality rates and have shorter-lived parents than annuitants. Individuals also seem to respond to large, tax-induced changes in annuity prices.

  • 14.
    Hagen, Johannes
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Department of Economics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The effects of increasing the normal retirement age on health care utilization and mortality2018In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 193-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay estimates the health effects of increasing the normal retirement age using Swedish administrative data on drug prescriptions, hospitalizations, and mortality. To this end, I use a reform that raised the age at which broad categories of Swedish local government workers were entitled to retire with full pension benefits from 63 to 65. Estimating the effect of the reform on individuals’ health within the age range 65–69, the results show no evidence that the reform impacted mortality or health care utilization. Increasing the normal retirement age may thus have positive government income effects without seriously affecting short to medium run government health care expenditures.

  • 15.
    Hagen, Johannes
    Uppsala universitet, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Utbetalningstider i tjänstepensionssystemet2017Book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Hagen, Johannes
    Department of Economics, Uppsala University.
    What are the health effects of postponing retirement? An instrumental variable approach2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay estimates the causal effect of postponing retirement on a wide range of health outcomes using Swedish administrative data on cause-specific mortality, hospitalizations and drug prescriptions. Exogenous variation in retirement timing comes from a reform which raised the age at which broad categories of Swedish local government workers were entitled to retire with full pension benefits from 63 to 65. Instrumental variable estimation results show no evidence that postponing retirement impacts mortality or health care utilization.

  • 17.
    Hagen, Johannes
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Elinder, Mikael
    Den komplexa tjänstepensionen2018Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Hagen, Johannes
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Hallberg, Daniel
    Sjögren Lindquist, Gabriella
    A nudge to quit? The effect of a change in pension information on annuitization, labor supply and retirement choices among older workers2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nudge is about affecting behavior in a certain way through small changes to the choice architecture. However, a nudge may also affect behaviors that the architect did not intend. We show that such spillover effects exist in a highly policy relevant context where the use of nudge is widespread; retirement. Specifically, we find that an exogenous application form change in the Swedish pension system that highlighted a five-year payout on the expense of a life annuity not only increased the demand for the nudged payout (as expected), but also induced individuals to retire earlier. We attribute the effects to decision-framing.

  • 19.
    Hagen, Johannes
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Malmberg, Hannes
    Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Hur kan tidiga hälsorelaterade utträden ur arbetslivet minskas?2018Book (Other academic)
1 - 19 of 19
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