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  • 1. Jeleń, Piotr
    et al.
    Wit, Andrzej
    Dudziński, Krzysztof
    Nolan, Lee
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Expressing gait-line symmetry in able-bodied gait2008In: Dynamic Medicine, ISSN 1476-5918, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 17-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Gait-lines, or the co-ordinates of the progression of the point of application of the vertical ground reaction force, are a commonly reported parameter in most in-sole measuring systems. However, little is known about what is considered a "normal" or "abnormal" gait-line pattern or level of asymmetry. Furthermore, no reference databases on healthy young populations are available for this parameter. Thus the aim of this study is to provide such reference data in order to allow this tool to be better used in gait analysis. METHODS: Vertical ground reaction force data during several continuous gait cycles were collected using a Computer Dyno Graphy in-sole system(R) for 77 healthy young able-bodied subjects. A curve (termed gait-line) was obtained from the co-ordinates of the progression of the point of application of the force. An Asymmetry Coefficient Curve (AsC) was calculated between the mean gait-lines for the left and right foot for each subject. AsC limits of +/- 1.96 and 3 standard deviations (SD) from the mean were then calculated. Gait-line data from 5 individual subjects displaying pathological gait due to disorders relating to the discopathy of the lumbar spine (three with considerable plantarflexor weakness, two with considerable dorsiflexor weakness) were compared to the AsC results from the able-bodied group. RESULTS: The +/- 1.96 SD limit suggested that non-pathological gait falls within 12-16% asymmetry for gait-lines. Those exhibiting pathological gait fell outside both the +/- 1.96 and +/- 3SD limits at several points during stance. The subjects exhibiting considerable plantarflexor weakness all fell outside the +/- 1.96SD limit from 30-50% of foot length to toe-off while those exhibiting considerable dorsiflexor weakness fell outside the +/- 1.96SD limit between initial contact to 25-40% of foot length, and then surpassed the +/- 3SD limit after 55-80% of foot length. CONCLUSION: This analysis of gait-line asymmetry provides a reference database for young, healthy able-bodied subject populations for both further research and clinical gait analysis. This information is used to suggest non-pathological gait-line asymmetry pattern limits, and limits where detailed case analysis is warranted.

  • 2. Katdare, K
    et al.
    Slavin, M
    Laughton, C
    Nolan, Lee
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Bean, J
    Kerrigan, DC
    Lipsitz, L
    Collins, JJ
    Motor Control Changes In Ambulatory Elderly2001In: Proceedings of American Society of Biomechanics. San Diego, August 8-11., 2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Kerrigan, DC
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Riley, PO
    Nolan, Lee
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Toe-walking: new perspectives2000In: Pediatric Gait: A New Millennium in Clinical Care and Motion Analysis Technology., Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Computer Society Press , 2000, p. 53-60Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4. Laughton, Carrie A
    et al.
    Slavin, Mary
    Katdare, Kunal
    Nolan, Lee
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Bean, Jonathan F
    Kerrigan, D Casey
    Phillips, Edward
    Lipsitz, Lewis A
    Collins, James J
    Aging, muscle activity, and balance control: physiologic changes associated with balance impairment.2003In: Gait & Posture, ISSN 0966-6362, E-ISSN 1879-2219, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 101-108Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Lees, A
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Nolan, Lee
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    The biomechanics of soccer: a review.1998In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 211-234Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6. Lees, Adrian
    et al.
    Nolan, Lee
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Three dimensional kinematic analysis of the instep kick under speed and accuracy conditions2002In: Science and Football IV, London: Routledge , 2002, p. 16-21Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Li, Yumeng
    et al.
    Department of Kinesiology, California State University, Chico, USA .
    Simpson, Kathy J.
    Department of Kinesiology, University of Georgia, Athens, USA .
    Nolan, Lee
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Miller, Marilyn
    Millsboro, USA .
    Johnson, Benjamin
    epartment of Kinesiology and Health Promotion, University of Kentucky, Lexington, USA.
    Lower extremity kinematics of curve sprinting displayed by runners using a transtibial prosthesis2018In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 293-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to determine if the kinematics exhibited by skilled runners wearing a unilateral, transtibial prosthesis during the curve section of a 200-m sprint race were influenced by interaction of limb-type (prosthetic limb (PROS-L) vs. nonprosthetic limb (NONPROS-L)) and curve-side (inside and outside limb relative to the centre of the curve). Step kinematics, toe clearance and knee and hip flexion/extension, hip ab/adduction for one stride of each limb were generated from video of 13 males running the curve during an international 200 m transtibial-classified competition. Using planned comparisons (P < 0.05), limb-type and curve-side interactions showed shortest support time and lowest hip abduction displacement by outside-NONPROS-L; shortest step length and longest time to peak knee flexion by the inside-PROS-L. For limb-type, greater maximum knee flexion angle and lower hip extension angles and displacement during support and toe clearance of PROS-Ls occurred. For curve-side, higher hip abduction angles during non-support were displayed by inside-limbs. Therefore, practitioners should consider that, for curve running, these kinematics are affected mostly by PROS-L limitations, with no clear advantage of having the PROS-L on either side of the curve. 

  • 8.
    Nolan, Lee
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    A TRAINING PROGRAMME TO IMPROVE HIP STRENGTH IN PERSONS WITH LOWER LIMB AMPUTATION2012In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 241-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the effect of a 10-week training programme on persons with a lower limb amputation and to determine if this training is sufficient to enable running. Subjects: Seven transtibial, 8 transfemoral and 1 bilateral amputee (all resulting from trauma, tumour or congenital) were randomly assigned to a training (n = 8) or control group (n = 8). Methods: Isokinetic hip flexor and extensor strength at 60 and 120 degrees/s and oxygen consumption while walking at 1.0 m/s were tested pre- and post- a 10-week period. The training group followed a twice weekly hip strengthening programme, while the control group continued with their usual activities. Running ability was determined pretesting, and attempted after post-testing for the training group only. Results: The training group increased hip strength and decreased oxygen consumption. Six amputees who were previously unable to run were able to after training. The control group decreased intact limb hip extensor strength. Conclusion: The training programme is sufficient to improve hip strength and enable running in persons with a lower limb amputation. As hip strength was reduced in those not following the training programme, it is recommended that strength training be undertaken regularly in order to avoid losing limb strength following amputation.

  • 9.
    Nolan, Lee
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Carbon fibre prostheses and running in amputees: A review2008In: Foot and Ankle Surgery, ISSN 1268-7731, E-ISSN 1460-9584, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 125-129Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Nolan, Lee
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Klara, färdiga ... spring!: En bok om att gå, motionera och idrotta med benprotes2007Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Nolan, Lee
    Jönköping University. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Längdhopp för benamputerade2004In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 2, p. 13-16Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Nolan, Lee
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Grigorenko, A
    Thorstensson, A
    Age and gender differences in postural control2004In: XVth Congress of the International society of electrophysiology & kinesiology, ISEK 2004: Boston, Ma. USA, June 18-21, 2004, Roma: Medimond international proceedings , 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Nolan, Lee
    et al.
    Jönköping University. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Grigorenko, Anatoli
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Balance control: sex and age differences in 9- to 16-year-olds.2005In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 47, no 7, p. 449-454Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Nolan, Lee
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    Ground reaction forces during long jump take-off for transtibial amputees2007In: Proceedings of The XXV International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports. August 32-27, Ouro Preto, Brazil, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Nolan, Lee
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Kaczmarczyk, Katarzyna
    Factors affecting balance in stroke patients2006In: Abstracts of the 5th World Congress of Biomechanics: Journal of Biomechanics Vol 39 (Suppl 1), 2006, p. 30-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Nolan, Lee
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Kerrigan, D Casey
    Keep on your toes: gait initiation from toe-standing.2003In: Journal of Biomechanics, ISSN 0021-9290, E-ISSN 1873-2380, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 393-401Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Nolan, Lee
    et al.
    Jönköping University. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Kerrigan, D Casey
    Postural control: toe-standing versus heel-toe standing.2004In: Gait & Posture, ISSN 0966-6362, E-ISSN 1879-2219, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 11-15Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Nolan, Lee
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Kerrigan, DC
    Collins, JJ
    Postural control mechanisms in normal and toe-standing2001In: Proceedings of GCMAS. Sacramento, April 25-28, 2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Nolan, Lee
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Lees, A
    The functional demands on the intact limb during walking for active trans-femoral and trans-tibial amputees.2000In: Prosthetics and orthotics international, ISSN 0309-3646, E-ISSN 1746-1553, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 117-125Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Nolan, Lee
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Lees, A
    Touch-down and take-off characteristics of the long jump performance of world level above- and below-knee amputee athletes.2000In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 43, no 10, p. 1637-1650Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Nolan, Lee
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Lees, Adrian
    Prosthetic limb versus intact limb take-off in the amputee long jump2005In: Proceedings of The XXIII International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports. August 22-27 2005, Beijing, China, 2005, p. 305-308Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Nolan, Lee
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Lees, Adrian
    The influence of lower limb amputation level on the approach in the amputee long jump2007In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 393-401Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Nolan, Lee
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Patritti, Benjamin
    The take-off phase in transtibial amputee high jump2008In: Prosthetics and orthotics international, ISSN 0309-3646, E-ISSN 1746-1553, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 160-171Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Nolan, Lee
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Patritti, Benjamin L
    Simpson, Kathy J
    A biomechanical analysis of the long-jump technique of elite female amputee athletes2006In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 38, no 10, p. 1829-1835Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Nolan, Lee
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Patritti, Benjamin L.
    Repatriat Gen Hosp, Dept Rehabil & Aged Care, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Simpson, Kathy J.
    Univ Georgia, Dept Kinesiol, Athens, GA 30602 USA.
    Effect of take-off from prosthetic versus intact limb on transtibial amputee long jump technique2012In: Prosthetics and orthotics international, ISSN 0309-3646, E-ISSN 1746-1553, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 297-305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Increasing numbers of long jumpers with lower limb amputations choose to take off from their prosthetic limb. It is not yet known what difference in technique, if any, this requires, or which is more advantageous. Objectives: To investigate kinematic differences in long jump technique in athletes with a unilateral transtibial ampution (TT) who take off from their prosthetic limb versus those who take off from their intact limb. Study Design: Naturalistic, field-based, observational; independent group, nonparametric comparison. Methods: Two-dimensional sagittal plane kinematic analysis was performed on all athletes competing in the men's Paralympic TT long jump finals. Five athletes took off from their prosthetic limb (TOprosth) and five from their intact limb (TOintact). Results: No differences were seen between the two groups in terms of jump distance, approach speed or vertical velocity at touch down. While in contact with the take-off board, the two groups gained a similar amount of vertical velocity. However, the TOprosth group appeared to conserve horizontal velocity by using the prosthesis as a 'springboard', minimizing the large hip and knee range of motion displayed by the TOintact group and athletes in previous studies. Conclusions: While differences in technique were observed, no difference was found for jump distance.

  • 26.
    Nolan, Lee
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Patritti, BL
    Simpson, KJ
    Long jump technique of elite female lower-limb amputee athletes2006In: Abstracts of the 5th World Congress of Biomechanics: Journal of Biomechanics Vol 39 (Suppl 1), 2006, p. 552-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Nolan, Lee
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Wit, A
    Dudzinski, K
    Lees, A
    Lake, MJ
    Wychowanski, M
    Adjustments in Gait Symmetry with Walking Speed in Above- and Below-knee Amputees1998In: Proceedings of 3rd Annual Congress of the European College of Sports Science. Manchester, 1998, p. 160-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Nolan, Lee
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Wit, Andrzej
    Dudziñski, Krzysztof
    Lees, Adrian
    Lake, Mark
    Wychowañski, Michał
    Adjustments in gait symmetry with walking speed in trans-femoral and trans-tibial amputees2003In: Gait & Posture, ISSN 0966-6362, E-ISSN 1879-2219, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 142-151Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 29. Patritti, BL
    et al.
    Simpson, KJ
    Nolan, Lee
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Approach velocity profiles of elite male and female lower-limb amputee long jumpers2005In: Proceedings of the XXth Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics, Cleveland, Ohio, USA, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Rusaw, David
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Hagberg, Kerstin
    University of Gothenburg.
    Nolan, Lee
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Ramstrand, Nerrolyn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics. Karolinska Institutet and GIH, Stockholm.
    Bilateral electromyogram response latency following platform perturbation in unilateral transtibial prosthesis users: Influence of weight distribution and limb position2013In: Journal of rehabilitation research and development, ISSN 0748-7711, E-ISSN 1938-1352, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 531-544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Appropriate muscular response following an external perturbation is essential inpreventing falls. Transtibial prosthesis users lack a foot-ankle complex and associatedsensorimotor structures on the side with a prosthesis. Its effect on rapid responses ofthe lower-extremity to external surface perturbations is unknown. The aim of thepresent study was to compare electromyographic (EMG) response latencies of otherwisehealthy unilateral transtibial prosthesis users (n=23, mean age 48 years [standarddeviation 14]) and a matched control group (n=23, mean age 48 years [standard deviation13]) following sudden support surface rotations in the pitch plane (toes-up and toesdown).Perturbations were elicited in various weight-bearing and limb-perturbedconditions. The results indicated that transtibial prosthesis users have delayed responsesof multiple muscles of the lower-extremity following perturbation, both in the intact limband the residual limb. Weight-bearing had no influence on the response latency in theresidual limb, but did on the intact limb. Which limb received the perturbation wasfound to influence the muscular response, with the intact limb showing a significantlydelayed response when the perturbation was received only on the side with a prosthesis.These delayed responses may represent an increased risk of falling for individuals thatuse a transtibial prosthesis.

  • 31.
    Rusaw, David
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Hagberg, Kerstin
    Institute for Clinical Sciences, Department of Orthopaedics, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nolan, Lee
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Ramstrand, Nerrolyn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Can vibratory feedback be used to improve postural stability in persons with transtibial limb loss?2012In: Journal of rehabilitation research and development, ISSN 0748-7711, E-ISSN 1938-1352, Vol. 49, no 8, p. 1239-1254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of vibration as a feedback modality to convey motion of the body has been shown to improve measures of postural stability in some groups of patients. Because individuals using transtibial prostheses lack sensation distal to the amputation, vibratory feedback could possibly be used to improve their postural stability. The current investigation provided transtibial prosthesis users (n = 24, mean age 48 yr) with vibratory feedback proportional to the signal received from force transducers located under the prosthetic foot. Postural stability was evaluated by measuring center of pressure (CoP) movement, limits of stability, and rhythmic weight shift while participants stood on a force platform capable of rotations in the pitch plane (toes up/toes down). The results showed that the vibratory feedback increased the mediolateral displacement amplitude of CoP in standing balance and reduced the response time to rapid voluntary movements of the center of gravity. The results suggest that the use of vibratory feedback in an experimental setting leads to improvements in fast open-loop mechanisms of postural control in transtibial prosthesis users.

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