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  • 1.
    Davidsson, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre. Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, EMM (Entrepreneurskap, Marknadsföring, Management).
    Hunter, Erik
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, EMM (Entrepreneurskap, Marknadsföring, Management).
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University.
    Institutional forces: The invisible hand that shapes venture ideas?2006Inngår i: International Small Business Journal, ISSN 0266-2426, E-ISSN 1741-2870, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 115-131Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Institutional theory is employed for examining how and to what extent external pressure leads to changes in the venture idea during the start-up and early life of new, knowledge-intensive ventures. From a population of 321 young, knowledge-intensive firms that underwent a training program at Linkping University, Sweden, structured telephone interview data were obtained from 167 firms. The results confirmed that the venture idea had undergone more change in ventures that had more external owners, a dominant customer, and an incubator location. The results imply that institutional theory is a meaningful tool for understanding why and how venture ideas change over time.

  • 2.
    Davidsson, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, EMM (Entrepreneurskap, Marknadsföring, Management).
    Hunter, Erik
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, EMM (Entrepreneurskap, Marknadsföring, Management).
    Klofsten, Magnus
    The discovery process: External influences on refinement of the venture idea2004Inngår i: Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 2004: proceedings of the twenty-fourth annual Entrepreneurship Research Conference, Wellesley, MA.: Babson College , 2004, s. 327-337Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we use institutional theory for examining how and to what extent external pressure leads to changes in the venture idea during the start-up and early life of new, knowledge-intensive ventures. From a population of 321 young, knowledge-intensive firms that underwent a training program at Linköping University, we have telephone interview data on 167. The results confirmed that the venture idea had undergone more change in ventures that had more external owners, a dominant customer, and an incubator location. Our results imply that institutional theory is a meaningful tool for understanding why and how venture ideas change over time.

  • 3.
    Davidsson, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, EMM (Entrepreneurskap, Marknadsföring, Management).
    Hunter, Erik
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, EMM (Entrepreneurskap, Marknadsföring, Management).
    Klofsten, Magnus
    The discovery process: External influences on refinement of the venture idea2004Inngår i: Babson College Entrepreneurship Research Conference (BCERC) 2004, 2004Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 4.
    Hunter, Erik
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, EMM (Entrepreneurskap, Marknadsföring, Management).
    Celebrity entrepreneurship and celebrity endorsement: Similarities, differences and the effect of deeper engagement2009Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasingly, celebrities appear not only as endorsers for products but are apparently engaged in entrepreneurial roles as initiators, owners and perhaps even managers in the ventures that market the products they promote. Despite being extensively referred to in popular media, scholars have been slow to recognize the importance of this new phenomenon.

    This thesis argues theoretically and shows empirically that celebrityentrepreneurs are more effective communicators than typical celebrityendorsers because of their increased engagement with ventures.

    I theorize that greater Engagement increases the celebrity's Emotional Involvement as perceived by consumers. This is an endorser quality thus far neglected in the marketing communications literature. In turn, Emotional Involvement, much like the empirically established dimensions Trustworthiness, Expertise and Attractiveness, should affect traditional outcome variables such as Attitude Towards the Advertisement and Brand. On the downside, increases in celebrity engagement may lead to relatively stronger and worsening changes in Attitudes Towards the Brand if and when negative information about the celebrity is revealed.

    A series of eight experiments were conducted on 781 Swedish and Baltic students and 151 Swedish retirees. Though there were nuanced differences and additional complexities in each experiment, participants' reactions to advertisements containing a celebrity portrayed as a typical endorser or entrepreneur were recorded.

    The overall results of these experiments suggest that Emotional Involvement can be successfully operationalized as distinct from variables previously known to influence Communication Effectiveness. In addition, Emotional Involvement has positive effects on Attitudes Toward the Advertisement and Brand that are as strong as the predictors traditionally applied in the marketing communications literature. Moreover, the celebrity entrepreneur condition in the experimental manipulation consistently led to an increase in Emotional Involvement and to a lesser extent Trustworthiness, but not Expertise and Attractiveness. Finally, Negative Celebrity Information led toa change in participants' Attitudes Towards the Brand which was more strongly negative for celebrity entrepreneurs than celebrity endorsers. In addition the effect of negative celebrity information on a company's brand is worse when they support the celebrity rather than fire them. However this effect did not appear to interact with the celebrity's purported Engagement.

  • 5.
    Hunter, Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, EMM (Entrepreneurskap, Marknadsföring, Management).
    Burgers, Henri
    Davidsson, Per
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, EMM (Entrepreneurskap, Marknadsföring, Management).
    Celebrity capital as a strategic asset: Implications for new venture strategies2009Inngår i: Entrepreneurial Strategic Content, Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press , 2009, s. 137-160Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite an increase in businesses started by celebrities, we have limited understanding as to how celebrity entrepreneurs benefit new ventures. Drawing on a reputational capital perspective, we develop the notion of celebrity capital and show how it can be used to uniquely differentiate the venture and to overcome liabilities of newness. We discuss how celebrity capital can negatively influence the venture in terms of limiting the scope of the venture and when negative information about the celebrity surfaces. We discuss the different strategic implications of celebrity capital for ventures using celebrity entrepreneurs versus endorsers.

  • 6.
    Hunter, Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, EMM (Entrepreneurskap, Marknadsföring, Management).
    Davidsson, Per
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, EMM (Entrepreneurskap, Marknadsföring, Management).
    Celebrity Entrepreneurship: An Experimental Study of a Phenomenon in Emergence2006Inngår i: Regional Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 2006: 3rd International AGSE Entrepreneurship Research Exchange, Feb 7-10, 2006, Unitec, Auckland, New Zealand, Melbourne: The Australian Graduate School of Entrepreneurship, Swinburne University of Technology , 2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Hunter, Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan. Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Företagsekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, EMM (Entrepreneurskap, Marknadsföring, Management).
    Davidsson, Per
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre. Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan. Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Företagsekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, EMM (Entrepreneurskap, Marknadsföring, Management).
    Celebrity Entrepreneurship: Communication Effectiveness through Perceived Involvement2007Inngår i: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 4, nr 5, s. 505-527Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

     

    Increasingly, celebrities appear not only as endorsers for products but are apparently involved in entrepreneurial roles—as initiators, part owners and/or in managerial capacities—in the ventures that market the products they promote. We call this phenomenon Celebrity Entrepreneurship. Whether or not this type of involvement on the part of the celebrity is original and genuine, it may be suspected that celebrity entrepreneurs are more effective communicators than typical celebrity endorsers. This research hypothesizes that such is the case. Further, we hypothesize that this is because celebrity entrepreneurship leads to higher perceptions of a source’s Involvement—an endorser quality hitherto neglected in the marketing communication literature—which in turn affects traditional outcome variables such as Aad (Attitude toward the ad) and Abr (Attitude towards the brand). Based on two experiments using subjects from the relevant product target group (n=88 and n=77) we tested their reactions to advertisements containing the celebrity Cameron Diaz after exposure to one of three experimental conditions: entrepreneur; mere endorser, and no information (control). The results confirm that a) involvement can successfully be operationalized as distinct from variables previously shown to influence communicator effectiveness (trustworthiness, attractiveness and expertise), b) involvement has a positive effect on Aad and Abr over and above the traditional predictors and control variables, and c) the celebrity entrepreneur condition in the experimental manipulation leads to increased perceived involvement.

  • 8.
    Hunter, Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, EMM (Entreprenörskap, Marknadsföring, Management).
    Davidsson, Per
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, EMM (Entreprenörskap, Marknadsföring, Management).
    Celebrity entrepreneurship: The effect of negative celebrity information on the new venture2008Inngår i: Babson College Entrepreneurship Research Conference (BCERC) 2008, 2008Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Increasingly, celebrities engage in business not just as endorsers but also with a financial stake and decision-making role in the business. Whether initiated by the celebrity or by other founders, we refer to such instances of new ventures entering the market with a celebrity engaged in such ways as “celebrity entrepreneurship”. Partnering with a celebrity rather than contracting them as a celebrity endorser is not without its risks. Even the most mundane information concerning the lives of celebrities is newsworthy so when negative information concerning a celebrity surfaces, it spreads fast. When celebrities are involved with starting or owning a company, they carry their name with them. Under such circumstances, negative information about the celebrity might reflect negatively on the company as well. Our findings suggest that negative information a) leads to negative attitudes towards the new venture and promotion, b) which is comparable worse for celebrity entrepreneur led new ventures; c) new ventures can potentially reduce damage to their brand by distancing themselves from the celebrity, d) however, such a maneuver may not be as effective when the new venture is run by a celebrity entrepreneur.

  • 9.
    Hunter, Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, EMM (Entrepreneurskap, Marknadsföring, Management).
    Davidsson, Per
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, EMM (Entrepreneurskap, Marknadsföring, Management).
    Anderson, Helén
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, EMM (Entrepreneurskap, Marknadsföring, Management).
    Celebrity Entrepreneurship: An Experimental Study of a Phenomenon in Emergence2006Inngår i: Proceeding of the 35th EMAC Conference, Athens 2006, 2006Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10.
    Hunter, Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, EMM (Entreprenörskap, Marknadsföring, Management).
    Davidsson, Per
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, EMM (Entreprenörskap, Marknadsföring, Management).
    Anderson, Helén
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, EMM (Entreprenörskap, Marknadsföring, Management).
    Celebrity Entrepreneurship: Insights for New Venture Strategy2007Inngår i: Frontiers of entrepreneurship research 2007: Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh Annual Entrepreneurship Research Conference / [ed] Andrew Zacharakis et al., Wellesley, MA.: Babson College , 2007Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigate a relatively new empirical phenomenon: Celebrity Entrepreneurship. By conducting three experiments on a total of 314 participants, designed to reflect a new venture promotional setting, we find support for our hypothesis that celebrity entrepreneurs are more effective communicators than ordinary celebrity endorsers. This is apparently due to an increase in their perceived involvement with the companies they endorse. Specifically, our results show that increasing levels of perceived involvement has a positive effect on attitudes towards new ventures and advertisements.

  • 11.
    Klyver, Kim
    et al.
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Hunter, Erik
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, EMM (Entreprenörskap, Marknadsföring, Management).
    Watne, Torgeir
    Swinburne University Of Technology, Hawthorn, Vic, Australia.
    Entrepreneurial Embeddedness and Innovativeness in the Start-up Process2008Inngår i: Proceedings of Regional Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 2008: 5th International Australian Graduate School of Entrepreneurship (AGSE) Entrepreneurship Research Exchange, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 05-08 February 2008, Hawthorn, Victoria: Australian Graduate School of Entrepreneurship, Swinburne University of Technology , 2008, s. 285-298Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data collected in 45 countries over three years (2002-2004), this study investigates the influence of entrepreneurial embeddedness on innovativeness as nascent entrepreneurs (N=7,067) are in the process of starting new businesses. Previous studies have investigated the effect of entrepreneurial embeddedness on the likelihood that individuals choose to start a business rather than pursue other vocational opportunities. The current study expands this focus, from looking at the vocational decision, to how entrepreneurial embeddedness influences the level of innovativeness once individuals have decided to start a business. In so doing, this study makes an original contribution. The results indicate that knowing someone who has started a business within the last two years (entrepreneurial embeddedness), across nations worldwide, has a significant impact on level of innovativeness in the start-up process. Specifically, it was found that entrepreneurial embeddedness has a positive impact on newness to customers, newness of technology, level of export, and growth. Thus, if nascent entrepreneurs are embedded in an entrepreneurial network (know other entrepreneurs who recently started a business) it increases the likelihood that they expect to launch a product that is new to customers, that they expect to use new technology, that they expect to export, and that they expect growth.

  • 12.
    Naldi, Lucia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, EMM (Entreprenörskap, Marknadsföring, Management).
    Sciascia, Salvatore
    Hunter, Erik
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, EMM (Entreprenörskap, Marknadsföring, Management).
    Market Orientation as Determinant of Entrepreneurship2006Inngår i: Research at the Marketing/Entrepreneurship interface, University of Chicago , 2006Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13. Sciascia, Salvatore
    et al.
    Naldi, Lucia
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, EMM (Entreprenörskap, Marknadsföring, Management).
    Hunter, Erik
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, EMM (Entreprenörskap, Marknadsföring, Management).
    Market orientation as determinant of entrepreneurship: An empirical investigation on SMEs2006Inngår i: The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, ISSN 1554-7191, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 21-38Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO) and Market Orientation (MO) are considered key factors in ensuring firm longevity in the new competitive landscape. Despite extensive research during the past decade, most of the studies use samples that exclude small and medium enterprises (SMEs), which represent the majority of economic activity worldwide. Some studies do investigate this relationship in small companies but place little importance on the subtle differences between SMEs and large companies when measuring MO. This study empirically investigates the relationship between MO and EO on a sample of 2500 Swedish SMEs. A new measure of MO that takes into consideration SMEs specific conditions has been developed and used. Findings suggest that MO is the main determinant of EO in SMEs.

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