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  • 1.
    Allwood, Jens
    University of Gothenburg.
    Bodily communication dimensions of expression and content2002In: Multimodality In Language And Speech Systems, Dordrecht: Springer, 2002, Vol. 19, p. 7-26Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Allwood, Jens
    SCCIIL Interdisciplinary Center, Dept. of AIT University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden .
    Cognition, communication, and readiness for language2012In: Pragmatics & Cognition, ISSN 0929-0907, E-ISSN 1569-9943, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 334-355Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review article discusses some problems and needs for clarification that are connected with the use of the concepts culture, language, tool, and communication in Daniel Everett’s recently published book, Language: The Cultural Tool. It also discusses whether the idea of biological readiness and preparedness for language (rather than grammar) can really be disposed of as a result of Everett’s very convincing arguments against a specific genetic predisposition for the syntactic component of a grammar. Finally, it calls into question whether Everett really is true to his professed ideology of scientific ideographical pragmatism. ©2012 John Benjamins Publishing Company.

  • 3.
    Allwood, Jens
    Institutionen för lingvistik & Kollegium SSKKII.
    Language survival kits2006In: Lesser-Known Languages Of South Asia: Status And Policies, Case Studies And Applications Of Information Technology / [ed] Saxena, A; Borin, L, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2006, Vol. 175, p. 279-292Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Allwood, Jens
    University of Gothenburg.
    Meaning potentials and context: Some consequences for the analysis of variation in meaning2003In: Cognitive Approaches To Lexical Semantics, 2003, Vol. 23, p. 29-65Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest a view of word meaning on the type level which is based on “meaning potentials” rather than on reified type meanings founded on either of the two traditional approaches of abstract generalization (Gesamtbedeutung) and typical or basic meaning (Grundbedeutung). It is suggested that actual meaning on the occurrence level is produced by context-sensitive operations of meaning activation and meaning determination which combine meaning potentials with each other and with contextually given information rather than by some simple compositionality operations yielding phrase and sentence meaning from simple type meanings of one of the two traditional kinds. To establish this goal, I first present the traditional notions and discuss some problems which arise when trying to handle variation in meaning. I then specifically discuss the relation of homonymy and polysemy to the traditional notions. In section 3, 1 introduce the notion of “meaning potentials” as an alternative to the traditional notions and then discuss in section 4 how this notion might be used to handle problems of meaning variation, focusing especially on homonymy and polysemy.

  • 5.
    Allwood, Jens
    Institutionen för lingvistik & Kollegium SSKKII.
    Multimodal corpora2008In: Corpus Linguistics, Part 1 / [ed] Ludeling, A; Kyto, M, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2008, Vol. 29, p. 207-225Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Allwood, Jens
    Department of Linguistics and SSKKII, Center for Cognitive Studies, University of Gothenburg, Box 200, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Some remarks on the relationship between the semantic and the pragmatic web2008In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on the Pragmatic Web: Innovating the Interactive Society / [ed] Pär J. Ågerfalk, New York: ACM Press, 2008, Vol. 363, p. 35-39Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the relations between the semantic and the pragmatic web. After recapitulating some characterizations and definitions of the semantic and the pragmatic web two main tasks of pragmatics and of the pragmatic web are distinguished. The nature of the first of these tasks is then briefly discussed, leaving a further explication for future work. The paper ends by relating both tasks of the pragmatic web to the semantic web. Copyright 2008 ACM.

  • 7.
    Allwood, Jens
    et al.
    Department of Linguistics, University of Göteborg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ahlsén, E.
    Learning how to manage communication, with special reference to the acquisition of linguistic feedback1999In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 31, no 10, p. 1353-1389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study has two parts. The first part gives a theoretical overview of what a child has to learn in order to manage communication, whereas the second part provides a longitudinal case study. The case study shows how a child, from the age of 1 year and 8 months to the age of 3 years and 3 months, learns how to use different means for interacting in order to make contextually relevant communicative contributions. We can see how such aspects of his communication as mean length of utterances (MLU), use of onomatopoeia, communicative gestures, and informative actions develop in interaction with each other. A more specific study of linguistic feedback (feedback morphemes and repetitions) shows the development in different activities of the use of feedback. The role of the linguistic feedback system in language acquisition is also discussed. ©1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Allwood, Jens
    et al.
    SSKKII Interdisciplinary Center, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ahlsén, E.
    Multimodal intercultural information and communication technology - A framework for designing and evaluating multimodal intercultural communicators2009In: Multimodal corpora : from models of natural interaction to systems and applications / [ed] Michael Kipp, et al, Berlin: Springer, 2009, Vol. 5509 LNAI, p. 160-175Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a framework, combined with a checklist for designing and evaluating multimodal, intercultural ICT, especially when embodied artificial communicators are used as front ends for data bases, as digital assistants, as tutors in pedagogical programs or players in games etc. Such a framework is of increasing interest, since the use of ICT across cultural boundaries in combination with the use of ICT by persons with low literacy skills is rapidly increasing. This development presents new challenges for intercultural ICT. A desideratum for interculturally sensitive artificial communicators is a generic, exportable system for interactive communication with a number of parameters that can be set to capture intercultural variation in communication. This means a system for a Generic, Multimodal, Intercultural Communicator (a GMIC). ©Springer-Verlag 2009.

  • 9.
    Allwood, Jens
    et al.
    University of Göteborg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Cerrato, L.
    Jokinen, K.
    Navarretta, C.
    Paggio, P.
    The MUMIN coding scheme for the annotation of feedback, turn management and sequencing phenomena2007In: Language resources and evaluation, ISSN 1574-020X, E-ISSN 1574-0218, Vol. 41, no 3-4, p. 273-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with a multimodal annotation scheme dedicated to the study of gestures in interpersonal communication, with particular regard to the role played by multimodal expressions for feedback, turn management and sequencing. The scheme has been developed under the framework of the MUMIN network and tested on the analysis of multimodal behaviour in short video clips in Swedish, Finnish and Danish. The preliminary results obtained in these studies show that the reliability of the categories defined in the scheme is acceptable, and that the scheme as a whole constitutes a versatile analysis tool for the study of multimodal communication behaviour. ©2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  • 10.
    Allwood, Jens
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet, Kollegium SSKKII, Tvärvetenskapligt Ctr. K., Sweden.
    Cheadle, M.
    Green, A.
    Interactive acquisition of terminology describing job applicants in job advertisements1999In: Human IT, ISSN 1402-1501, E-ISSN 1402-151X, Vol. 3, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several computer based job classification systems for the labour domain and the purpose of which mainly is to enable search and to collect statistics. The systems typically encode information about the job, the workplace, the employer, the salary, necessary education and experience, duration, hours, need for a driving licence etc. But actual job advertisements, for example such that can be found in the Swedish Job Bank, a set of web pages containing information about job vacancies provided by AMS, the Swedish government agency for labour market activities, often contain requirements that are not included in these classification schemes; the applicant should enjoy working with people, be able to pick up new things quickly or be creative. In an effort to extend existing schemes we have developed a taxonomy of properties like these and a computer tool that can be used to analyse text based on the categories in the taxonomy. The tool can also be used to construct future taxonomies. In this work, we will present the taxonomy, the computer tool and some results based on using the tool. This paper has three purposes; the first is to present a taxonomy of personal properties of job applicants in job advertisements, the second is to present a tool that can be used both to develop such a taxonomy and to analyse text using the taxonomy, and the third is to describe some results of having used the tool and the taxonomy to analyse job advertisements.

  • 11.
    Allwood, Jens
    et al.
    SCCIILL Interdisciplinary Center, Department of Applied IT, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Chindamo, M.
    Ahlsen, E.
    On identifying conflict related stances in political debates2012In: Proceedings - 2012 ASE/IEEE International Conference on Privacy, Security, Risk and Trust and 2012 ASE/IEEE International Conference on Social Computing, SocialCom/PASSAT 2012, 2012, p. 918-925Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss some problems in identifying stances and the features that express these stances in televised political debates where there is conflict escalation. The study is based on an analysis of video-recorded political debates in different European languages (Italian (1), German (2) and US-American English (1)) and consists of a qualitative analysis of the videos in order to understand the similarities and differences in the use of social signals for stances in conflict situations in a similar setting (televised political debate) in three western cultures. ©2012 IEEE.

  • 12.
    Allwood, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Groqvist, L
    Ahlsén, E
    Gunnarsson, M
    Annotations and tools for an activity based Spoken Language Corpus2003In: Current And New Directions In Discourse And Dialogue, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003, Vol. 22, p. 1-18Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Allwood, Jens
    et al.
    Department of Linguistics, University of South Africa, PO Box 392, Pretoria 0003, South Africa.
    Grönqvist, L.
    Hendrikse, A. P.
    Developing a tagset and tagger for the African languages of South Africa with special reference to Xhosa2003In: Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies, ISSN 1607-3614, E-ISSN 1727-9461, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 223-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are currently two distinct but not necessarily mutually exclusive approaches to the retrieval of information from linguistic corpora. ’Corpus-driven’ approaches rely solely on the corpus itself to yield significant patterns. With the exception of orthographic spacing, no additional annotations to a ’raw’ corpus are used to guide searches and the retrieval of information from the corpus. Typically, key word in context (KWIC) analyses are applied to relevant concordance lines to extract statistically significant lexical and grammatical patterns. In ’corpus-based’ approaches, on the other hand, information is retrieved from an enriched corpus on the basis of annotations in the form of linguistic tags and annotations. That is, the annotations are used to direct the searches to specific grammatical and lexical phenomena in a corpus. In this article, we propose a corpus-based approach and a tagset to be used on a corpus of spoken language for the African languages of South Africa. A number of problematic linguistic phenomena such as fixed expressions, agglutination, morphemic merging and spoken language phenomena such as interrupted words etc., often have some effect on tagging principles. These problematic phenomena are discussed and illustrated. The development of the tagset is based on the morphosyntactic properties of Xhosa for reasons that are outlined in the article. Manual tagging of a large corpus would be quite a daunting and time-consuming task, not to mention the potential for various kinds of errors. This problem is solved in a two-step process. Firstly, a computer-based drag-and-drop tagger was developed to facilitate the manual tagging of a so-called training corpus. This training corpus then forms the input to the development of an automatic tagger. The principles and procedures for the development of an automatic tagger for African languages are also discussed. ©2003 NISC Pty Ltd.

  • 14.
    Allwood, Jens
    et al.
    Department of Linguistics, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hendrikse, A. P.
    Spoken language corpora for the nine official African languages of South Africa2003In: Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies, ISSN 1607-3614, E-ISSN 1727-9461, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 189-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we give an outline of a corpus planning project which aims to develop linguistic resources for the nine official African languages of South Africa in the form of corpora, more specifically spoken language corpora. In the course of the article, we will address issues such as spoken language vs. written language, register vs. activity and normative vs. non-normative approaches to corpus planning. We then give an outline of the design of a spoken language corpus for the nine official African languages of South Africa. We consider issues such as representativity and sampling (urban-rural, dialects, gender, social class and activities), transcription standards and conventions as well as the problems emanating from widespread loans and code switching and other forms of language mix characteristic of spoken language. Finally, we summarise the status of the project at present and plans for the future. ©2003 NISC Pty Ltd.

  • 15.
    Allwood, Jens
    et al.
    Department of Linguistics, Göteborg University, Box 200, 40530 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Kopp, S.
    Grammer, K.
    Ahlsén, E.
    Oberzaucher, E.
    Koppensteiner, M.
    The analysis of embodied communicative feedback in multimodal corpora: A prerequisite for behavior simulation2007In: Language resources and evaluation, ISSN 1574-020X, E-ISSN 1574-0218, Vol. 41, no 3-4, p. 255-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Communicative feedback refers to unobtrusive (usually short) vocal or bodily expressions whereby a recipient of information can inform a contributor of information about whether he/she is able and willing to communicate, perceive the information, and understand the information. This paper provides a theory for embodied communicative feedback, describing the different dimensions and features involved. It also provides a corpus analysis part, describing a first data coding and analysis method geared to find the features postulated by the theory. The corpus analysis part describes different methods and statistical procedures and discusses their applicability and the possible insights gained with these methods. ©2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  • 16.
    Allwood, Jens
    et al.
    Gothenburg University, SSKKII, Sweden.
    Lind, Mikael
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics.
    Making the Web more Pragmatic: Exploring the Potential of some Pragmatic Concepts for IS Research and Development2008In: The Inaugural meeting of The AIS Special Interest Group on Pragmatist IS Research (SIGPrag 2008) at International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS2008), France, The AIS Special Interest Group on Pragmatist IS Research (SIGPrag 2008) – www.sigprag.org , 2008, p. 67-72Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we examine some pragmatic concepts that we believe have a potential in relation to three core activities of the IS-field; 1) description and understanding, 2) evaluation, and 3) design. The concepts that we will examine are “social activity”, “communicative act”, “sequences of communicative acts” or “exchange types”, “communicative feedback” and “turn management”. We describe the concepts and then exemplify how they can be used to analyze web services by examining e-mail and Wikipedia as two activities currently on the web. Our analysis leads to a  partly new description of both phenomena. It also leads to a number of open questions concerning the functionalities of both phenomena. 

  • 17.
    Allwood, Jens
    et al.
    SSKKII/SCCIIL, Dept. of Applied IT, Chalmers and University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindström, N. B.
    Lu, J.
    Intercultural dynamics of fist acquaintance: Comparative study of Swedish, Chinese and Swedish-Chinese first time encounters2011In: Universal access in human-computer interaction : 6th International Conference, UAHCI 2011, held as part of HCI International 2011, Orlando, FL, USA, July 9-14, 2011, proceedings / [ed] Constantine Stephanidis, Berlin: Springer, 2011, Vol. 6768 LNCS, no PART 4, p. 12-21Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, intercultural first acquaintance meetings are becoming more and more frequent. The aim of this study is to describe, analyze and compare Swedish, Chinese and Swedish-Chinese first acquaintance interactions. Our focus lies on a classification of the topics in mono- and intercultural first-time encounters. The analysis is based on 12 arranged face-to-face first acquaintance interactions between Chinese-Chinese, Swedish-Swedish and Swedish-Chinese students (4 of each dyad). The interactions are video-recorded and transcribed. In addition, semi-structured interviews with the participants have been conducted to get a better understanding of their communication. The method of activity-based communication analysis is used to analyze the data. The result of the study is a classification and a cross-cultural comparison of topics and the order of their occurrence in first time encounters. In addition, the study sheds light on the similarities and differences between Chinese and Swedish communication patterns. ©2011 Springer-Verlag.

  • 18.
    Allwood, Jens
    et al.
    Department of Linguistics University of Göteborg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Nivre, J.
    Ahlsén, E.
    On the semantics and pragmatics of linguistic feedback1992In: Journal of Semantics, ISSN 0167-5133, E-ISSN 1477-4593, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is an exploration in the semantics and pragmatics of linguistic feedback, i. e. linguistic mechanisms which enable the participants in spoken interaction to exchange information about basic communicative functions, such as contact, perception, understanding, and attitudinal reactions to the communicated content. Special attention is given to the type of reaction conveyed by feedback utterances, the communicative status of the information conveyed (i. e. the level of awareness and intentionality of the communicating sender), and the context sensitivity of feedback expressions. With regard to context sensitivty, which is one of the most characteristic features of feedback expressions, the discussion focuses on the way in which the type of speech act (mood), the factual polarity, and the information status of the preceding utterance influence the interpretation of feedback utterances. The different content dimensions are exemplified by data from recorded dialogues and by data given through linguistic intuition. Finally, two different ways of formalizing the analysis are examined, one using attribute-value matrices and one based on the theory of situation semantics. ©1992 N.I.S. Foundation (1992).

  • 19.
    Allwood, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Regmi, B. N.
    Dhakhwa, S.
    An activity based spoken language corpus of Lohorung2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social activities are an important part of the context of language use and provide many keys to understanding linguistic and communicative features. Such features can be well understood only if they are observed in their natural setting which to some extent is possible using a multimodal corpus as linguistic communication itself is multimodal. In order to study naturalistic multimodal communication using a corpus, the corpus should contain a combination of recordings, documentation, and transcription of multimodal communication from different social activities in naturalistic settings, preserving unedited conversation. This paper presents a brief account of the principles, methodology, current status, and further issues, based on an incrementally growing and multimodal activity based spoken language corpus of Lohorung.

  • 20.
    Allwood, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Regmi, B. N.
    Dhakhwa, S.
    Uranw, R. K.
    An activity based spoken language corpus of Nepali2012In: 2013 International Conference Oriental COCOSDA Held Jointly with 2013 Conference on Asian Spoken Language Research and Evaluation, O-COCOSDA/CASLRE 2013, 2012, p. 24-29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Language is used for communication and communication facilitates social activities. If we want to capture this, linguistic investigation has to be carried out within a wider context. Examination of linguistic communication in a wider context shows that it is multimodal. In order to study naturalistic multimodal communication using a corpus, the corpus should contain a combination of recordings, documentation, and transcription of multimodal communication from different social activities in naturalistic settings, preserving unedited conversation. This paper presents a brief account of the principles, methodology, current status, and preliminary findings, based on an incrementally growing and multimodal activity based spoken language corpus of Nepali. ©2012 IEEE.

  • 21.
    Allwood, Jens
    et al.
    Department of Linguistics, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden .
    Traum, D.
    Jokinen, K.
    Cooperation, dialogue and ethics2000In: International journal of human-computer studies, ISSN 1071-5819, E-ISSN 1095-9300, Vol. 53, no 6, p. 871-914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes some of the basic cooperative mechanisms of dialogue. Ideal cooperation is seen as consisting of four features (cognitive consideration, joint purpose, ethical consideration and trust), which can also to some extent be seen as requirements building on each other. Weaker concepts such as ‘coordination’ and ‘collaboration’ have only some of these features or have them to lesser degrees. We point out the central role of ethics and trust in cooperation, and contrast the result with popular AI accounts of collaboration. Dialogue is also seen as associated with social activities, in which certain obligations and rights are connected with particular roles. Dialogue is seen to progress through the written, vocal or gestural contributions made by participants. Each of the contributions has associated with it both expressive and evocative functions, as well as specific obligations for participants. These functions are dependent on the surface form of a contribution, the activity and the local context, for their interpretation. We illustrate the perspective by analyzing dialogue extracts from three different activity types (a travel dialogue, a quarrel and a dialogue with a computer system). Finally, we consider what kind of information is shared in dialogue, and the ways in which dialogue participants manifest this sharing to each other through linguistic and other communicative behaviour. The paper concludes with a comparison to other accounts of dialogue and prospects for integration of these ideas within dialogue systems.

  • 22. Bergh, I.
    et al.
    Gunnarsson, M.
    Allwood, Jens
    Department of Linguistics, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Odén, A.
    Sjöström, B.
    Steen, B.
    Descriptions of pain in elderly patients following orthopaedic surgery2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 110-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were to investigate what words elderly patients, who had undergone hip surgery, used to describe their experience of pain in spoken language and to compare these words with those used in the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) and Pain-O-Meter (POM). The study was carried out at two orthopaedic and two geriatric clinical departments at a large university hospital in Sweden. Altogether, 60 patients (mean age = 77) who had undergone orthopaedic surgery took part in the study. A face-to-face interview was conducted with each patient on the second day after the operation. This was divided into two parts, one tape-recorded and semi-structured in character and one structured interview. The results show that a majority of the elderly patients who participated in this study verbally stated pain and spontaneously used a majority of the words found in the SF-MPQ and in the POM. The patients also used a number of additional words not found in the SF-MPQ or the POM. Among those patients who did not use any of the words in the SF-MPQ and the POM, the use of the three additional words ’stel’ (stiff), ’hemsk’ (awful) and ’räd(d)(sla)’ (afraid/fear) were especially marked. The patients also combined the words with a negation to describe what pain was not. To achieve a more balanced and nuanced description of the patient’s pain and to make it easier for the patients to talk about their pain, there is a need for access to a set of predefined words that describe pain from a more multidimensional perspective than just intensity. If the elderly patient is allowed, and finds it necessary, to use his/her own words to describe what pain is but also to describe what pain is not, by combining the words with a negation, then the risk of the patient being forced to choose words that do not fully correspond to their pain can be reduced. If so, pain scales such as the SF-MPQ and the POM can create a communicative bridge between the elderly patient and health care professionals in the pain evaluation process. ©2005 Nordic College of Caring Sciences.

  • 23. Chindamo, M.
    et al.
    Allwood, Jens
    SCCIIL Interdisciplinary Center, Department of Applied IT, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ahlsen, E.
    Some suggestions for the study of stance in communication2012In: Proceedings - 2012 ASE/IEEE International Conference on Privacy, Security, Risk and Trust and 2012 ASE/IEEE International Conference on Social Computing, SocialCom/PASSAT 2012, 2012, p. 617-622Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interlocutors, express not only information in the form of spoken words but also their feelings and commitments with regard to what is being said. In face-to-face communication participants interact in such a way that they react to one another’s multimodal positioning in the conversation. Often this means that they take a ’stance’. The goal of this paper is to explore the notion of stance through a review and discussion of some of the relevant literature and then relate this to research on social signal processing (SSP). The main focus of the review is on the notion of stance in linguistics, as the point of departure for exploring other fields. Consideration of the relation between gestural communication and expression of emotions will give a more complete view of how a stance is taken and upheld. ©2012 IEEE.

  • 24. Dhakhwa, S.
    et al.
    Allwood, Jens
    SSKKII Interdisciplinary Center, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Self documentation of endangered languages2012In: 2012 8th International Symposium on Chinese Spoken Language Processing, ISCSLP 2012; Hong Kong; China; 5 December 2012 through 8 December 2012, 2012, p. 392-395Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several minority languages are on the verge of extinction in Nepal, especially when they don’t have a generally accepted writing system and occur in an area where Nepali (the official language) is predominantly used. Lohorung is an example, which is spoken among the Lohroung Rai communities of Sankhuwasabha, a hilly district of eastern Nepal. Older generations of Lohorung are experts in Lohorung but they have limitations in reading and writing English or Nepali. The documentation of Lohorung and other similar endangered languages is important. If the right tools and techniques are used, we believe that self documentation is one of the best ways, to document a language. We have developed an online platform which community members can use to collaboratively self document their language. The platform is a multimodal dictionary authoring and browsing tool and it has been developed with a focus on usability, ease of use and productivity. ©2012 IEEE.

  • 25. Henrichsen, P. J.
    et al.
    Allwood, Jens
    University of Gothenburg.
    Swedish and Danish, spoken and written language: A statistical comparison2005In: International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, ISSN 1384-6655, E-ISSN 1569-9811, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 367-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of much linguistic research is to determine the grammar and the lexicon of a certain language L. The spoken variant of L - in so far as it is considered at all - is generally taken to be just another projection of the same grammar and lexicon. We suspect that this assumption may be wrong. Our suspicion derives from our contrastive analyses of four corpora, two Swedish and two Danish (covering spoken as well as written language), suggesting that - in the dimensions of frequency distribution, word type selection, and distribution over parts of speech - the mode of communication (spoken versus written) is much more significant as a determining factor than even the choice of language (Swedish versus Danish). ©John Benjamins Publishing Company.

  • 26. Jokinen, K.
    et al.
    Allwood, Jens
    SSKKII, University of Göteborg, Box 200, 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hesitation in intercultural communication: Some observations and analyses on interpreting shoulder shrugging2010In: Culture and Computing: Computing and Communication for Crosscultural Interaction / [ed] Toru Ishida, New York: Springer, 2010, Vol. 6259 LNCS, p. 55-70Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns the different ways in which hesitation, and hesitation related phenomena like uncertainty, doubt and other phenomena where lack of knowledge is involved are expressed in different cultures. The paper focuses especially on shoulder shrugging as a signal of hesitation or uncertainty, and starts from the observation that shoulder shrugging has different interpretations depending on the interlocutor’s cultural background. It is not commonly used in Eastern cultures while in Western cultures it is a sign of uncertainty and ignorance. The paper reports a small study on the differences in interpretation of a particular video tape gesture, and draws some preliminary conclusions of how this affects intercultural communication between human interlocutors and between humans and conversational agents. ©2010 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  • 27. Kopp, S.
    et al.
    Allwood, Jens
    Dep. of Linguistics, Göteborg University, Box 200, Göteborg SE-40530, Sweden.
    Grammer, K.
    Ahlsen, E.
    Stocksmeier, T.
    Modeling embodied feedback with virtual humans2008In: Modeling communication with robots and virtual humans : second ZiF Research Group International Workshop on Embodied Communication in Humans and Machines, Bielefeld, Germany, April 5-8, 2006 ; revised selected papers / [ed] Ipke Wachsmuth, Günther Knoblich, Berlin: Springer, 2008, Vol. 4930 LNAI, p. 18-37Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In natural communication, both speakers and listeners are active most of the time. While a speaker contributes new information, a listener gives feedback by producing unobtrusive (usually short) vocal or non-vocal bodily expressions to indicate whether he/she is able and willing to communicate, perceive, and understand the information, and what emotions and attitudes are triggered by this information. The simulation of feedback behavior for artificial conversational agents poses big challenges such as the concurrent and integrated perception and production of multi-modal and multi-functional expressions. We present an approach on modeling feedback for and with virtual humans, based on an approach to study "embodied feedback" as a special case of a more general theoretical account of embodied communication. A realization of this approach with the virtual human Max is described and results are presented. ©2008 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  • 28. Navarretta, Costanza
    et al.
    Ahlsen, Elisabeth
    Allwood, Jens
    University of Gothenburg.
    Jokinen, Kristiina
    Paggio, Patrizia
    Feedback in Nordic First-Encounters: a Comparative Study2012In: Lrec 2012 - Eighth International Conference On Language Resources And Evaluation / [ed] Calzolari, N; Choukri, K; Declerck, T; et al., 2012, p. 2494-2499Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper compares how feedback is expressed via speech and head movements in comparable corpora of first encounters in three Nordic languages: Danish, Finnish and Swedish. The three corpora have been collected following common guidelines, and they have been annotated according to the same scheme in the NOMCO project. The results of the comparison show that in this data the most frequent feedback-related head movement is Nod in all three languages. Two types of Nods were distinguished in all corpora: Down-nods and Up-nods; the participants from the three countries use Down- and Up-nods with different frequency. In particular, Danes use Down-nods more frequently than Finns and Swedes, while Swedes use Up-nods more frequently than Finns and Danes. Finally, Finns use more often single Nods than repeated Nods, differing from the Swedish and Danish participants. The differences in the frequency of both Down-nods and Up-nods in the Danish, Finnish and Swedish interactions are interesting given that Nordic countries are not only geographically near, but are also considered to be very similar culturally. Finally, a comparison of feedback related words in the Danish and Swedish corpora shows that Swedes and Danes use common feedback words corresponding to yes and no with similar frequency.

  • 29. Regmi, B. N.
    et al.
    Allwood, Jens
    Department of Linguistics, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Own communication management in Nepali2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies multimodality in Own Communication Management (OCM) focusing on how linguistic communication involves gestures in order to manage communication. OCM is a basic function in face-to-face communication and concerns how a speaker, on the basis of feedback needs to be able to plan his or her contributions and to modify earlier content or expressions. Thus OCM has two major functions namely ’choice’ and ’change’ both of which are realized with OCM related expressions and operations. This paper reports on studies of the expressions, and operations in both of the OCM functions and their distribution patterns. It also reports on interaction between OCM expressions, and between OCM operation and other communicative functions (Interactive Communication Management (ICM) and main message (MM)). Some of the main findings from the study are that about 66% of all OCM expressions involve gestures, and that the distribution of choice and change function of OCM is about 90% to 10%. The OCM expressions have multiple functions and interact with other communicative functions including ICM and the main message resulting in a complex system. ©2013 IEEE.

  • 30. Salomonson, N.
    et al.
    Allwood, Jens
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT, Borås, Sweden and University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Lind, M.
    Alm, H.
    Comparing Human-to-Human and Human-to-AEA Communication in Service Encounters2013In: Journal of Business Communication, ISSN 0021-9436, E-ISSN 1552-4582, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 87-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of companies are introducing artificial agents as self-service tools on their websites, often motivated by the need to provide cost-efficient interaction solutions. These agents are designed to help customers and clients to conduct their business on the website. Their role on commercial websites is often to act as online sales/shopping assistants with the hope of replacing some of the interactions between customers and sales staff, thus supplementing or replacing human-to-human communication. However, research on artificial agents and comparisons with human-to-human communication, in particular, is still scarce. The purpose of this article is to explore the similarities and differences in communication between an artificial agent and customers compared with face-to-face communication between human service providers and customers. The method employed is a qualitative comparison of face-to-face human service provision in a travel agency setting and logs of interactions between customers and an artificial agent on an airline company website. The analysis is based on the theory of "activity-based communication analysis" and makes use of a framework of specific communication features provided by this theory. The article demonstrates a number of deficiencies in communication between artificial embodied agents and humans, suggesting that artificial embodied agents still lack many of the desirable communicative aspects of human-to-human service encounters. ©2013 by the Association for Business Communication.

  • 31. Salomonson, N.
    et al.
    Åberg, A.
    Allwood, Jens
    Department of Linguistics, University of Gothenburg, S-412 82 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Communicative skills that support value creation: A study of B2B interactions between customers and customer service representatives2012In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 145-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although interaction has been acknowledged as central in value creation there is still a lack of empirical studies on how value creation is accomplished in practice, and in particular how communicative skills support customers’ value creation. The purpose of this paper is therefore to generate a deeper understanding of how customer service representatives’ communicative skills in conversations with customers support customers’ value creation. We argue that value creating processes correspond to customers’ roles as "feelers", "thinkers" and "doers". Accordingly, value creation involves three interdependent elements, an emotional, a cognitive and a behavioral. Based on a qualitative research design, drawing on an empirical study of 80 telephone conversations between customers and customer service representatives in a business-to-business context, the paper demonstrates three communicative skills that are essential in supporting customers’ value creation: attentiveness, perceptiveness and responsiveness. The findings show how employees, by means of these communicative skills support customers’ value creation. Attentiveness supports cognitive elements of the customers’ value creating processes, whereas perceptiveness supports value creation in terms of cognitive, behavioral and emotional aspects. Finally, responsiveness supports the customer’s cognitive as well as behavioral value creation. ©2011 Elsevier Inc.

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