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  • 1.
    Andriollo, Tito
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Hellström, Kristina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Sonne, Mads R.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Thorborg, Jesper
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Tiedje, Niels
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Hattel, Jesper
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Uncovering the local inelastic interactions during manufacture of ductile cast iron: How the substructure of the graphite particles can induce residual stress concentrations in the matrix2018In: Journal of the mechanics and physics of solids, ISSN 0022-5096, E-ISSN 1873-4782, Vol. 111, p. 333-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements have revealed that plastic deformation and a residual elastic strain field can be present around the graphite particles in ductile cast iron after manufacturing, probably due to some local mismatch in thermal contraction. However, as only one component of the elastic strain tensor could be obtained from the XRD data, the shape and magnitude of the associated residual stress field have remained unknown. To compensate for this and to provide theoretical insight into this unexplored topic, a combined experimental-numerical approach is presented in this paper. First, a material equivalent to the ductile cast iron matrix is manufactured and subjected to dilatometric and high-temperature tensile tests. Subsequently, a two-scale hierarchical top-down model is devised, calibrated on the basis of the collected data and used to simulate the interaction between the graphite particles and the matrix during manufacturing of the industrial part considered in the XRD study. The model indicates that, besides the viscoplastic deformation of the matrix, the effect of the inelastic deformation of the graphite has to be considered to explain the magnitude of the XRD strain. Moreover, the model shows that the large elastic strain perturbations recorded with XRD close to the graphite–matrix interface are not artifacts due to e.g. sharp gradients in chemical composition, but correspond to residual stress concentrations induced by the conical sectors forming the internal structure of the graphite particles. In contrast to common belief, these results thus suggest that ductile cast iron parts cannot be considered, in general, as stress-free at the microstructural scale. 

  • 2.
    Hellström, Kristina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Density variations during solidification of lamellar graphite iron2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Hellström, Kristina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Diaconu, Lucian
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Diószegi, Attila
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Density and thermal expansion coefficients of liquid grey cast iron and austeniteIn: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Hellström, Kristina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Diószegi, Attila
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Diaconu, Lucian
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    A broad literature review of density measurements of liquid cast iron2017In: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 7, no 5, article id 165Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on density measurements, with a particular interest in methods suitable for liquid cast iron, is reviewed. Different measurement methods based on a number of physical properties are highlighted and compared. Methods for the calculation of density are also reviewed, and the influence of alloying elements on density is, to some extent, discussed. The topic is of essence for the understanding of the material behaviour at solidification, which is pivotal in software applications for casting simulation. Since a deeper understanding of the relationship between the density of liquid cast iron and volume expansion is necessary, the conclusion that further research within the field is needed lies close at hand.

  • 5.
    Hellström, Kristina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Svidró, Péter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Diaconu, Lucian
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Density variations during solidification of grey cast iron2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Hellström, Kristina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Svidró, Péter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Diaconu, Lucian Vasile
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Diószegi, Attila
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Density variations during solidification of grey cast Iron2018In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, p. 155-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of moving towards a sustainable production of diesel engines for heavy vehicle applications, the ability to predict casting defects has become ever so important. In order to model the solidification process for cast components correctly, it is of essence to know how the material will actually behave. To produce sound castings, often of complex geometry, the industry relies on various simulation software for the prediction and avoidance of defects. Thermophysical properties, such as density, play an important part in these simulations. Previous measurements of how the volume of liquid grey iron changes with temperature has been made with a conventional dilatometer. Measurements have also been made in the austenitic range, then on iron-carbon-silicon alloys with a carbon content lower than 1.5 wt%. Based on these measurements the density variations during solidification were calculated. The scope for this paper is to model the volume changes during solidification with the control volume finite difference method, using data from the density measurements. 

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