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  • 1.
    Abbasi, Amir Zaib
    et al.
    IRC for Finance and Digital Economy, KFUPM Business School, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.
    Azeem, Sundas
    Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Farooq, Muhammad Usman
    Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Hussain, Khalil
    Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Ting, Ding Hooi
    Department of Management and Humanities, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, Malaysia.
    Rehman, Umair
    User Experience Design, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON, Canada.
    Griffiths, Mark D.
    International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Engagement in educational games and quality of life in early and middle childhood: evidence from a developing country2023In: Current Psychology, ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733, Vol. 42, p. 19386-19400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Serious games (SGs), are gaining prominence as a tool for early education at home as well as in school settings. Given the mixed effects of gamification on various aspects of users' lives, it is pertinent to study its broader effects on a child's pre-school and school years. Given the lack of consensus on a comprehensive measure that encapsulates these effects on an individual's routine functioning, the present study examined whether various engagement states in SGs use influence a relatively broader measure of users' functioning across significant life domains such as Quality of Life (QoL). It is argued that it would serve scholars, teachers, and parents better to understand the broader implications of SGs on children's overall QoL rather than isolated physiological and behavioral effects. Consequently, utilizing structural equation modeling, results from 335 parents of 2-10-year-olds in a developing country showed that cognitive and behavioral engagement in gamified applications appear to influence the child's QoL, but not affective engagement. Results are discussed in terms of the consequences of using game-based technology for a child's development, with far-reaching academic, personal, physical, and social implications not only for the school-going ages, but also for early teenage years. The results are promising in relation to QoL. The findings indicate the role modern technology plays in improving individuals' lives. The findings provide scholars, parents, and creators of SGs important information for their plan of action regarding children's exposure to SGs and making SGs a frequent aspect of the learning experience early in life.

  • 2.
    Ahonen, Hanna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Centre for Oral Health.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Nursing Science.
    Norderyd, Ola
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Broström, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Lindmark, Ulrika
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Centre for Oral Health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Applying World Dental Federation Theoretical Framework for Oral Health in a General Population2022In: International Dental Journal, ISSN 0020-6539, E-ISSN 1875-595X, Vol. 72, no 4, p. 536-544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The World Dental Federation (FDI) has recently proposed a new definition and theoretical framework of oral health. The theoretical framework includes 4 main components and describes the relationships amongst them. In 2020, an international work group proposed the minimum Adult Oral Health Standard Set (AOHSS) of variables to measure oral health, which was mapped onto the FDI's theoretical framework. By using an empirical data set, the proposed variables in the AOHSS and the potential interactions amongst the components of the FDI's theoretical framework can be tested. The purpose of this research was to investigate structural relations of the components of the FDI's theoretical framework of oral health based on data from a general adult population.

    Methods: Data from a previously conducted Swedish cross-sectional study focusing on oral health were utilised (N = 630; women, 55.2%; mean age, 49.7 years [SD, 19.2]). Variable selection was guided by the AOHSS. Structural equation modeling was used to analyse relationships amongst the components of the FDI's theoretical model (core elements of oral health, driving determinants, moderating factors, and overall health and well-being).

    Results: The Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP)-14, xerostomia, and aesthetic satisfaction had statistically significant direct effects on overall health and well-being (p < .05). Driving determinants and moderating factors had statistically significant direct effects on all core elements of oral health (p < .05) except aesthetic satisfaction (p = .616). The predictors explained 24.1% of the variance of the latent variable overall health and well-being. Based on several indices, the proposed model showed acceptable model fit.

    Conclusions: The FDI's theoretical framework can be used to describe different components of oral health and the relationship amongst them in an adult general population. Further research based on the FDI's theoretical framework in other populations and settings is needed to explore complex interactions and possible relationships that form oral health and to investigate other or additional important social determinants.

  • 3.
    Ahorsu, D. K.
    et al.
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health & Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Lin, C. -Y
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health & Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Imani, V.
    Pediatric Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
    Carlbring, P.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nygårdh, Annette
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Broström, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Hamilton, K.
    School of Applied Psychology, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Testing an app-based intervention to improve insomnia in patients with epilepsy: A randomized controlled trial2020In: Epilepsy & Behavior, ISSN 1525-5050, E-ISSN 1525-5069, Vol. 112, article id 107371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Insomnia has adverse effects on people with epilepsy. We aimed to test a novel cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) app-based intervention on insomnia symptoms and social psychological factors in people with epilepsy and to examine the possible mechanisms among the factors.

    Methods: Participants were recruited from neurology clinics in Iran and comprised individuals diagnosed with epilepsy and having moderate to severe insomnia. A two-arm randomized controlled trial design was used, consisting of a treatment group (CBT-I; n = 160) and control group (patient education; n = 160). Primary outcomes were self-reported sleep quality, insomnia severity, and sleep hygiene behavior and objective sleep characteristics measured by actigraphy. Secondary outcomes were attitude, perceived behavioral control, intention, action planning, coping planning, behavioral automaticity, self-monitoring, anxiety, depression, and quality of life (QoL). All outcomes were measured at baseline, and at one, three, and six months postintervention, except objective sleep, which was assessed at baseline, and one and six months postintervention. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models.

    Results: Current findings showed that sleep quality, insomnia severity, sleep hygiene behavior, and sleep onset latency were significantly improved in the CBT-I group compared with the patient education group at all measurement points. Also, the CBT-I group had significantly improved anxiety, depression, and QoL compared with the patient education group. Mediation analyses showed that attitude, intention, coping planning, self-monitoring, and behavioral automaticity significantly mediated the effect of the intervention on sleep outcomes.

    Conclusion: Results support the use of the CBT-I app to improve sleep outcomes among people with epilepsy.

  • 4.
    Ahorsu, Daniel K.
    et al.
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Lin, Chung-Ying
    Institute of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
    Chen, I-Hua
    Chinese Academy of Education Big Data, Qufu Normal University, Qufu City, Shandong, China.
    Ullah, Irfan
    Kabir Medical College, Gandhara University, Peshawar, Pakistan.
    Shoib, Sheikh
    Sheikh Shoib Department of Psychiatry, Jawahar Lal Nehru Memorial Hospital, Srinagar, India.
    Zahid, Shafi U.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Jamhuriat hospital, Kabul, Afghanistan.
    Adjaottor, Emma S.
    Department of Behavioural Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana.
    Addo, Frimpong-Manso
    Department of Behavioural Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Nursing Science.
    The psychometric properties of motors of COVID-19 vaccination acceptance scale (MoVac-COVID19S): A dataset across five regions2022In: Data in Brief, E-ISSN 2352-3409, Vol. 42, article id 108103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to plague the world. Hence, there is been an effort to mitigate this virus and its effects with several means including vaccination which is one of the most effective ways of controlling the virus. However, efforts at getting people to vaccinate have met several challenges. To help with understanding the reasons underlying an individual's willingness to take COVID-19 vaccine or not, a scale called Motors of COVID-19 Vaccination Acceptance Scale (MoVac-COVID19S) was developed. To expand its usability worldwide (as it has currently been limited to only China and Taiwan), data were collected in other countries (regions) too. Therefore, this MoVac-COVID19S data is from five countries (that is, India, Ghana, Afghanistan, Taiwan, and mainland China) which cut across five regions. A total of 6053 participants across the stated countries completed the survey between January and March 2021 using a cross-sectional survey design. The different sections of the survey solicited sociodemographic information (e.g., country, age, gender, educational level, and profession) and the MoVac-COVID19S data from the participants. The data collected from this survey were analyzed using descriptive statistics, which were carried out using the IBM SPSS version 22.0.

  • 5.
    Ahorsu, Daniel K.
    et al.
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Lin, Chung-Ying
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Imani, Vida
    Pediatric Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
    Griffiths, Mark D.
    International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK.
    Su, Jian-An
    Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan.
    Latner, Janet D.
    Department of Psychology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii.
    Marshall, Rachel D.
    Department of Psychology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    A prospective study on the link between weight-related self-stigma and binge eating: Role of food addiction and psychological distress2020In: International Journal of Eating Disorders, ISSN 0276-3478, E-ISSN 1098-108X, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 442-450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: This prospective study investigated the link between weight-related self-stigma and binge eating by (a) examining the temporal association between weight-related self-stigma and binge eating; (b) investigating the mediating role of food addiction in the association between weight-related self-stigma and binge eating; and (c) examining the mediating role of psychological distress in the association between weight-related self-stigma and binge eating.

    METHOD: Participants comprised 1,497 adolescents (mean = 15.1 years; SD = 6.0). Body mass index and weight bias were assessed at baseline; psychological distress (i.e., depression, anxiety, and stress) assessed and food addiction at 3 months; and binge eating at 6 months. The mediation model was analyzed using Model 4 in the PROCESS macro for SPSS with 10,000 bootstrapping resamples.

    RESULTS: There was no significant direct association between weight-related self-stigma and binge eating. However, food addiction and psychological distress significantly mediated the association between weight-related self-stigma and binge eating.

    DISCUSSION: These findings highlight the indirect association between weight-related self-stigma and binge eating via food addiction and psychological distress. Consequently, intervention programs targeting food addiction and psychological distress among adolescents may have significant positive effects on outcomes for weight-related self-stigma and binge eating. The findings will be beneficial to researchers and healthcare professionals working with adolescents during this critical developmental period.

  • 6.
    Ahorsu, Daniel K.
    et al.
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Lin, Chung-Ying
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Imani, Vida
    Pediatric Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
    Saffari, Mohsen
    Health Research Center, Life Style Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Griffiths, Mark D.
    International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University, United Kingdom.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Nursing Science. Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    The Fear of COVID-19 Scale: Development and Initial Validation2022In: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, ISSN 1557-1874, E-ISSN 1557-1882, Vol. 20, p. 1537-1545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The emergence of the COVID-19 and its consequences has led to fears, worries, and anxiety among individuals worldwide. The present study developed the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) to complement the clinical efforts in preventing the spread and treating of COVID-19 cases.

    Methods: The sample comprised 717 Iranian participants. The items of the FCV-19S were constructed based on extensive review of existing scales on fears, expert evaluations, and participant interviews. Several psychometric tests were conducted to ascertain its reliability and validity properties.

    Results: After panel review and corrected item-total correlation testing, seven items with acceptable corrected item-total correlation (0.47 to 0.56) were retained and further confirmed by significant and strong factor loadings (0.66 to 0.74). Also, other properties evaluated using both classical test theory and Rasch model were satisfactory on the seven-item scale. More specifically, reliability values such as internal consistency (α =.82) and test–retest reliability (ICC =.72) were acceptable. Concurrent validity was supported by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (with depression, r = 0.425 and anxiety, r = 0.511) and the Perceived Vulnerability to Disease Scale (with perceived infectability, r = 0.483 and germ aversion, r = 0.459).

    Conclusion: The Fear of COVID-19 Scale, a seven-item scale, has robust psychometric properties. It is reliable and valid in assessing fear of COVID-19 among the general population and will also be useful in allaying COVID-19 fears among individuals. 

  • 7.
    Ahorsu, Daniel Kwasi
    et al.
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Imani, Vida
    Pediatric Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
    Lin, Chung-Ying
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Department of Health, Medicine, and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Broström, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Updegraff, John A.
    Department of Psychological Sciences, Kent State University, Kent, OH, United States.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Griffiths, Mark D.
    Psychology Department, International Gaming Research Unit, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Nursing Science. Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Associations Between Fear of COVID-19, Mental Health, and Preventive Behaviours Across Pregnant Women and Husbands: An Actor-Partner Interdependence Modelling2022In: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, ISSN 1557-1874, E-ISSN 1557-1882, Vol. 20, p. 68-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present cross-sectional study examined the actor-partner interdependence effect of fear of COVID-19 among Iranian pregnant women and their husbands and its association with their mental health and preventive behaviours during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. A total of 290 pregnant women and their husbands (N = 580) were randomly selected from a list of pregnant women in the Iranian Integrated Health System and were invited to respond to psychometric scales assessing fear of COVID-19, depression, anxiety, suicidal intention, mental quality of life, and COVID-19 preventive behaviours. The findings demonstrated significant dyadic relationships between husbands and their pregnant wives' fear of COVID-19, mental health, and preventive behaviours. Pregnant wives’ actor effect of fear of COVID-19 was significantly associated with depression, suicidal intention, mental quality of life, and COVID-19 preventive behaviours but not anxiety. Moreover, a husband actor effect of fear of COVID-19 was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, suicidal intention, mental quality of life, and COVID-19 preventive behaviours. Additionally, there were significant partner effects observed for both the pregnant wives and their husbands concerning all outcomes. The present study used a cross-sectional design and so is unable to determine the mechanism or causal ordering of the effects. Also, the data are mainly based on self-reported measures which have some limitations due to its potential for social desirability and recall biases. Based on the findings, couples may benefit from psychoeducation that focuses on the effect of mental health problems on pregnant women and the foetus.

  • 8.
    Ahorsu, Daniel Kwasi
    et al.
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Imani, Vida
    Pediatric Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
    Potenza, Marc N.
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Chen, Hsin-Pao
    Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, E-DA Hospital, I-Shou University, School of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; College of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
    Lin, Chung-Ying
    Institute of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Mediating Roles of Psychological Distress, Insomnia, and Body Image Concerns in the Association Between Exercise Addiction and Eating Disorders2023In: Psychology Research and Behavior Management, E-ISSN 1179-1578, Vol. 16, p. 2533-2542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Exercising can promote good health. However, excessive exercising may have downsides. This study examined the association between exercise addiction and eating disorders and whether the identified association was mediated by psychological distress, insomnia (including sleep quality), and body image concern.

    Methods: A total of 2088 adolescents (mean age of 15.3 years) participated in this cross-sectional study by questions assessing exercise addiction, eating disorders, psychological distress, insomnia, sleep quality, and body image concern.

    Results: There were significantly positive relationships between the variables (r=0.12-0.54, p<0.01) with effect sizes from small to large. The four potential mediators (ie, insomnia, sleep quality, psychological distress, and body image concern), individually and in total, significantly mediated the association between exercise addiction and eating disorders.

    Conclusion: The findings suggest that exercise addiction in adolescents may influence eating disorders through multiple pathways, such as insomnia, psychological distress, and body image concerns. Future research should examine these relationships longitudinally and use gathered information to inform intervention development. Clinicians and healthcare workers are encouraged to assess exercise addiction when treating individuals with eating disorders.

  • 9.
    Ahorsu, Daniel Kwasi
    et al.
    Hong Kong Polytech Univ, Dept Rehabil Sci, Hung Hom, Hong Kong 999077, Peoples R China..
    Lin, Chung-Ying
    Natl Cheng Kung Univ, Coll Med, Inst Allied Hlth Sci, Tainan 701, Taiwan..
    Alimoradi, Zainab
    Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Res Inst Prevent Noncommunicable Dis, Social Determinants Hlth Res Ctr, Qazvin 3419759811, Iran..
    Griffiths, Mark D.
    Nottingham Trent Univ, Psychol Dept, Nottingham NG1 4FQ, England..
    Chen, Hsin-Pao
    E DA Hosp, Dept Surg, Div Colon & Rectal Surg, Kaohsiung 824, Taiwan.;I Shou Univ, Coll Med, Sch Med, Kaohsiung 824, Taiwan..
    Broström, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT. Jonkoping Univ, Sch Hlth & Welf, Dept Nursing, S-55333 Jonkoping, Sweden..
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Hlth Med & Caring Sci, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Res Inst Prevent Noncommunicable Dis, Social Determinants Hlth Res Ctr, Qazvin 3419759811, Iran.;Jonkoping Univ, Sch Hlth & Welf, Dept Nursing, S-55333 Jonkoping, Sweden..
    Cyberchondria, Fear of COVID-19, and Risk Perception Mediate the Association between Problematic Social Media Use and Intention to Get a COVID-19 Vaccine2022In: Vaccines, E-ISSN 2076-393X, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vaccination is the most effective way to control the COVID-19 pandemic, but vaccination hesitancy threatens this effort worldwide. Consequently, there is a need to understand what influences individuals' intention to get a COVID-19 vaccine. Restriction of information gathering on societal developments to social media may influence attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination through exposure to disinformation and imbalanced arguments. The present study examined the association between problematic social media use and intention to get the COVID-19 vaccine, taking into account the mediating roles of cyberchondria, fear of COVID-19, and COVID-19 risk perception. In a cross-sectional survey study, a total of 10,843 residents of Qazvin City, Iran completed measures on problematic social media use, fear of COVID-19, cyberchondria, COVID-19 risk perception, and intention to get a COVID-19 vaccine. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results showed that there was no direct association between problematic social media use and intention to get a COVID-19 vaccine. Nonetheless, cyberchondria, fear of COVID-19, and COVID-19 risk perception (each or serially) mediated associations between problematic social media use and intention to get a COVID-19 vaccine. These results add to the understanding of the role of problematic social media use in COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, i.e., it is not the quantity of social media use per se that matters. This knowledge of the mediating roles of cyberchondria, fear of COVID-19, and COVID-19 risk perception can be used by public health experts and policymakers when planning educational interventions and other initiatives in COVID-19 vaccination programs.

  • 10.
    Ahorsu, Daniel Kwasi
    et al.
    Hong Kong Polytech Univ, Kowloon, Fac Hlth & Social Sci, Dept Rehabil Sci, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Lin, Chung-Ying
    Natl Cheng Kung Univ, Coll Med, Inst Allied Hlth Sci, Tainan, Taiwan..
    Marznaki, Zohreh Hosseini
    Mazandaran Univ Med Sci, Amol Fac Nursing & Midwifery, Dept Nursing, Sari, Iran..
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Nursing Science. Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Res Inst Prevent Noncommunicable Dis, Social Determinants Hlth Res Ctr, Qazvin, Iran.;Jonkoping Univ, Sch Hlth & Welf, Dept Nursing, Jonkoping, Sweden..
    The association between fear of COVID-19 and mental health: The mediating roles of burnout and job stress among emergency nursing staff2022In: Nursing Open, E-ISSN 2054-1058, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 1147-1154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This current study examined the mediation roles of burnout and job stress in the association between fear of COVID-19 and mental health among emergency nurses.

    Design: Cross-sectional survey. Design: Cross-sectional survey.

    Methods: A total of 516 emergency nurses with a mean age of 41.18 (SD = 8.24), mostly females (76.16%) and married (78.9%) responded to measures on fear of COVID-19, burnout, job stress and mental health between 15 September and 7 November 2020.

    Results: There was a significantly direct effect between (a) fear of COVID-19 and mental health, (b) fear of COVID-19 and mediators (burnout and job stress) and (c) mediators (burnout and job stress) and mental health. Also, there was a significantly indirect effect between fear of COVID-19 and mental health through job stress, burnout or both.

    Conclusions: Fear of COVID-19 directly and indirectly influenced the mental health of emergency nurses. Therefore, hospital authorities should provide sufficient resources to allay the fears of nurses during this COVID-19 pandemic period.

  • 11.
    Ahorsu, Daniel Kwasi
    et al.
    Hong Kong Polytech Univ, Hung Hom, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Lin, Chung-Ying
    Hong Kong Polytech Univ, Hung Hom, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.;Natl Cheng Kung Univ, Tainan, Taiwan..
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Qazvin, Iran.;Jonkoping Univ, Jonkoping, Sweden..
    The Association Between Health Status and Insomnia, Mental Health, and Preventive Behaviors: The Mediating Role of Fear of COVID-192020In: Gerontology and geriatric medicine, E-ISSN 2333-7214, Vol. 6, article id 2333721420966081Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study examined the mediation role of fear of COVID-19 in the association between perceived health status of older adults and their insomnia, mental health, and COVID-19 preventive behaviors so as to have better understanding of the factors associated with COVID-19 and its preventive measures. Methods: A total of 413 older adults with a mean age of 57.72 (SD = 7.31) were recruited for this study. They responded to the measures on fear of COVID-19, insomnia, mental health, and COVID-19 preventive behaviors. Results: There were small-large significant interrelationships between insomnia, mental health, fear of COVID-19, and preventive behaviors. Fear of COVID-19 significantly mediated the associations between perceived health status and insomnia, mental health, and COVID-19 preventive behaviors. It was also observed that perceived health status directly influenced insomnia and mental health of older adults but not their COVID-19 preventive behaviors. Conclusion: Fear of COVID-19 has an important role to play in the management of the health and preventive behaviors of older adults. Health experts and communicators may capitalize on these findings to educate people on COVID-19. Future studies are needed to perfectly ascertain the extent of fear needed to stimulate or initiate better preventive behaviors and healthcare practices.

  • 12.
    Ahorsu, Daniel Kwasi
    et al.
    Hong Kong Polytech Univ, Fac Hlth & Social Sci, Dept Rehabil Sci, Hung Hom, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Lin, Chung-Ying
    Natl Cheng Kung Univ, Coll Med, Inst Allied Hlth Sci, Tainan, Taiwan..
    Yahaghai, Rafat
    Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Social Determinants Hlth Res Ctr, Res Inst Prevent Noncommunicable Dis, Qazvin, Iran.
    Alimoradi, Zainab
    Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Social Determinants Hlth Res Ctr, Res Inst Prevent Noncommunicable Dis, Qazvin, Iran.
    Broström, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Griffiths, Mark D.
    Nottingham Trent Univ, Psychol Dept, Nottingham, England.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Nursing Science. Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Social Determinants Hlth Res Ctr, Res Inst Prevent Noncommunicable Dis, Qazvin, Iran.
    The mediational role of trust in the healthcare system in the association between generalized trust and willingness to get COVID-19 vaccination in Iran2022In: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, ISSN 2164-5515, E-ISSN 2164-554X, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For some individuals, there appears to be some level of unwillingness in getting a COVID-19 vaccine which may be due to trust issues. The present study used a mediation model to investigate how trust is associated with an individual's willingness to get COVID-19 vaccination among Iranians. A total of 10,843 Iranian adults were recruited in Qazvin province using a multistage stratified cluster sampling method. The survey was completed between February 19 and April 9, 2021. The findings showed that generalized trust was positively associated with trust in the healthcare system, trust in the healthcare system was positively associated with willingness to get COVID-19 vaccination, and generalized trust was positively associated with willingness to get COVID-19 vaccination. Also, trust in the healthcare system mediated the association between generalized trust and willingness to get COVID-19 vaccination. There were some significant demographic differences in COVID-19 vaccination willingness. The findings suggest that generalized trust plays a significant role in directly or indirectly influencing individuals' willingness to get COVID-19 vaccine. Therefore, government bodies and health officials may utilize these findings to appeal in a more transparent and professional manner in encouraging individuals to get a COVID-19 vaccine. However, for those with lower trust levels (in general and in the healthcare system), the focus may be to re-build and/or regain the individuals' trust through carefully planned transparent communication, information dissemination, and ethical education to help increase the uptake of COVID-19 vaccination.

  • 13.
    Akbari, Mehdi
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Education, Kharazmi University, No. 43. South Mofatteh Ave, Tehran, Iran.
    Zamani, Elahe
    Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Education, Kharazmi University, No. 43. South Mofatteh Ave, Tehran, Iran.
    Seydavi, Mohammad
    Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Education, Kharazmi University, No. 43. South Mofatteh Ave, Tehran, Iran.
    Griffiths, Mark D.
    International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Nursing Science.
    The Persian Exercise Addiction Inventory—Adult and Youth Versions: Psychometric Properties Based on Rasch Analysis Among Iranians2023In: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, ISSN 1557-1874, E-ISSN 1557-1882, Vol. 21, p. 3376-3392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exercise addiction is a morbid-compulsive behavioral pattern characterized by a loss of control over exercise and which results in major detrimental consequences in the affected individual’s life. Although the condition is not formally recognized in official psychiatric texts, exercise addiction can lead to clinical impairment of everyday activities just like other more traditional addictions. This has led to the development of many instruments to assess exercise addiction. One of the most widely used instruments is the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI) which has been translated into a number of languages and has separate versions of the scale for adults and adolescents (i.e., the EAI-Y for youth). However, there are currently no Persian versions. Therefore, the present study translated the EAI into Persian and assessed its psychometric properties using Rasch analysis among both Iranian adults (n = 745, age range = 19–30 years, 60.53% female) and Iranian adolescents (n = 562, age range = 13–18 years, 62.45% female). An online survey was used to collect data from September to November 2021. Confirmatory factor analyses and the Rasch analyses confirmed the unidimensional structure of the EAIs and good reliability using the Omega coefficient (.71 to.72). Also, separation reliability on item, scale, and person-level was established, along with supported measurement invariance, demonstrating that EAI can discriminate individuals on a high or low level of exercise addiction independent of their age and gender. Overall, the Persian EAI demonstrated sound psychometrics in screening for exercise addiction among Iranian adults and adolescents. 

  • 14.
    Alijanzadeh, M.
    et al.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, 3419759811, Iran.
    Ahorsu, D. K.
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health & Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 11 Yuk Choi Rd Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Alimoradi, Z.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, 3419759811, Iran.
    Mahmoudi, N.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, 3419759811, Iran.
    Griffiths, M. D.
    Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, NG3 5DS, United Kingdom.
    Lin, C. -Y
    Institute of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 701401, Taiwan.
    Liu, H. -K
    Department of Pediatrics, E-DA Hospital, Kaohsiung, 82445, Taiwan.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Fear of covid-19 and trust in the healthcare system mediates the association between individual’s risk perception and preventive covid-19 behaviours among iranians2021In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 18, no 22, article id 12146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problems caused by the novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and its mutations have brought challenges in pandemic control for all countries worldwide. The present study examines the mediating roles of fear of COVID-19 and trust in the healthcare system in the association between individual’s risk perception and performing preventive COVID-19 behaviours among Iranians. A cross-sectional study design was used to collect data from 3652 residents of Qazvin province in Iran from 3 February to 15 April 2021 using a multistage stratified cluster sampling method. Participants responded to an online questionnaire concerning their fear of COVID-19, risk perception, trust in the healthcare system, and preventive COVID-19 behaviours. Small to medium positive interrelationships were observed between the variables of the study. Fear of COVID-19, trust in the healthcare system or both (fear of COVID-19 and trust in the healthcare system) mediated the association between an individual’s risk perception and performing preventive COVID-19 behaviours. The study demonstrated there are at least four ways through which an individual’s risk perception can influence preventive COVID-19 behaviours. Therefore, clinicians, health communicators, and researchers may capitalize on these findings to enhance preventive COVID-19 behaviours to help mitigate the spread of COVID-19 infection.

  • 15.
    Alijanzadeh, Mehran
    et al.
    Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Social Determinants Hlth Res Ctr, Res Inst Prevent Noncommunicable Dis, Qazvin 3419759811, Iran..
    Lin, Chung-Ying
    Natl Cheng Kung Univ, Coll Med, Inst Allied Hlth Sci, Tainan 70101, Taiwan.;Natl Cheng Kung Univ, Natl Cheng Kung Univ Hosp, Coll Med, Biostat Consulting Ctr, Tainan 70101, Taiwan..
    Yahaghi, Rafat
    Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Social Determinants Hlth Res Ctr, Res Inst Prevent Noncommunicable Dis, Qazvin 3419759811, Iran..
    Rahmani, Jalal
    Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Social Determinants Hlth Res Ctr, Res Inst Prevent Noncommunicable Dis, Qazvin 3419759811, Iran..
    Yazdi, Nahid
    Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Social Determinants Hlth Res Ctr, Res Inst Prevent Noncommunicable Dis, Qazvin 3419759811, Iran..
    Jafari, Elahe
    Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Social Determinants Hlth Res Ctr, Res Inst Prevent Noncommunicable Dis, Qazvin 3419759811, Iran..
    Alijani, Hashem
    Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Social Determinants Hlth Res Ctr, Res Inst Prevent Noncommunicable Dis, Qazvin 3419759811, Iran..
    Zamani, Narges
    Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Social Determinants Hlth Res Ctr, Res Inst Prevent Noncommunicable Dis, Qazvin 3419759811, Iran..
    Fotuhi, Razie
    Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Social Determinants Hlth Res Ctr, Res Inst Prevent Noncommunicable Dis, Qazvin 3419759811, Iran..
    Taherkhani, Elham
    Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Social Determinants Hlth Res Ctr, Res Inst Prevent Noncommunicable Dis, Qazvin 3419759811, Iran..
    Buchali, Zeinab
    Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Social Determinants Hlth Res Ctr, Res Inst Prevent Noncommunicable Dis, Qazvin 3419759811, Iran..
    Jafari, Robabe
    Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Social Determinants Hlth Res Ctr, Res Inst Prevent Noncommunicable Dis, Qazvin 3419759811, Iran..
    Mahmoudi, Narges
    Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Social Determinants Hlth Res Ctr, Res Inst Prevent Noncommunicable Dis, Qazvin 3419759811, Iran..
    Poorzolfaghar, Leila
    Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Social Determinants Hlth Res Ctr, Res Inst Prevent Noncommunicable Dis, Qazvin 3419759811, Iran..
    Ahmadizade, Safie
    Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Social Determinants Hlth Res Ctr, Res Inst Prevent Noncommunicable Dis, Qazvin 3419759811, Iran..
    Shahbazkhania, Azam
    Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Social Determinants Hlth Res Ctr, Res Inst Prevent Noncommunicable Dis, Qazvin 3419759811, Iran..
    Alimoradi, Zainab
    Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Social Determinants Hlth Res Ctr, Res Inst Prevent Noncommunicable Dis, Qazvin 3419759811, Iran..
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Social Determinants Hlth Res Ctr, Res Inst Prevent Noncommunicable Dis, Qazvin 3419759811, Iran..
    Measurement Invariance and Differential Item Functioning of the Health Literacy Instrument for Adults (HELIA): A Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Study in Iran2022In: Healthcare, E-ISSN 2227-9032, Vol. 10, no 10, article id 2064Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health literacy is important for health behavior engagement. Therefore, it is important to have a good instrument assessing health literacy with a theoretical framework. The present study aimed to examine the measurement invariance and differential item functioning (DIF) of a newly developed health literacy instrument; that is, the Health Literacy Instrument for Adults (HELIA). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch models were used to examine the data collected from a large Iranian sample (N = 9678; 67.3% females; mean age = 36.44 years). All the participants completed the HELIA. CFA was used to examine if the HELIA had a five-factor structure (including reading, access to information, understanding, appraisal, and decision making/behavioral intention factors) and multigroup CFA to examine if the five-factor structure of HELIA was invariant across gender, educational level, accommodation, and age subgroups. Rasch models were used to examine whether each factor of HELIA was unidimensional and DIF contrast in Rasch to examine if the HELIA items were interpreted similarly across the aforementioned subgroups. The CFA results supported the five-factor structure of HELIA, and the Rasch models verified that each HELIA factor is unidimensional. Additionally, multigroup CFA supported the measurement invariance of HELIA across the following subgroups: male vs. female; highly educated vs. poorly educated; city residents vs. suburban residents; and younger age vs. older age. The DIF contrasts in the Rasch models additionally showed that there are no substantial DIF items in the HELIA across aforementioned subgroups. Therefore, the HELIA is a feasible and comprehensive instrument assessing health literacy across different populations in Iran.

  • 16.
    Alijanzadeh, Mehran
    et al.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Yahaghi, Rafat
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Rahmani, Jalal
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Yazdi, Nahid
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Jafari, Elahe
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Alijani, Hashem
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Zamani, Narges
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Fotuhi, Razie
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Taherkhani, Elham
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Buchali, Zeinab
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Zarenejad, Masoume
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Mahmoudi, Narges
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Shahmahdi, Najmeh
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Poorzolfaghar, Leila
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Ahmadizade, Safie
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Shahbazkhania, Azam
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Gozal, David
    Department of Child Health, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO, United States.
    Lin, Chung-Ying
    Institute of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; Biostatistics Consulting Center, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; Department of Public Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Sleep hygiene behaviours mediate the association between health/e-health literacy and mental wellbeing2023In: Health Expectations, ISSN 1369-6513, E-ISSN 1369-7625, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 2349-2360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Health literacy and e-health literacy are important factors helping people shape awareness of health behaviours in different aspects, including sleep hygiene behaviours. Good sleep hygiene behaviours promote sleep quality and are beneficial to overall mental wellbeing.

    Objective

    We aimed to examine if sleep hygiene behaviours may mediate the association between health literacy/e-health literacy and mental wellbeing.

    Methods

    Adult Iranian subjects (n = 9775; mean [SD] age = 36.44 [11.97] years; 67.3% females) completed the Health Literacy Instrument for Adults, eHealth Literacy Scale, three items on sleep hygiene behaviour that have been used in prior research and the Short Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale. Data were then subjected to structural equation modelling (SEM) including 500 bootstrapping resampling to examine whether sleep hygiene is a mediator in the relationship between health literacy/e-health literacy and mental wellbeing.

    Findings

    Both health literacy and e-health literacy were significantly associated with mental wellbeing (r = .63 for health literacy and .39 for e-health literacy; p < .001) and sleep hygiene behaviours (r = .58 for health literacy and .36 for e-health literacy; p < .001). Sleep hygiene behaviours were significantly associated with mental wellbeing (r = .42; p < .001). Moreover, SEM that incorporated bootstrapping approaches indicated that sleep hygiene behaviours were significant mediators in the association between health literacy/e-health literacy and mental wellbeing.

    Conclusions

    We conclude that health literacy and e-health literacy are associated with mental health wellbeing in the Iranian population. Additionally, the association could be mediated via sleep hygiene behaviours.

    Patient or Public Contribution

    The study was co-designed with healthcare providers from the vice-Chancellor's Office for Health Affairs of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences as equal partners. Moreover, the women's health volunteers were involved in the design of the study.

  • 17.
    Alimoradi, Z.
    et al.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Bahrami, N.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Khodaparast, S.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Griffiths, M. D.
    Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Mediating role of psychological distress and domestic violence in the association of fear of COVID-19 with marital satisfaction and sexual quality of life among women of reproductive age: An Iranian cross-sectional study2023In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 13, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the mediating role of psychological distress and domestic violence in the association of fear of COVID-19 with marital satisfaction and sexual quality of life (QoL) among Iranian women of reproductive age. METHODS: A cross-sectional study comprising 324 married women was conducted. Online convenience sampling was used to collect data. SPSS PROCESS macro was used for the mediation analysis. The direct and indirect effects of the fear of COVID-19 on sexual QoL and marital satisfaction were estimated comprising a 95% CI using 5000 bootstrap samples. Pairwise comparisons between the mediators were calculated by Hayes' macros. RESULTS: A positive/negative or suspected history of COVID-19 infection had marginally significant relationship with marital satisfaction (p=0.049). The total effect of fear of COVID-19 on sexual QoL was significant (b=-1.31, SE=0.20, p<0.001). Fear of COVID-19 had no significant direct effect on sexual QoL (b=-0.22, SE=0.19, p=0.24) but it had an indirect effect on sexual QoL via mediation of psychological distress (b=-0.34, SE=0.09, 95% CI: -0.53 to -0.19) and domestic violence (b=-0.75, SE=0.18, 95% CI: -1.12 to -0.40). The total effect of fear of COVID-19 on marital satisfaction was significant (b=-1.91, SE=0.32, p<0.001). Fear of COVID-19 had no significant direct effect (b=0.20, SE=0.25, p=0.42) on marital satisfaction but it had an indirect effect on marital satisfaction via mediation of psychological distress (b=-0.59, SE=0.13, 95% CI: -0.86 to -0.36) and domestic violence (b=-1.51, SE=0.29, 95% CI: -2.08 to -0.92). CONCLUSION: The fear of COVID-19 during the pandemic indirectly decreased women's marital satisfaction and sexual QoL via increased psychological distress and domestic violence. Consequently, in critical situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic, improving couples' psychological health and reducing domestic violence are likely to improve women's sexual QoL and marital satisfaction.

  • 18.
    Alimoradi, Z.
    et al.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Broström, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Ohayon, M. M.
    Stanford Sleep Epidemiology Research Center (SSERC), School of Medicine, Stanford University, CA, United States.
    Lin, C. -Y
    Institute of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
    Griffiths, M. D.
    International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Jernelöv, S.
    Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, & Stockholm Health Care Services, Huddinge Hospital, Region Stockholm, M58, Stockholm, SE-141 86, Sweden.
    Kaldo, V.
    Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, & Stockholm Health Care Services, Huddinge Hospital, Region Stockholm, M58, Stockholm, SE-141 86, Sweden.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Reply to Liu et al.: “Effects of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) on quality of life: A systematic review and meta-analysis”2022In: Sleep Medicine Reviews, ISSN 1087-0792, E-ISSN 1532-2955, Vol. 66, article id 101699Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Alimoradi, Z.
    et al.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Q Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Ghorbani, S.
    Students’ Research Committee, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Bahrami, N.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Q Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Griffiths, M. D.
    International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Nursing Science.
    Socio-demographic predictors of dyadic sexual communication among Iranian married women2022In: Sexologies: revue europeenne de sante sexuelle - european journal of sexual health, ISSN 1158-1360, E-ISSN 1878-1829, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 311-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aim: Couples’ communication concerning sexual issues is influenced by various individual and social factors. The present study investigated the socio-demographic predictors of dyadic sexual communication among married women of reproductive age.

    Methods: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted from May to October 2019 in comprehensive health centers of Qazvin City, Iran. The participants comprised 400 married women with mean age of 35.66 years recruited via a two-stage sampling method. The Dyadic Sexual Communication Scale (DSCS) and a socio-demographic questionnaire were used for data collection. Univariable and multivariable linear regression models with a significance level of 0.05 were used for statistical analysis.

    Results: The mean score of sexual communication was 59.19 out of 78 (SD = 12.63). Based on multivariable linear regression model, life satisfaction (β = 0.34 high vs. moderate), frequency of sexual intercourse (β = 0.20), moderate vs. poor economic status (β = 0.12), and using contraception (β = −0.09) were predictors of good dyadic sexual communication. These variables explained 32% of the variance concerning dyadic sexual communication among married women of reproductive age.

    Conclusion: Life satisfaction, frequency of sexual intercourse, moderate economic status, and using contraception were predictors of good dyadic sexual communication.

  • 20.
    Alimoradi, Z.
    et al.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Golboni, F.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Griffiths, M. D.
    International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University, United Kingdom.
    Broström, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Lin, C. -Y
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Weight-related stigma and psychological distress: A systematic review and meta-analysis2020In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 2001-2013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background & aims:

    Individuals who are overweight or who have obesity are likely to perceive or experience unfriendly treatment (i.e., weight-related perceived stigma) from different sources such as work colleagues because of the stigma towards excess weight. People who are overweight may accept such stigma and devalue themselves (i.e., weight-related self-stigma).

    Methods:

    A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between weight stigma (including weight-related self-stigma and weight-related perceived stigma) and psychological distress (including depression and anxiety) using random-effects meta-analyses. Utilizing five academic databases (PubMed, Scopus, WOS, Embase and ProQuest) and keywords related to weight stigma and psychological distress, empirical studies focusing on the association between weight stigma and psychological distress were selected. The timeline for the searched papers was from the inception of each database to the end of August 2019.

    Results:

    Eligible studies (N = 30; 25 on weight-related self-stigma and eight on weight-related perceived stigma) were analyzed with a total of 9345 participants experiencing weight-related self-stigma, and 15,496 experiencing weight-related perceived stigma. The pooled associations were moderate between weight-related self-stigma and psychological distress (corrected Fisher's Z = 0.40 for depression; 0.36 for anxiety) and between perceived stigma and depression (Fisher's Z = 0.44).

    Conclusions:

    Results of the meta-analysis demonstrated that weight stigma is associated with psychological distress. The comprehensive search of the literature and rigorous methodology employed are the two major strengths in the present study. Because self-stigma and perceived stigma are different concepts, their associations with psychological distress should not be merged together. 

  • 21.
    Alimoradi, Z.
    et al.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Griffiths, M. D.
    International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Application of online cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia among individuals with epilepsy2023In: Handbook of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy by Disorder: Case Studies and Application for Adults / [ed] C. R. Martin,V. B. Patel & V. R. Preedy, Elsevier , 2023, p. 409-415Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Approximately 50 million individuals worldwide suffer from epilepsy, which has various neurological, cognitive, psychological, and social consequences including insomnia. Several factors may explain insomnia among individuals with epilepsy including new diagnoses of epilepsy, changes at work, school, and social role changes. Moreover, anxiety, stress, and insecurity about seizure control can contribute to insomnia. Nonpharmacological methods including cognitive-behavioral therapy can be used to alleviate insomnia. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a type of psychotherapy that focuses on the effect of an individual’s beliefs, thoughts, and attitudes on their feelings and behaviors. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is one of the therapies in sleep science and uses the general principles of cognitive-behavioral therapy and is designed to eliminate the symptoms of insomnia. The internet is an emerging platform for mental health services worldwide. Internet-based CBT or CBT-I has been used for insomnia with promising results. If the content of CBT-I-based technology (which is disseminated via the internet, e-mail, or mobile phone) is of good quality and has credible evidence-based experiences, it will have positive therapeutic effects and initial patient acceptance. This chapter introduces the application of a six-session online CBT-I for three individuals with epilepsy. The content can also be used as a guide for treating insomnia among individuals with epilepsy.

  • 22.
    Alimoradi, Z.
    et al.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Griffiths, M. D.
    International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Epilepsy, sexual function, and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy2023In: Handbook of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy by Disorder: Case Studies and Application for Adults / [ed] C. R. Martin,V. B. Patel & V. R. Preedy, Elsevier , 2023, p. 135-146Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Epilepsy, like many common medical disorders, can cause sexual dysfunction. However, the prevalence and nature of sexual dysfunction among people with epilepsy, its causes, and optimal management strategies are unclear. Sexual dysfunction in epilepsy is caused by several factors including disease-related factors and drug treatment, psychiatric factors, and social factors. Due to the significant prevalence of sexual dysfunction among patients with epilepsy, the synergistic effect of sexual dysfunction, and mental disorders, design and implementation of psychological interventions including mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for sexual disorders among patients with epilepsy have been proposed. MBCT is an approach to psychotherapy that uses cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) techniques alongside mindfulness meditation techniques. MBCT protocol has been adapted to treat female sexual dysfunction of different groups including epilepsy showing promising effects. Consequently, issues concerning sexual activity should be raised by healthcare professionals as a routine part of the management of patients with epilepsy, and MBCT can be considered as a promising effective treatment strategy.

  • 23.
    Alimoradi, Z.
    et al.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Jafari, E.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Broström, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Ohayon, M. M.
    Stanford Sleep Epidemiology Research Center (SSERC), School of Medicine, Stanford University, CA, United States.
    Lin, C. -Y
    Institute of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
    Griffiths, M. D.
    International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Blom, K.
    Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, & Stockholm.
    Jernelöv, S.
    Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, & Stockholm.
    Kaldo, V.
    Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, & Stockholm.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Nursing Science.
    Effects of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) on quality of life: A systematic review and meta-analysis2022In: Sleep Medicine Reviews, ISSN 1087-0792, E-ISSN 1532-2955, Vol. 64, article id 101646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) have consistently been shown to improve insomnia symptoms and other health-related outcomes, but the effects on QoL have been inconsistent. Many factors including the type CBT-I delivery and type of instrument used to assess QoL make the topic complex. The present systematic review and meta-analysis synthesized the evidence of CBT-I efficacy on QoL outcomes across different populations, delivery modes, and methodological aspects. Following the guidelines on preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), a literature search was conducted through PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and PsycINFO using keywords from relevant MeSH terms based on PICOS (Participants, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome and Study) criteria. Clinical trials investigating the effect of CBT-I as an intervention on QoL with any kind of control group were eligible if they reported mean scores and variation of QoL. Meta-analysis using a random-effect model was conducted to calculate the standardized mean differences (SMDs) in a set including all identified studies, as well as in three sub-sets: face-to-face CBT-I using randomized controlled trials (RCTs), online CBT-I using RCTs, and one-group pre- and post-treatment design. A total of 24 studies comprising 1977 participants (808 in an intervention group) from 12 countries were eligible for meta-analysis. The overall pooled estimate of SMD of QoL when all 24 studies were included was 0.47 (95% CI: 0.22; 0.72; I2 = 84.5%; tau2 = 0.31; p &lt; 0.001). The overall pooled estimate of SMD of QoL was 0.46 (95% CI: 0.01–0.90; I2 = 87.5%; tau2 = 0.48, p &lt; 0.001) for intervention groups with face-to-face CBT-I compared to controls; 0.47 (95% CI: 0.02–0.92; I2 = 88.3%; tau2 = 0.36; p = 0.04) for intervention groups with digital CBT-I compared to controls, and 0.46 (95% CI: 0.12–0.80; I2 = 52.9%; tau2 = 0.07; p = 0.08) for one-group pre- and post-comparison using CBT-I intervention compared to baseline. Moreover, effects of CBT-I on QoL were different across populations (pooled SMD = 0.59 for patients with insomnia; 0.29 for patients with insomnia comorbid with another major disorder; and 0.48 for other conditions) and types of QoL instruments (pooled SMD = 0.36 for disease-specific QoL instrument not on insomnia, 0.43 for generic QoL instrument, and 0.67 for a single-QoL-item instrument). The probability of publication bias was ruled out in overall and design specific sub-group analysis based on funnel plot and Egger's test. In conclusion, this meta-analysis confirmed a moderate, overall effect of CBT-I in improving QoL. However, due to small power and heterogeneity, future studies are needed to better explore the impact of moderating factors such as mode of delivery and type of QoL measure for assessment used.

  • 24.
    Alimoradi, Z.
    et al.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Lin, C. -Y
    Institute of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Nursing Science.
    Coronavirus disease-19 vaccine inequity and gross domestic product2021In: Asian Journal of Social Health and Behavior, ISSN 2772-4204, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 129-130Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Alimoradi, Z.
    et al.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Lin, C. -Y
    Institute of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Nursing Science.
    Domestic violence during COVID-19 pandemic: An issue that needs comprehensive attention and intervention2022In: Asian Journal of Social Health and Behavior, ISSN 2772-4204, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Alimoradi, Z.
    et al.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, 3415613911, Iran.
    Lin, C. -Y
    Institute of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 701401, Taiwan.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Worldwide Estimation of Parental Acceptance of COVID-19 Vaccine for Their Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis2023In: Vaccines, E-ISSN 2076-393X, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, the best method to well control the spread of COVID-19 without severe mental health problems is to reach herd immunity. Therefore, the vaccination rate of the COVID-19 vaccine is critical. Among the populations, children are the vulnerable ones to get vaccinated; therefore, it is important to assess parents’ and guardians’ willingness to have their children vaccinated. The present systematic review and meta-analysis synthesized evidence to estimate the parents’ acceptance rate of COVID-19 vaccination toward their children. Additionally, factors explaining the acceptance rate were investigated. Four academic databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and ProQuest) together with Google Scholar were searched, and the references of the included publications were searched as well. Using the PECO-S framework (population, exposure, comparison, outcome, and study design), observational studies of cross-sectional, cohort, or case-control studies were included. The outcome was parents’ or guardians’ willingness to let their children be vaccinated. The studies included in the present review were restricted to English and peer-reviewed papers published between December 2019 and July 2022. A total of 98 papers across 69 different countries with 413,590 participants were included. The mean age of the parents was 39.10 (range: 18–70) years and that of their children was 8.45 (range: 0–18) years. The pooled estimated prevalence of parental acceptance to vaccinate their children with the COVID-19 vaccine was 57% (98 studies, 95% CI: 52–62%, I2: 99.92%, τ2: 0.06). Moreover, data collection time was a significant factor explaining parental willingness in the multivariable meta-regression, with a 13% decrease in parental willingness by each month increase in time, explaining 11.44% of variance. Qualitative synthesis results showed that parents’ COVID-19 vaccine knowledge, trust in theCOVID-19 vaccine, and facilitators in vaccination (e.g., low cost, good vaccine accessibility, and government incentive) were significant factors for higher willingness, while mental health problems (e.g., having worries and psychological distress) were significant factors for lower willingness. Given that the acceptance rate was relatively low (57%) and does not achieve the requirement of herd immunity (i.e., 70%), governments and healthcare authorities should try to elevate parents’ knowledge and trust in the COVID-19 vaccine, facilitate in vaccination, and reduce their mental difficulties to improve the overall vaccination rate among children.

  • 27.
    Alimoradi, Z.
    et al.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, 3419759811, Iran.
    Majd, N. R.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, 3419759811, Iran.
    Broström, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Tsang, H. W. H.
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Singh, P.
    P. G. Department of Agriculture, Khalsa College Amritsar, Punjab, India.
    Ohayon, M. M.
    Stanford Sleep Epidemiology Research Center (SSERC), School of Medicine, Stanford University, CA, United State.
    Lin, C. -Y
    Institute of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Nursing Science.
    Is alexithymia associated with sleep problems?: A systematic review and meta-analysis2022In: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, ISSN 0149-7634, E-ISSN 1873-7528, Vol. 133, article id 104513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alexithymia, a difficulty identifying and expressing emotions experienced by oneself or others, measurably harms quality of sleep. Research has observed the association between alexithymia and sleep problems; however, the cumulative effect of this association is still unknown. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to present scientific evidence regarding the relationship between alexithymia and sleep quality. Adhering to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline, and using relevant keywords, we searched six databases: Scopus, PubMed Central, ProQuest, ISI Web of Knowledge, EMBASE, and Science Direct. We selected observational studies on the association between alexithymia and sleep. We conducted meta-analysis using a random-effect model to calculate the effect size (ES) with Fisher's z transformation. Eligible studies (N = 26) in 24 papers included 7546 participants from 12 countries. The entire ES for the association between alexithymia and sleep was 0.44 (95 % CI: 0.31, 0.56). Additionally, patient populations had a larger ES (ES = 0.55; 95 % CI: 0.30, 0.79) than healthy populations (ES = 0.30; 95 % CI: 0.20, 0.41). The results of the present systematic review and meta-analysis revealed a significant association between alexithymia and sleep problems, especially among people with any medical condition.

  • 28.
    Alimoradi, Z.
    et al.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Majd, N. R.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    RezaeiNiaraki, M.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Bajalan, Z.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Griffiths, M. D.
    International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Prevalence of household food insecurity and its predictive role on the health of mothers with children aged under 60 months2022In: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, E-ISSN 2405-4577, Vol. 51, p. 246-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Food insecurity can have poor physical and mental health consequences for all family members. The present study investigated the prevalence of household food insecurity and its predictive role on the health of mothers of children aged under 60 months in Qazvin (Iran). Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out between January 2019 and December 2020. Participants included all mothers with children aged under 60 months who referred themselves to comprehensive health centers in Qazvin (N = 1750; mean age 30.61 years). Convenience sampling was performed. Data were collected using a demographic information checklist, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). Data analysis was performed using independent t-tests, one-way analyses of variance, uni-variable and multivariable linear regression with a significance level of p < 0.05. Results: Two-thirds of the participants had a secure food status (68.4%). Household food security status showed a significant, and inverse relationship with general health subscales. General health subscales of depression (standardized mean difference or SMD: −1.24 [95% CI: −1.36; −1.13]), somatic symptoms (SMD: −0.92 [95% CI: −1.03; −0.81]) and anxiety and insomnia (SMD: −0.72 [95% CI: −0.83; −0.61]) were significantly lower among food secure participants vs. food insecure participants. Social dysfunction was not significantly associated with household food security. The regression models demonstrated that household food security was a significant predictor for the health of mothers with children aged under 60 months: uni-variable (β = −0.38) and multivariable (β = −0.41). Conclusion: Household food security is associated with various aspects of mothers’ health. Since the growth and development of a healthy child depends on having a healthy mother, the food security situation of the family and the general health of mother can be assessed as part of providing health service regarding monitoring growth and development of children. This will help in targeting appropriate interventions if needed.

  • 29.
    Alimoradi, Z.
    et al.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center,Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, 34197-59811, Iran.
    Rajabalipour, S.
    Student Research Committee, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Rahmani, K.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Nursing Science.
    The effect of a social network-based cognitive behavioral therapy intervention on the severity of premenstrual syndrome symptoms: a protocol of a randomized clinical trial study2022In: Trials, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is one of the most widespread menstrual disorders in women of reproductive age. This recurrent syndrome is a combination of physically, mentally, or behaviorally disturbing changes occurring during the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of a cognitive-behavioral therapy-based educational intervention using social networks on PMS in female health center employees in Rudbar, Iran. Methods/design: A randomized superiority controlled trial will be conducted involving 140 female employees of health centers affiliated with the Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rudbar. The study involves a block size of 4 and 6 in a randomly varied order, 140 women who meet all the inclusion criteria will be randomly and equally divided into 2 groups: the intervention and the control groups. Those in the former group will receive a cognitive-behavioral therapy-based treatment for eight consecutive weeks on the social network platform WhatsApp; however, those in the control group will not be offered any treatment except usual care practices (unprotocolized usual care). The study’s primary outcome is the severity of PMS symptoms, and the secondary outcomes include general self-efficacy, work-related quality of life, the impact of PMS on daily life, coping with the symptoms, and experiencing anxiety and depression at the beginning of the study to identify people with PMS. A daily record of the symptoms will be completed for two consecutive months by all female employees aged 20–45 years who wish to participate in the study. According to the initial screening, those with moderate to severe PMS will be included. We will use the MLwin software for the analyses. All questionnaires will be completed by both groups immediately and 8 weeks after the termination of the treatment. The data will be analyzed using linear mixed-effects modeling with random intercepts and slopes. Discussion: It is anticipated that the findings of the present study may demonstrate the effectiveness of the cognitive behavioral therapy intervention on the severity of PMS symptoms that could guide healthcare providers in opting for suitable treatment alternatives for the syndrome. Ethics and dissemination: The research proposal is approved by the Human Ethics Committee of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences (IR.QUMS.REC.1399.252). The results of this intervention trial will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed research journal. Trial registration: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials IRCT20180218038789N4. Registered prospectively on October 28, 2020

  • 30.
    Alimoradi, Zainab
    et al.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Abdi, Fatemeh
    School of Nursing and Midwifery, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran.
    Gozal, David
    Department of Child Health and Child Health Research Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Nursing Science.
    Estimation of sleep problems among pregnant women during COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review and meta-analysis2022In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 12, no 4, article id e056044Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the sleep problems among pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic.

    ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: English, peer-reviewed, observational studies published between December 2019 and July 2021 which assessed and reported sleep problem prevalence using a valid and reliable measure were included.

    INFORMATION SOURCES: Scopus, Medline/PubMed Central, ProQuest, ISI Web of Knowledge and Embase.

    RISK OF BIAS ASSESSMENT TOOL: The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale checklist.

    SYNTHESIS OF RESULTS: Prevalence of sleep problems was synthesised using STATA software V.14 using a random effects model. To assess moderator analysis, meta-regression was carried out. Funnel plot and Egger's test were used to assess publication bias. Meta-trim was used to correct probable publication bias. The jackknife method was used for sensitivity analysis.

    INCLUDED STUDIES: A total of seven cross-sectional studies with 2808 participants from four countries were included.

    SYNTHESIS OF RESULTS: The pooled estimated prevalence of sleep problems was 56% (95% CI 23% to 88%, I2=99.81%, Tau2=0.19). Due to the probability of publication bias, the fill-and-trim method was used to correct the estimated pooled measure, which imputed four studies. The corrected results based on this method showed that pooled prevalence of sleep problems was 13% (95% CI 0% to 45%; p<0.001). Based on meta-regression, age was the only significant predictor of prevalence of sleep problems among pregnant women.

    LIMITATIONS OF EVIDENCE: All studies were cross-sectional absence of assessment of sleep problems prior to COVID-19, and the outcomes of the pregnancies among those with and without sleep problems in a consistent manner are among the limitation of the current review.

    INTERPRETATION: Pregnant women have experienced significant declines in sleep quality when faced with the COVID-19 pandemic. The short-term and long-term implications of such alterations in sleep on gestational and offspring outcomes are unclear and warrant further studies.

    PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020181644.

  • 31.
    Alimoradi, Zainab
    et al.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Broström, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT. Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Linköping University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Tsang, Hector W. H.
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Griffiths, Mark D.
    International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK.
    Haghayegh, Shahab
    Department of Biostatistics, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Ohayon, Maurice M.
    Stanford Sleep Epidemiology Research Center (SSERC), School of Medicine, Stanford University, CA, USA.
    Lin, Chung-Ying
    Institute of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Nursing Science. Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Sleep problems during COVID-19 pandemic and its’ association to psychological distress: A systematic review and meta-analysis2021In: eClinicalMedicine, E-ISSN 2589-5370, Vol. 36, article id 100916Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The emerging novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become one of the leading cause of deaths worldwide in 2020. The present systematic review and meta-analysis estimated the magnitude of sleep problems during the COVID-19 pandemic and its relationship with psychological distress.

    Methods: Five academic databases (Scopus, PubMed Central, ProQuest, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Embase) were searched. Observational studies including case-control studies and cross-sectional studies were included if relevant data relationships were reported (i.e., sleep assessed utilizing the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index or Insomnia Severity Index). All the studies were English, peer-reviewed papers published between December 2019 and February 2021. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020181644.

    Findings: 168 cross-sectional, four case-control, and five longitudinal design papers comprising 345,270 participants from 39 countries were identified. The corrected pooled estimated prevalence of sleep problems were 31% among healthcare professionals, 18% among the general population, and 57% among COVID-19 patients (all p-values < 0.05). Sleep problems were associated with depression among healthcare professionals, the general population, and COVID-19 patients, with Fisher's Z scores of -0.28, -0.30, and -0.36, respectively. Sleep problems were positively (and moderately) associated with anxiety among healthcare professionals, the general population, and COVID-19 patients, with Fisher's z scores of 0.55, 0.48, and 0.49, respectively.

    Interpretation: Sleep problems appear to have been common during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, sleep problems were found to be associated with higher levels of psychological distress. With the use of effective programs treating sleep problems, psychological distress may be reduced. Vice versa, the use of effective programs treating psychological distress, sleep problems may be reduced.

  • 32.
    Alimoradi, Zainab
    et al.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Gozal, David
    Department of Child Health and the Child Health Research Institute, The University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO, USA.
    Tsang, Hector W. H.
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Lin, Chung-Ying
    Institute of Allied Health Sciences, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
    Broström, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Ohayon, Maurice M.
    Stanford Sleep Epidemiology Research Center (SSERC), School of Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Nursing Science. Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Gender-specific estimates of sleep problems during the COVID-19 pandemic: Systematic review and meta-analysis2022In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 31, no 1, article id e13432Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) changed lifestyles worldwide and subsequently induced individuals? sleep problems. Sleep problems have been demonstrated by scattered evidence among the current literature on COVID-19; however, little is known regarding the synthesised prevalence of sleep problems (i.e. insomnia symptoms and poor sleep quality) for males and females separately. The present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to answer the important question regarding prevalence of sleep problems during the COVID-19 outbreak period between genders. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guideline and Newcastle?Ottawa Scale checklist, relevant studies with satisfactory methodological quality searched for in five academic databases (Scopus, PubMed Central, ProQuest, Web of Science , and EMBASE) were included and analysed. The protocol of the project was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO; identification code CRD42020181644). A total of 54 papers (N = 67,722) in the female subgroup and 45 papers (N = 45,718) in the male subgroup were pooled in the meta-analysis. The corrected pooled estimated prevalence of sleep problems was 24% (95% confidence interval [CI] 19%?29%) for female participants and 27% (95% CI 24%?30%) for male participants. Although in both gender subgroups, patients with COVID-19, health professionals and general population showed the highest prevalence of sleep problems, it did not reach statistical significance. Based on multivariable meta-regression, both gender groups had higher prevalence of sleep problems during the lockdown period. Therefore, healthcare providers should pay attention to the sleep problems and take appropriate preventive action.

  • 33.
    Alimoradi, Zainab
    et al.
    Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Jafari, Elahe
    Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Lin, Chung-Ying
    Institute of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan.
    Rajabi, Raheleh
    Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Marznaki, Zohreh H.
    Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Soodmand, Mostafa
    Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Potenza, Marc N.
    Yale University, United States.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Estimation of moral distress among nurses: A systematic review and meta-analysis2023In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 334-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Moral distress is a common challenge among professional nurses when caring for their patients, especially when they need to make rapid decisions. Therefore, leaving moral distress unconsidered may jeopardize patient quality of care, safety, and satisfaction. Aim: To estimate moral distress among nurses.

    Methods: This systematic review and meta-analysis conducted systematic search in Scopus, PubMed, ProQuest, ISI Web of Knowledge, and PsycInfo up to end of February 2022. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Newcastle Ottawa checklist. Data from included studies were pooled by meta-analysis with random effect model in STATA software version 14. The selected key measure was mean score of moral distress total score with its’ 95% Confidence Interval was reported. Subgroup analyses and meta-regressions were conducted to identify possible sources of heterogeneity and potentially influencing variables on moral distress. Funnel plots and Begg’s Tests were used to assess publication bias. The Jackknife method was used for sensitivity analysis.

    Ethical consideration: The protocol of this project was registered in the PROSPERO database under decree code of CRD42021267773.

    Results: Eighty-six manuscripts with 19,537 participants from 21 countries were included. The pooled estimated mean score of moral distress was 2.55 on a 0–10 scale [95% Confidence Interval: 2.27–2.84, I2: 98.4%, Tau2:0.94]. Publication bias and small study effect was ruled out. Moral distress significantly decreased in the COVID-19 pandemic versus before. Nurses working in developing countries experienced higher level of moral distress compared to their counterparts in developed countries. Nurses' workplace (e.g., hospital ward) was not linked to severity of moral disturbance.

    Conclusion: The results of the study showed a low level of pooled estimated score for moral distress. Although the score of moral distress was not high, nurses working in developing countries reported higher levels of moral distress than those working in developed countries. Therefore, it is necessary that future studies focus on creating a supportive environment in hospitals and medical centers for nurses to reduce moral distress and improve healthcare.

  • 34.
    Alimoradi, Zainab
    et al.
    Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Res Inst Prevent Non Communicable Dis, Social Determinants Hlth Res Ctr, Qazvin 3419759811, Iran..
    Jafari, Elahe
    Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Res Inst Prevent Non Communicable Dis, Social Determinants Hlth Res Ctr, Qazvin 3419759811, Iran..
    Potenza, Marc N.
    Yale Univ, Ctr Child Study, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, New Haven, CT 06511 USA.;Yale Univ, Ctr Child Study, Sch Med, Dept Neurosci, New Haven, CT 06511 USA..
    Lin, Chung-Ying
    Natl Cheng Kung Univ, Coll Med, Inst Allied Hlth Sci, Univ Rd, Tainan 701401, Taiwan..
    Wu, Chien-Yi
    E Da Hosp, Dept Pediat, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan.;I Shou Univ, Sch Med, Coll Med, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan..
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jonkoping Univ, Sch Hlth & Welf, Dept Nursing, S-55318 Jonkoping, Sweden..
    Binge-Watching and Mental Health Problems: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis2022In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 19, no 15, article id 9707Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Binge-watching, the viewing of online videos or streamed content, may be associated with different types of mental health problems. The present study aimed to investigate the associations between binge-watching and five mental health concerns including depression, loneliness, sleep problems, anxiety, and stress. Methods: Academic databases of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, ProQuest, PsycINFO, and Psych Articles were systematically searched through February of 2022. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess the methodological quality. A meta-analysis was performed on Fisher's z values as effect sizes, using a random effect model. Publication bias, small study effect, and moderators in this association were assessed. Results: Binge-watching was significantly associated with the five types of mental health concerns with the most robust correlations found with stress (0.32) and anxiety (0.25). Stronger associations between binge-watching and two types of mental health problems (depression and sleep problems) were found during the COVID-19 pandemic than before the pandemic. Moreover, stronger associations between binge-watching and two types of mental health problems (stress and sleep problems) were found in developing countries than in developed countries. Conclusions: The associations between binge-watching and mental health concerns were significant and positive. Programs and interventions to reduce binge-watching should be considered and tested.

  • 35.
    Alimoradi, Zainab
    et al.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Lin, Chung-Ying
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Broström, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT. Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Linköping University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Bülow, Pia H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue). Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Bajalan, Zahra
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Griffiths, Mark D.
    International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Ohayon, Maurice M.
    Stanford Sleep Epidemiology Research Center (SSERC), School of Medicine, Stanford University, CA, United States.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Linköping University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Internet addiction and sleep problems: A systematic review and meta-analysis2019In: Sleep Medicine Reviews, ISSN 1087-0792, E-ISSN 1532-2955, Vol. 47, p. 51-61Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pathological use of the internet – conceptualized as ‘internet addiction’ – might be crucial in initiating and increasing sleep disturbances in the community. While inconsistent evidence is reported regarding the association of internet addiction and sleep disturbances, the severity of this association remains unclear. This systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to increase our understanding of the relationship between internet addiction and sleep disturbances. A systematic review was conducted through Scopus, PubMed Central, ProQuest, ISI Web of Knowledge, and EMBASE using keywords related to internet addiction and sleep problems. Observational studies (cohort, case-control or cross-sectional studies) focusing on association between internet addiction and sleep disturbances including sleep problems and sleep duration were selected. A meta-analysis using random-effect model was conducted to calculate the odds ratio (OR) for experiencing sleep problems and standardized mean differences (SMDs) for sleep duration. Eligible studies (N = 23) included 35,684 participants. The overall pooled OR of having sleep problems if addicted to the internet was 2.20 (95% CI: 1.77–2.74). Additionally, the overall pooled SMDs for sleep duration for the IA group compared to normal internet users was −0.24 (95% CI: −0.38, −0.10). Results of the meta-analysis revealed a significant OR for sleep problems and a significant reduced sleep duration among individuals addicted to the internet.

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  • 36.
    Alimoradi, Zainab
    et al.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Lin, Chung-Ying
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Imani, Vida
    Pediatric Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
    Griffiths, Mark D
    International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Social media addiction and sexual dysfunction among Iranian women: The mediating role of intimacy and social support.2019In: Journal of Behavioral Addictions, ISSN 2062-5871, E-ISSN 2063-5303, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 318-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Social media use has become increasingly popular among Internet users. Given the widespread use of social media on smartphones, there is an increasing need for research examining the impact of the use of such technologies on sexual relationships and their constructs such as intimacy, satisfaction, and sexual function. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism why social media addiction impacts on sexual distress. This study investigated whether two constructs (intimacy and perceived social support) were mediators in the association of social media addiction and sexual distress among married women.

    METHODS: A prospective study was conducted where all participants (N = 938; mean age = 36.5 years) completed the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale to assess social media addiction, the Female Sexual Distress Scale - Revised to assess sexual distress, the Unidimensional Relationship Closeness Scale to assess intimacy, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support to assess perceived social support.

    RESULTS: The results showed that social media addiction had direct and indirect (via intimacy and perceived social support) effects on sexual function and sexual distress.

    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study facilitate a better understanding of how problematic engaging to social media can affect couples' intimacy, perceived social support, and constructs of sexual function. Consequently, sexual counseling should be considered an essential element for assessing individual behaviors in the context of social media use.

  • 37.
    Alimoradi, Zainab
    et al.
    Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Res Inst Prevent Noncommunicable Dis, Social Determinants Hlth Res Ctr, Qazvin, Iran..
    Lin, Chung-Ying
    Natl Cheng Kung Univ, Inst Allied Hlth Sci, Coll Med, Tainan, Taiwan.;Natl Cheng Kung Univ, Natl Cheng Kung Univ Hosp, Coll Med, Biostat Consulting Ctr, Tainan, Taiwan.;Natl Cheng Kung Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Coll Med, Tainan, Taiwan.;Natl Cheng Kung Univ, Dept Occupat Therapy, Coll Med, Tainan, Taiwan..
    Ullah, Irfan
    Gandhara Univ, Kabir Med Coll, Peshawar, Pakistan..
    Griffiths, Mark
    Nottingham Trent Univ, Dept Psychol, Int Gaming Res Unit, Nottingham, England..
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Nursing Science.
    Item Response Theory Analysis of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S): A Systematic Review2022In: Psychology Research and Behavior Management, E-ISSN 1179-1578, Vol. 15, p. 581-596Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is still ongoing and is not yet under control. Evidence regarding the impacts of COVID-19 on psychological distress has been widely reported worldwide, and one of the primary concerns regarding psychological distress is fear (ie, fear of COVID-19). Therefore, having a robust instrument for assessing fear of COVID-19 is important. The present systematic review aimed to synthesize the psychometric evidence evaluated using item response theory (IRT) on the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S). Methods: Utilizing the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, four academic databases (Scopus, PubMed Central, ProQuest, and ISI Web of Knowledge) were used to search target papers. Keywords used for search were "Fear of COVID-19 Scale" and its abbreviation (ie, "FCV-19S") and IRT-related terms. The COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist was then applied to evaluate the methodological quality of the reviewed papers. Moreover, psychometric properties using IRT methods were synthesized using a qualitative method. Results: The initial search resulted in 552 papers (73 duplicates) and 479 were screened based on their titles and abstracts. Finally, 16 papers were included for review regarding their methodological quality (via COSMIN) to synthesize the psychometric evidence for FCV-19S. The 16 papers included 21 countries with 16 language versions of FCV-19S. Conclusion: All the psychometric evidence indicated that the seven items in the FCV-19S fit with the concept of fear. The FCV-19S is a strong and valid instrument for assessing fear across different languages. The seven items in the FCV-19S appear to be unidimensional in assessing fear, which indicates that all items are necessary in the FCV-19S.

  • 38.
    Alimoradi, Zainab
    et al.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Lotfi, Aida
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Lin, Chung-Ying
    Institute of Allied Health Sciences, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
    Griffiths, Mark D.
    International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Estimation of Behavioral Addiction Prevalence During COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis2022In: Current Addiction Reports, E-ISSN 2196-2952, Vol. 9, p. 486-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of Review

    The COVID-19 pandemic changed people's lifestyles and such changed lifestyles included the potential of increasing addictive behaviors. The present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate the prevalence of different behavioral addictions (i.e., internet addiction, smartphone addiction, gaming addiction, social media addiction, food addiction, exercise addiction, gambling addiction, and shopping addiction) both overall and separately.

    Recent Findings

    Four databases (PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, and ProQuest) were searched. Peer-reviewed papers published in English between December 2019 and July 2022 were reviewed and analyzed. Search terms were selected using PECO-S criteria: population (no limitation in participants' characteristics), exposure (COVID-19 pandemic), comparison (healthy populations), outcome (frequency or prevalence of behavioral addiction), and study design (observational study). A total of 94 studies with 237,657 participants from 40 different countries (mean age 25.02 years; 57.41% females). The overall prevalence of behavioral addiction irrespective of addiction type (after correcting for publication bias) was 11.1% (95% CI: 5.4 to 16.8%). The prevalence rates for each separate behavioral addiction (after correcting for publication bias) were 10.6% for internet addiction, 30.7% for smartphone addiction, 5.3% for gaming addiction, 15.1% for social media addiction, 21% for food addiction, 9.4% for sex addiction, 7% for exercise addiction, 7.2% for gambling addiction, and 7.2% for shopping addiction. In the lockdown periods, prevalence of food addiction, gaming addiction, and social media addiction was higher compared to non-lockdown periods. Smartphone and social media addiction was associated with methodological quality of studies (i.e., the higher the risk of boas, the higher the prevalence rate). Other associated factors of social media addiction were the percentage of female participants, mean age of participants, percentage of individuals using the internet in country, and developing status of country. The percentage of individuals in the population using the internet was associated with all the prevalence of behavioral addiction overall and the prevalence of sex addiction and gambling addiction. Gaming addiction prevalence was associated with data collection method (online vs. other methods) that is gaming addiction prevalence was much lower using online methods to collect the data.

    Summary

    Behavioral addictions appeared to be potential health issues during the COVID-19 pandemic. Healthcare providers and government authorities should foster some campaigns that assist people in coping with stress during COVID-19 pandemics to prevent them from developing behavioral addictions during COVID-19 and subsequent pandemics.

  • 39.
    Alimoradi, Zainab
    et al.
    Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Social Determinants Hlth Res Ctr, Res Inst Prevent Noncommunicable Dis, Qazvin, Iran..
    Ohayon, Maurice M.
    Stanford Univ, Stanford Sleep Epidemiol Res Ctr SSERC, Sch Med, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Griffiths, Mark D.
    Nottingham Trent Univ, Dept Psychol, Int Gaming Res Unit, Nottingham, England..
    Lin, Chung-Ying
    Natl Cheng Kung Univ, Coll Med, Inst Allied Hlth Sci, Tainan, Taiwan.;Natl Cheng Kung Univ, Coll Med, Natl Cheng Kung Univ Hosp, Biostat Consulting Ctr, Tainan, Taiwan.;Natl Cheng Kung Univ, Coll Med, Dept Publ Hlth, Tainan, Taiwan.;Natl Cheng Kung Univ, Coll Med, Dept Occupat Therapy, Tainan, Taiwan..
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Nursing Science. Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Social Determinants Hlth Res Ctr, Res Inst Prevent Noncommunicable Dis, Qazvin, Iran..
    Fear of COVID-19 and its association with mental health-related factors: systematic review and meta-analysis2022In: BJPsych Open, E-ISSN 2056-4724, Vol. 8, no 2, article id e73Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The severity of COVID-19 remains high worldwide. Therefore, millions of individuals are likely to suffer from fear of COVID-19 and related mental health factors. Aims The present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to synthesize empirical evidence to understand fear of COVID-19 and its associations with mental health-related problems during this pandemic period. Method Relevant studies were searched for on five databases (Scopus, ProQuest, EMBASE, PubMed Central, and ISI Web of Knowledge), using relevant terms (COVID-19-related fear, anxiety, depression, mental health-related factors, mental well-being and sleep problems). All studies were included for analyses irrespective of their methodological quality, and the impact of quality on pooled effect size was examined by subgroup analysis. Results The meta-analysis pooled data from 91 studies comprising 88 320 participants (mean age 38.88 years; 60.66% females) from 36 countries. The pooled estimated mean of fear of COVID-19 was 13.11 (out of 35), using the Fear of COVID-19 Scale. The associations between fear of COVID-19 and mental health-related factors were mostly moderate (Fisher's z = 0.56 for mental health-related factors; 0.54 for anxiety; 0.42 for stress; 0.40 for depression; 0.29 for sleep problems and -0.24 for mental well-being). Methodological quality did not affect these associations. Conclusions Fear of COVID-19 has associations with various mental health-related factors. Therefore, programmes for reducing fear of COVID-19 and improving mental health are needed.

  • 40.
    Alimoradi, Zainab
    et al.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Sallam, Malik
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan; Department of Clinical Laboratories and Forensic Medicine, Jordan University Hospital, Amman, Jordan; Department of Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Jafari, Elahe
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Potenza, Marc N.
    Departments of Psychiatry and Neuroscience and the Child Study Center and Wu Tsai Institute, Yale School of Medicine / Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA; Connecticut Mental Health Center, New Haven, CT, USA; Connecticut Council on Problem Gambling, Wethersfield, CT, USA.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among migrant and refugee groups: A systematic review and meta-analysis2023In: Vaccine: X, ISSN 2590-1362, Vol. 14, article id 100308Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Understanding COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among migrant and refugee groups is critical for achieving vaccine equity. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among migrant and refugee populations.

    METHODS: A systematic review (PROSPERO: CRD42022333337) was conducted (December 2019-July 2022) using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, ProQuest and Google Scholar.

    RESULTS: Nineteen studies from 12 countries were included. The pooled estimated prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine willingness among migrant and refugee groups was 70% (19 studies, 95% CI: 62.3-77.4%, I2: 99.19%, τ2: 0.03). Female and male participants did not differ significantly with each other (p = 0.64). Although no individual variable contributed statistically significantly in multivariable meta-regression analysis, the multivariable model that considered methodological quality, mean age of participants, participant group and country of origin explained 67% of variance.

    DISCUSSION: Proportions of migrant/refugee groups receiving COVID-19 vaccinations approximated those observed among general populations. Additional studies are needed to examine factors relating to vaccine willingness to identify the most significant factors that may be targeted in interventions.

  • 41.
    Al-Mamun, F.
    et al.
    CHINTA Research Bangladesh, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Hussain, N.
    CHINTA Research Bangladesh, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Sakib, N.
    Department of Microbiology, Jashore University of Science and Technology, Jashore, Bangladesh.
    Hosen, I.
    CHINTA Research Bangladesh, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Rayhan, I.
    Department of Economics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Abdullah, A. H.
    CHINTA Research Bangladesh, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Bhuiyan, A. K. M. I.
    CHINTA Research Bangladesh, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Sarker, M. A.
    CHINTA Research Bangladesh, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, S.
    Department of Public Health and Informatics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Zou, L.
    Body-Brain-Mind Laboratory, School of Psychology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China.
    Manzar, M. D.
    Department of Nursing, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Majmaah University, Al Majma’ah, Saudi Arabia.
    Lin, C. -Y
    Institute of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
    Sikder, M. T.
    Department of Public Health and Informatics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Muhit, M.
    Department of Public Health, University of South Asia, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Gozal, D.
    Department of Child Health and The Child Health Research Institute, The University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO, United States.
    Griffiths, M. D.
    International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Mamun, M. A.
    CHINTA Research Bangladesh, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Sleep duration during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh: A GIS-based large sample survey study2023In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 3368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although several studies have been conducted in Bangladesh regarding sleep problems during the COVID-19 pandemic, none have utilized a large nationwide sample or presented their findings based on nationwide geographical distribution. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore the total sleep duration, night-time sleep, and daily naptime and their associated factors as well as geographic information system (GIS) distribution. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 9730 people in April 2020, including questions relating to socio-demographic variables, behavioral and health factors, lockdown, depression, suicidal ideation, night sleep duration, and naptime duration. Descriptive and inferential statistics, both linear and multivariate regression, and spatial distribution were performed using Microsoft Excel, SPSS, Stata, and ArcGIS software. The results indicated that 64.7% reported sleeping 7–9 h a night, while 29.6% slept less than 7 h nightly, and 5.7% slept more than 9 h nightly. 43.7% reported 30–60 min of daily nap duration, whereas 20.9% napped for more than 1 h daily. Significant predictors of total daily sleep duration were being aged 18–25 years, being unemployed, being married, self-isolating 4 days or more, economic hardship, and depression. For nap duration, being aged 18–25 years, retired, a smoker, and a social media user were at relatively higher risk. The GIS distribution showed that regional division areas with high COVID-19 exposure had higher rates of non-normal sleep duration. Sleep duration showed a regional heterogeneity across the regional divisions of the country that exhibited significant associations with a multitude of socioeconomic and health factors.

  • 42.
    Ameryoun, Ahmad
    et al.
    Health Management Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Nikoobakht, Mehdi
    Department of Neurosurgery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Saffari, Mohsen
    Health Research Center, Life Style Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Yaseri, Mahdi
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    O'Garo, Keisha-Gaye N.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.
    Koenig, Harold G.
    Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.
    Effectiveness of an In-Service Education Program to Improve Patient Safety Directed at Surgical Residents: A Randomized Controlled Trial2019In: Journal of Surgical Education, ISSN 1931-7204, E-ISSN 1878-7452, Vol. 76, no 5, p. 1309-1318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patient safety is a critical issue in healthcare services particularly in surgical units and operation rooms because of the high prevalence and risk of medical errors in such settings. This study was conducted to determine whether a 1-day educational intervention can change the attitude and behavior of surgical residents regarding patient safety.

    Methods: A total of 90 surgical residents were recruited from 6 university hospitals located in Tehran and Qazvin, Iran, and were randomized to either the intervention or a control group. Those in the intervention group participated in a 1-day workshop on patient safety, whereas the control group received no intervention. Both groups were followed for 3 months after the intervention was completed. The Safety Attitude Questionnaire and Oxford Non-Technical Skills scale were administered at 3 points in time (baseline, 1 month after the intervention, and 3 month later). The data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance.

    Results: Total score on the Safety Attitude Questionnaire improved from 54.5 (SD = 14.4) at baseline to 58.3 (SD = 13.8) 3 months after the intervention in the intervention group; all dimensions, with the exception of working condition, showed significant changes. In addition, the Oxford Non-Technical Skills scale – as assessed by attending surgeons – improved significantly in all domains (p < 0.05). More than 60% of participants in the intervention group scored in the positive range for items assessing safety and teamwork climate.

    Conclusions: A 1-day interactive educational workshop may be effective in changing the attitude and practice of surgical residents regarding patient safety. Further assessment of this intervention in other healthcare settings involving health professionals from various specialties and use of an objective measure such as number of reported medical errors are needed to corroborate these findings. 

  • 43.
    Asgari, S.
    et al.
    Student Research Committee, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Abbasi, M.
    Metabolic Disease Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Hamilton, K.
    School of Applied Psychology, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Chen, Y. -P
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Wan Fang Hospital, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Griffiths, M. D.
    Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Lin, C. -Y
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health & Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    A theory-based intervention to promote medication adherence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A randomized controlled trial2021In: Clinical Rheumatology, ISSN 0770-3198, E-ISSN 1434-9949, Vol. 40, p. 101-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction/objectives: Adherence to prescribed medication regimens is fundamental to the improvement and maintenance of the health of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. It is therefore important that interventions are developed to address this important health behavior issue. The aim of the present study was to design and evaluate a theory-based intervention to improve the medication adherence (primary outcome) among rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Methods: The study adopted a pre-registered randomized controlled trial design. Rheumatoid arthritis patients were recruited from two University teaching hospitals in Qazvin, Iran from June 2018 to May 2019 and randomly assigned to either an intervention group (n = 100) or a treatment-as-usual group (n = 100). The intervention group received a theory-based intervention designed based on the theoretical underpinnings of the health action process approach (HAPA). More specifically, action planning (making detailed plans to follow medication regimen), coping planning (constructing plans to overcome potential obstacles that may arise in medication adherence), and self-monitoring (using a calendar to record medication adherence) of the HAPA has been used for the treatment. The treatment-as-usual group received standard care.

    Results: Data analysis was conducted based on the principle of intention to treat. Using a linear mixed-effects model (adjusted for age, sex, medication prescribed, and body mass index), the results showed improved medication adherence scores in the intervention group (loss to follow-up = 16) compared to the treatment-as-usual group (loss to follow-up = 12) at the 3-month (coefficient = 3.9; SE = 0.8) and 6-month (coefficient = 4.5; SE = 0.8) follow-up. Intervention effects on medication adherence scores were found to be mediated by some of the theory-based HAPA variables that guided the study.

    Conclusion: The results of the present study support the use of a theory-based intervention for improving medication adherence among rheumatoid arthritis patients, a group at-risk of not adhering to medication regimens.

    Trial registration (in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials): irct.ir, IRCT20180108038271N1

    Key Points

    • Theoretical underpinnings of the health action process approach are useful to improve medication adherence for RA patients. 
  • 44.
    Attieh, Randa
    et al.
    Department of Management, Evaluation and Health Policy, School of Public Health, University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada.
    Koffi, Kouame
    Département de Santé Publique, UFR Sciences Pharmaceutiques, Universite Felix Houphouet-Boigny, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, Canada.
    Toure, Moustapha
    Department of Economics, Scool of Management, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Canada.
    Parr-Labbe, Erica
    University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Canada.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Nursing Science.
    Poder, Thomas G.
    Department of Management, Evaluation and Health Policy, School of Public Health, University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada; Centre de Recherche de l'IUSMM, CIUSSS de l'Est de l'île de Montréal, University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada.
    Validation of the Canadian French version of the fear of COVID-19 scale in the general population of Quebec2022In: Brain and Behavior, ISSN 2162-3279, E-ISSN 2162-3279, Vol. 12, no 5, article id 32550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The purpose of this study was to develop a Canadian French translation of the fear of COVID-19 scale (FCV-19S) and assess its psychometric characteristics.

    Methods

    A forward and backtranslation process was conducted for the Canadian French version of the FCV-19S. The guidance of the ISPOR task force for translation and cultural adaptation was followed and cognitive debriefing interviews were conducted with six citizens. The final proofread Canadian French FCV-19S was then administered to a large sample of citizens from the province of Quebec in Canada through an online survey. A quota sampling was conducted in 2020. Respondents from the survey also completed the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation (CORE)-6D and the Sense of Coherence (SOC-3) questionnaires. Several psychometric tests were performed to investigate the reliability (internal consistency) and validity of the Canadian French FCV-19S, including construct validity, concurrent validity, and Rasch analysis.

    Results

    The translation process was conducted without any major difficulties. The cognitive debriefing interviews led to no change in the reconciled translation. The survey collected answers from 3428 citizens. Results indicated that the factor structure of the Canadian French FCV-19S is a unidimensional factor fitting well with the data. The scale showed adequate reliability (Cronbach's alpha of .903) and concurrent validity, as indicated by significantly negative correlation with CORE-6D (r = -.410) and SOC-3 (r = -.233). The Canadian French FCV-19S properties tested using Rasch analysis was also very satisfactory.

    Conclusions

    The results of the present study indicated that the Canadian French version of FCV-19S is a unidimensional tool with robust psychometric properties in the adult's population of all ages residing in the province of Quebec, Canada.

  • 45.
    Bakioğlu, Fuad
    et al.
    Department of Guidance and Psychological Counseling, Faculty of Education, Karamanoğlu Mehmetbey University, Karaman, Turkey.
    Deniz, Metin
    Department of Guidance and Psychological Counseling, Faculty of Education, Bartın University, Bartın, Turkey.
    Griffiths, Mark D
    International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Adaptation and validation of the Online-Fear of Missing Out Inventory into Turkish and the association with social media addiction, smartphone addiction, and life satisfaction2022In: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In online environments, fear of missing out (FoMO) is where individuals become constantly preoccupied with what others are doing online and feel unable to log off in case they miss something. FoMO is a concept associated with the use of online social media (OSM; e.g., Facebook use, Instagram use) and various scales have been developed to assess the concept. One such scale is the Online Fear of Missing Out (On-FoMO) Inventory. The present study translated the On-FoMO Inventory into Turkish and its main aim was to test the validity and reliability of the scale. The secondary aim was to investigate the relationships between FoMO, social media addiction, smartphone addiction, and life satisfaction.

    METHODS: A total of 419 participants (289 females and 130 males, mean age = 25.43 years, SD = 6.37) completed a self-report questionnaire including the On-FoMO Inventory, Fear of Missing Out Scale, Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale, Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version, and Satisfaction with Life Scale. In the adaptation process of the On-FoMO Inventory, confirmatory factor analysis, concurrent validity, and reliability analyses were performed.

    RESULTS: The four-factor structure of the On-FoMO Inventory was confirmed and the Turkish version of the scale demonstrated good reliability. Online FoMO was positively related to social media addiction and smartphone addiction, and negatively related to life satisfaction.

    CONCLUSION: The results showed that the Turkish version of the On-FoMO Inventory has strong psychometric properties.

  • 46.
    Bhuiyan, A. K. M. Israfil
    et al.
    Undergrad Res Org, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Sakib, Najmuj
    Undergrad Res Org, Dhaka, Bangladesh.;Jashore Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Microbiol, Jashore, Bangladesh..
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Griffiths, Mark D.
    Nottingham Trent Univ, Dept Psychol, 50 Shakespeare St, Nottingham NG1 4FQ, England..
    Mamun, Mohammed A.
    Undergrad Res Org, Dhaka, Bangladesh.;Jahangirnagar Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Informat, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    COVID-19-Related Suicides in Bangladesh Due to Lockdown and Economic Factors: Case Study Evidence from Media Reports2021In: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, ISSN 1557-1874, E-ISSN 1557-1882, Vol. 19, p. 2110-2115Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Björk, Maria
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Knutsson, S.
    Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Odzakovic, Elzana
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Hellström, A.
    Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Sandlund, C.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Family Medicine and Primary Care, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ulander, M.
    Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Neurobiology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lind, J.
    Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Neurobiology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Broström, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Validation of two brief instruments (the SURE and CollaboRATE) to measure shared decision-making in patients with restless legs syndrome2023In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder characterised by an urge to move arms and legs, usually associated with discomfort, pain, motor restlessness, and sleep disturbance. An individually adapted treatment is needed but difficult to optimise, which makes shared decision-making (SDM) important. However, brief validated instruments on how patients with RLS perceive their involvement in treatment decisions are lacking. Therefore, the aim was to validate two instruments, SURE (Sure of myself, Understand information, Risk–benefit ratio, Encouragement, i.e., to assess decisional conflict) and CollaboRATE (brief patient survey focused on SDM, i.e., to assess SDM), in patients with RLS. A cross-sectional design, including 788 participants with RLS (65% females, mean [SD] age 70.8 [11.4] years) from a national patient organisation for RLS, was used. A postal survey was sent out to collect data regarding weight, height, comorbidities, demographics, and RLS-related treatment data. The following instruments were included: the SURE, CollaboRATE, Restless Legs Syndrome-6 Scale, and eHealth Literacy Scale. Confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch models were used to assess the validity and reliability of the SURE and CollaboRATE. Measurement invariance, unidimensionality, and differential item functioning (DIF) across age, gender, and medication groups were assessed. The SURE and CollaboRATE were both identified as unidimensional instruments with satisfactory internal consistency. No DIF across age and gender was identified, while significant DIF was observed for both the SURE and CollaboRATE regarding medication use categories. However, both the SURE and CollaboRATE are potential instruments to be used in research, but also as reflection tools by healthcare professionals, patients, and students to explore and assess SDM, and support its development in clinical care.

  • 48.
    Blázquez-Rincón, Desirée
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Universidad a Distancia de Madrid.
    Aguayo-Estremera, Raimundo
    Department of Psychobiology and Methodology in Behavioral Science, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Campus de Somosaguas.
    Alimoradi, Zainab
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences.
    Jafari, Elahe
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    The Fear of COVID-19 Scale: A meta-analytic structural equation modeling approach2023In: Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1040-3590, E-ISSN 1939-134X, Vol. 35, no 11, p. 1030-1040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread administration and multiple validations of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) in different languages have highlighted the controversy over its underlying structure and the resulting reliability index. In the present study, a meta-analysis based on structural equation modeling (MASEM) was conducted to assess the internal structure of the seven-item, 5-point Likert-type FCV-19S version, estimate an overall reliability index from the underlying model that best reflected the internal structure (one τ-equivalent factor, one congeneric factor, or two-factor models), and perform moderator analyses for the model-implied interitem correlations and estimated factor loadings. A Pearson interitem correlation matrix was obtained for 48 independent studies, from which a pooled matrix was calculated following a random-effects multivariate meta-analysis. The results from the one-stage MASEM analysis showed that the two-factor model properly fitted the pooled matrix, while the τ-equivalent and congeneric one-factor models did not. Even though, the use of a bifactor model exhibited the predominance of the general factor over the domain-specific ones. High omega coefficients were obtained for the entire scale (.91) and the psychological (.83) and physiological (.83) symptoms subscales. Moderator analyses evidenced an increase in the estimated factor loadings, as well as in the reliability of the FCV-19S, when the standard deviation of the total scores increased and when the FCV-19S was administered to specific (vs. general) populations. The FCV-19S can be therefore considered as a highly related two-factor scale whose reliability makes it suitable for applied and research purposes.

  • 49.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Alimoradi, Zainab
    Social Determinants of Health Research Centre, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Lind, Jonas
    Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Neurobiology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ulander, Martin
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Linköping University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lundin, Fredrik
    Department of Neurology and Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Worldwide estimation of restless legs syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence in the general adult population2023In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 32, no 3, article id e13783Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression assessed the prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in the general adult population. Studies identified in Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycInfo between January 2000 and February 2022 were included if they used a case–control or cross-sectional design and reported data regarding the prevalence of RLS. The protocol was pre-registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO; CRD42022300709). A total of 97 studies including 483,079 participants from 33 different countries met the eligibility criteria. The Newcastle Ottawa Scale was used to evaluate the methodological quality, and the fill-and-trim method was used to correct probable publication bias, while the jack-knife method was performed to assess small study effect. The corrected overall pooled prevalence of RLS was 3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4%–3.8%). The pooled prevalence of RLS syndrome was affected by methodological quality (no data from non-respondents in the included studies), gender (higher among women), study design (lower prevalence in case–control versus cohort and cross-sectional studies). The figures for corrected pooled prevalence among men, women, alcohol consumers and smokers were 2.8% (95% CI 2%–3.7%); 4.7% (95% CI 3.2%–6.3%); 1.4% (95% CI 0%–4.2%); and 2.7% (95% CI 0%–5.3%), respectively. The prevalence among male and female participants was lower in community-based versus non-community-based studies. Moreover, the prevalence was higher in developed versus developing countries and among elders versus adults. In conclusion, RLS is a common disorder in the general adult population, with a higher prevalence in women; however, prevalence data are affected by study design and quality.

  • 50.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Centre for Interprofessional Collaboration within Emergency care (CICE), Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Fossum, Bjöörn
    Sophiahemmet University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Nilsen, Per
    Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ulander, Martin
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Neurophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Communication during the initial visit to a CPAP clinic Practitioners’ experiences of facilitators and barriers when talking to patients with obstructive sleep apnea2021In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 30, no 4, article id e13244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adherence to continuous positive airway pressure treatment for obstructive sleep apnea tends to be poor. Communication influences adherence but has not previously been investigated from a practitioner perspective, although shared decision-making is known to be of great importance. The aim was to describe how practitioners experience communication with patients with obstructive sleep apnea during the initial visit at a continuous positive airway pressure treatment clinic, with focus on facilitators and barriers related to the 4 Habits Model, a communication model comprised of four types of interrelated skills to make encounters more patient-centred: investing in the beginning; exploring the patient perspective; showing empathy; and investing in the end. A descriptive design with qualitative content analysis was used. A deductive analysis was carried out based on interviews with 24 strategically selected practitioners from seven continuous positive airway pressure treatment clinics. The 4 Habits Model was used as a framework for identifying facilitators and barriers to communication. Investments in the beginning was described as creating contact, showing the agenda and being adaptive, while explore the patient perspective included showing awareness, being explorative and creating a participating climate. Show empathy consisted of showing openness, being confirmative and creating acceptance, while showing a structured follow-up plan, being open minded and invitational and creating motivation to build on were descriptions of invest in the end. Awareness of potential facilitators and barriers for patient-centred communication during the beginning, middle and end of a continuous positive airway pressure treatment consultation can be used to improve contextual conditions and personal communication competences among practitioners working with continuous positive airway pressure treatment initiation.

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