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  • 1.
    Björkman, Berit
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Mälardalens Universitet.
    Sigstedt, Bo
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för naturvetenskap och biomedicin.
    Enskär, Karin
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för omvårdnad.
    Children's experience of going through an acute radiographic examination.2012Ingår i: Radiography, ISSN 1078-8174, E-ISSN 1532-2831, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 84-89Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Children’s experience of radiographic examinations remains largely unexplored, although most radiog- raphers examine children on a daily basis. In order to provide the high quality care that meets the needs of patients it was considered important to undertake research focused upon the patients’ experience of radiographic practice.

    The aim of the study was to investigate children’s experiences undergoing a radiographic examination for a suspected fracture.

    Inclusion criteria were Swedish-speaking children between 3 and 15 years of age who were submitted for a radiographic examination with an acute condition of the upper or lower extremity. Patients were informed of the study and together with the escorting parent or relative asked for consent to participate.

    During the examination the child was videotaped and immediately after, the child was interviewed in a nearby facility. The interview contained open-ended questions and was conducted while watching the videotape together with the child and their parent or relative and the researcher.

    Qualitative content analysis was used in analyzing the collected data. The analysis resulted in two categories e “feeling uncomfortable” and “feeling confident”. The subcategories contained in these categories were “pain in relation to injury and examination”, “the waiting time is strenuous”, “worries for the future and consequences of the injury”, “confidence in parental presence”, “confidence in radio- graphic staff and examination procedure”, and finally “recognition entails familiarity”.

    The results revealed that for the younger children, the experience of undergoing an acute radiographic examination was associated with pain and anxiety, but for the older children, the anxiety was more connected to whether the injury had caused a fracture and any anticipated future consequences or complications.

  • 2.
    Björkman, Berit
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Nilsson, Stefan
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Sigstedt, Bo
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för naturvetenskap och biomedicin.
    Enskär, Karin
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Children’s pain and distress while undergoing an acute radiographic examination2012Ingår i: Radiography, ISSN 1078-8174, E-ISSN 1532-2831, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 191-196Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pain has been highlighted as a main concern for children in conjunction with an acute radiographic examination. The aim of this study was to further investigate children’s pain and distress while undergoing an acute radiographic examination.

    The study comprised 29 participants with an age range of 5–15 years who were injured and submitted to an acute radiographic examination of the upper or lower extremity when the question at issue was fracture. The Coloured Analogue Scale (CAS) and the Facial Affective Scale (FAS) were used as self-reporting scales to measure the children’s pain and distress. The Face, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability Behavioural scale (FLACC) was used as an observation tool to assess behaviours associated with pain in children.

    Descriptive statistics were used when analysing the scores, and the results showed that children experience pain and distress in conjunction with a radiographic examination after an injury. Spearman’s correlation was used to compare variables, and significant correlations were obtained between the self-reported pain and the observed pain behaviour. Fischer’s Exact test was used to compare groups, and when using the cut-off 3.0 on the self-reporting scale no significant correlation was found concerning the pain reported by children diagnosed with and without a fracture. No significant correlations were found concerning the self-reported distress and pain either, regardless of whether it was a first-time visit and whether a parent was near during the examination.

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