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  • 1.
    Eklund, Mona
    et al.
    Institutionen för Hälsa, vård och samhälle, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi och gerontologi, Lunds universitet.
    Gunnarsson, Birgitta
    Institutionen för Hälsa, vård och samhälle, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi och gerontologi, Lunds universitet.
    Content validity, discriminant validity and responsiveness of the Satisfaction with Daily Occupations (SDO) instrument: A screening tool for people with mental disorders2008In: British Journal of Occupational Therapy, Vol. 71, no 11, p. 487-495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A screening tool for assessing satisfaction with daily occupations among people with mental illness has been devised - the Swedish version of the Satisfaction with Daily Occupations (SDO) instrument - comprising a satisfaction scale and an activity level scale. The aim was to investigate the SDO for content validity, clinical utility, sensitivity to change and discriminant ability. Nine occupational therapists evaluated the content validity of the SDO. Sensitivity to change was assessed on a sample of 36 clients in psychosocial occupational therapy. Discriminant ability was evaluated by comparing four samples: (1) 103 clients with a diagnosis of severe mental illness, (2) 55 clients attending an outpatient mental health clinic, (3) 36 women with a diagnosis of systemic sclerosis and (4) 40 healthy women. The SDO rendered positive ratings regarding content validity, but some rewording of items was indicated as well as clearer instructions. Both the satisfaction scale and the activity level scale were found to be responsive to change. Discriminant ability was shown in that, in particular, the activity level score distinguished the mentally ill participants from the other samples. The SDO was shown to reflect the targeted phenomenon satisfactorily and to be sensitive enough to detect change following an occupational therapy intervention. However, so far only the Swedish version of the SDO has been studied, but an English version is available whose cross-cultural validity should be examined.

  • 2.
    Eklund, Mona
    et al.
    Institutionen för Hälsa, vård och samhälle, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi och gerontologi, Lunds universitet.
    Gunnarsson, Birgitta
    Institutionen för Hälsa, vård och samhälle, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi och gerontologi, Lunds universitet.
    Satisfaction with Daily Occupations: Construct validity and test-retest reliability of a screening tool for people with mental disorders2007In: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 59-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Aim: In occupational therapy research and in clinical practice there is a need for valid, reliable and easily administered measures. For research and screening purposes, the Satisfaction with Daily Occupations (SDO) instrument was developed. It addresses work, leisure, domestic tasks and self-care and generates a satisfaction and an activity level score. This study investigated its construct validity, internal consistency and test–retest reliability in 55 clients visiting occupational therapists in outpatient mental health care.

    Methods: The SDO was administered on two occasions with a 1-week interval, and data on the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), psychosocial functioning and self-rated health were collected on the first of these occasions.

    Results: In contrast to what was expected, the relationships between the SDO scores and the COPM scores were low. The strongest relationship between the SDO satisfaction score and any other variable was to psychosocial functioning. These variables shared 23% of the variance. Internal consistency for the satisfaction score was acceptable, alpha = 0.75 on the second occasion, and the test–retest reliability was good; rs = 0.84 for the satisfaction score and rs = 0.92 for the activity level.

    Conclusions: The results indicated that the SDO has satisfactory reliability. The instrument targets a specific construct, as compared to the COPM and the measurements of self-rated health and psychosocial functioning. Thus, the SDO and the COPM satisfaction scale seem to assess different phenomena, probably because the SDO has predefined items, not specifically targeting a certain client's problematic occupations, whereas the COPM is based on self-defined problems. The instruments may therefore supplement each other.

  • 3. Eklund, Mona
    et al.
    Gunnarsson, BirgittaJönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.Leufstadius, Christel
    Aktivitet & relation: mål och medel inom psykosocial rehabilitering2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Gunnarsson, Anna Birgitta
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Petersson, Kerstin
    Institutionen för Hälsa, vård, samhälle Lunds universitet.
    Leufstadius, Christel
    Institutionen för Hälsa, vård, samhälle Lunds universitet.
    Jansson, Jan-Åke
    Institutionen för psykologi, Lunds universitet.
    Eklund, Mona
    Institutionen för Hälsa, vård, samhälle Lunds universitet.
    Client perceptions of the Tree Theme Method™: a structured intervention based on storytelling and creative activities2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 200-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Tree Theme Method (TTM) is an intervention based on sessions involving creative activities and life storytelling/story-making, in which the client paints trees representing various periods of his/her life. The aim of this study was to investigate clients' experiences of participating in a TTM intervention and their perceptions of the therapeutic relationship. Thematic interviews were undertaken. Twenty clients attending general outpatient mental healthcare units were recruited after having participated in the intervention. A qualitative content analysis resulted in six categories: “From feeling a pressure to perform to becoming focused and expressive”, “Expressing oneself and one's life situation led to awakening of memories and feelings”, “New perspectives of self-image, everyday life and relations to others”, “Story-making led to shaping and reconstructing one's life story”, “Interaction was of importance when reconstructing one's life story” and, finally, “The attitude of the occupational therapist was of importance for the development of the therapeutic relationship”. There seemed to be a close association between the intervention and the therapeutic relationship in starting a process of opening up new perspectives on everyday life, but there is a need for further studies including therapists' experience of using the TTM and their perception of the client–therapist relationship.

  • 5.
    Gunnarsson, Birgitta
    Landstinget Kronoberg, Växjö.
    Gruppbehandling för personer med ätstörningar. 2004In: Arbetsterapeuten, no 2, p. 16-18Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Gunnarsson, Birgitta
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    The Three Theme Method®2010In: Aktivitet & relation: mål och medel inom psykosocial rehabilitering / [ed] Mona Eklund, Birgitta Gunnarsson, Christel Leufstadius, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010, 1, p. 245-262Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Gunnarsson, Birgitta
    Institutionen för Hälsa, vård och samhälle, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi och gerontologi.
    The Tree Theme Method – an occupational therapy intervention applied in outpatient psychiatric care.2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Gunnarsson, Birgitta
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    The Tree Theme Method® (TTM) som arbetsterapeutisk metod – en introduktion2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna FoU-rapport ger dig en introduktion och översiktlig beskrivning av The Tree Theme Method® (TTM), en strukturerad och klientcentrerad metod. TTM är avsedd att användas av arbetsterapeuter efter fördjupad teoretisk och praktisk kurs (ges bland annat i FSAs regi). Metoden används huvudsakligen på klienter inom psykiatrisk vård men även klienter inom primärvård och smärtrehabilitering kan ha nytta av TTM. Klientens livssituation uttrycks i bildskapande och livsberättelse. I bildskapandet används trädet som symbol. Olika trädteman blir ett redskap för att uttrycka klientens känslor, tankar och erfarenheter. I livsberättelsen ligger fokus på vardagliga aktiviteter och att skapa en vision av framtida mål. I kontakten med arbetsterapeuten kan klienten identifiera viktiga vändpunkter och möjliga förändringar i vardagen.

  • 9.
    Gunnarsson, Birgitta
    et al.
    Institutionen för Hälsa, vård och samhälle, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi och gerontologi, Lunds universitet.
    Eklund, Mona
    Institutionen för Hälsa, vård och samhälle, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi och gerontologi, Lunds universitet.
    The Tree Theme Method as an intervention in Psychosocial Occupational Therapy: Client acceptability and outcomes2009In: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 167-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/aim: The Tree Theme Method (TTM) is an intervention in which the client paints trees representing certain periods in his/her life. The intervention comprises five sessions, using trees as a starting point to tell one's life story. This study, which is part of an implementation project, aimed to examine the therapeutic alliance and client satisfaction, in relation to perceptions of everyday occupations and health-related factors, with clients going through a TTM intervention.

    Methods: Nine occupational therapists recruited 35 clients, at general outpatient mental health care units, for the TTM intervention. Self-rating instruments, targeting therapeutic alliance (HAq-II), different aspects of daily occupations (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Satisfaction with Daily Occupations), health-related factors (Sense of Coherence measure, Mastery Scale, Symptom Checklist-90-R) and client satisfaction (Client Satisfaction Questionnaire), were administrated before and after the intervention.

    Results: A good initial therapeutic alliance, experienced by both therapists and clients, was correlated to increased changes regarding occupational performance and self-mastery. According to the therapists’ ratings, a good initial therapeutic alliance was correlated to increased sense of coherence and a decreased level of psychiatric symptoms. The results showed positive significant changes in occupational performance and health-related factors. High ratings of the therapeutic alliance by the therapists were also related to high client satisfaction.

    Conclusions: The TTM seemed to function well in psychosocial occupational therapy, but there is a need for further implementation studies to deepen our understanding of the treatment process, comprising both technique and formation of the therapeutic alliance.

  • 10.
    Gunnarsson, Birgitta
    et al.
    Institutionen för Hälsa, vård och samhälle, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi och gerontologi, Lunds universitet.
    Jansson, Jan-Åke
    Institutionen för psykologi, Lunds universitet.
    Eklund, Mona
    Institutionen för Hälsa, vård och samhälle, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi och gerontologi, Lunds universitet.
    The Tree Theme Method in psychosocial occupational therapy – a case study2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 229-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to describe the Tree Theme Method (TTM) as a method for intervention in psychosocial occupational therapy. The TTM is based on theories concerning creative activities and occupational storytelling and story making. In order to exemplify the method a case study of a treatment process with follow up was undertaken. The participant was a female client suffering from anxiety and depression. During an interview the client painted symbolic trees on five different occasions with specific variations of the tree theme: a tree symbolizing her present life, her childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and, finally, a tree representing her future. The trees were used as starting points for the client to tell her life story. The intention was that she would find new strategies for how to change her daily life. Three years later there was a follow up stage where the client painted new trees and told her story. Some life themes were identified. The TTM appears suitable for intervention in psychosocial occupational therapy. In future studies the TTM should be subjected to evaluation research based on several clients in order to develop a deeper understanding of the process and what kind of results changes in the TTM intervention may provide.

  • 11.
    Gunnarsson, Birgitta
    et al.
    Institutionen för Hälsa, vård och samhälle, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi och gerontologi, Lunds universitet.
    Jansson, Jan-Åke
    Institutionen för psykologi, Lunds universitet.
    Petersson, Kerstin
    Institutionen för Hälsa, vård, samhälle, Lunds universitet.
    Eklund, Mona
    Institutionen för Hälsa, vård och samhälle, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi och gerontologi, Lunds universitet.
    Occupational therapists’ perception of the Tree Theme Method™ as an intervention in psychosocial occupational therapy2011In: Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, ISSN 0164-212X, E-ISSN 1541-3101, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 36-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated how occupational therapists experience utilization of the Tree Theme Method, an intervention based on creative activities and life-story telling and making. The Tree Theme Method is comprised of five sessions in which the therapist asks the client to paint symbolic trees, with specific themes representing their present life situation, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and the future. Nine occupational therapists in mental health care were asked about their experiences when using the Tree Theme Method. The informants formed two focus groups and each group was interviewed twice. Qualitative content analysis was used to identify five categories including: (1) therapeutic frames, (2) therapist requirements, (3) client requirements, (4) the therapeutic relationship, and (5) the Tree Theme Method as a multi-dimensional process. Overall the informants were satisfied with the intervention with some variation as to therapists' perception about the helpfulness of the tool. The Tree Theme Method was experienced as a structured method of starting a therapeutic process and initiating a therapist-client relationship. The therapeutic attitude, self-knowledge, and expert knowledge seemed to be important prerequisites for the therapists when using the Tree Theme Method intervention.

  • 12.
    Gunnarsson, Birgitta
    et al.
    Department of Research and Development, Region Kronoberg, Växjö, Sweden.
    Wagman, Petra
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Hedin, Katarina
    Futurum, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Carita
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Treatment of depression and/or anxiety – outcomes of a randomised controlled trial of the tree theme method® versus regular occupational therapy2018In: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 6, no 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Depression and anxiety disorders are a major concern in western countries, and because these often have a negative affect on everyday life interventions based on activities in everyday life are needed. The Tree Theme Method® (TTM) is a client-centred occupational therapy intervention designed to increase the ability to cope with, and to enhance satisfaction with, everyday life, both at home and at work. The aim of this study was to compare the short term outcomes of the TTM intervention with regular occupational therapy treatment for people with depression and/or anxiety disorders.

  • 13. Gustafsson, Ulf
    et al.
    Gunnarsson, Birgitta
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Boman Sjöstrand, Åsa
    Grahn, Birgitta
    Hemrehabilitering för äldre i olika stora kommuner: upplevd kvalitet, funktionsförändring, organisationsförutsättningar, resursförbrukning och statliga stimulansmedels betydelse för utvecklingen2010Report (Other academic)
  • 14. Jansson, Jan-Åke
    et al.
    Gunnarsson, Birgitta
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Motivations- och emotionspsykologi2010In: Aktivitet & relation: mål och medel inom psykosocial rehabilitering / [ed] Mona Eklund, Birgitta Gunnarsson, Christel Leufstadius, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010, 1, p. 99-118Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15. Leufstadius, Christel
    et al.
    Gunnarsson, Birgitta
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Tjörnstrand, Carina
    Skapande aktivitet2010In: Aktivitet & relation: mål och medel inom psykosocial rehabilitering / [ed] Mona Eklund, Birgitta Gunnarsson, Christel Leufstadius, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010, 1, p. 217-244Chapter in book (Other academic)
1 - 15 of 15
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