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  • 1.
    Jenkins, Anna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    After Firm Failure: Emotions, learning and re-entry2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Uncertainty is inherent to the entrepreneurship process. As such, the outcomes of entrepreneurial endeavors are unknown and unknowable a priori– some will be successful and others will fail. Entrepreneurship research, however, often focuses on new ventures and the entrepreneurs who own and run them in the start-up and growth phases. As a consequence, little is known about the failure experiences of entrepreneurs.

    In this dissertation I investigate how entrepreneurs interpret and respond to the failure of their firms. I focus on learning, re-entry into self-employment, and emotional recovery as important adaptive outcomes. To do this, I draw on cognitive-emotional theories of adaptation and motivation to capture the interplay between the interpretations of the failure, emotions, financial loss, coping behaviors, and adaptive outcomes. I employ a longitudinal quantitative design and survey owner-managers of firms that had recently gone bankrupt.

    The results are presented in four empirical papers that each focus on a specific aspect of the failure experience. The findings highlight that there is substantial variance in how entrepreneurs interpret firm failure and this has important implications for how they respond. Specifically, I show that loss of self-esteem is one mechanism which transfers failure of the firm to a personal failure for the entrepreneur and this help can explain why firm failure is emotionally devastating from some entrepreneurs and not others. I also found that coping can play a mediating role between the emotional and financial costs of failure and adaptive outcomes, providing empirical support for studying firm failure as part of an on-going entrepreneurial process rather than a single isolated event.

    Focusing on learning as an outcome from failure, I found that attributions for the failure influence what an entrepreneur learns from failure and through their influence on learning, motivation to re-enter self-employment. Hence, I tease out the relationship between learning from firm failure and motivation to apply what has been learned. Lastly, I consider how failure provides feedback information to entrepreneurs regarding their return to human capital in self-employment and that entrepreneurs factor this information into their decision making when deciding whether or not they re-enter self-employment.

    Taken together the dissertation provides a comprehensive picture of the implications of firm failure for entrepreneurs. The dissertation contributes to understanding why failure can be devastating for some entrepreneurs and not others and why some entrepreneurs learn from failure experiences and apply their new knowledge while others do not.

  • 2.
    Jenkins, Anna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Attributions, learning, and the motivation to re-enter self-employment after firm failureManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study draws on attribution theory (Weiner, 1985, 1986) and experiential learning theory (Argyris, 1976; Kolb, 1984) to explain the interdependencies among attributions, learning, and motivation to re-enter self-employment after firm failure. The hypotheses are tested using a unique sample of 122 Swedish entrepreneurs who had recently experienced firm failure and filed for firm bankruptcy. The results suggest that attributions for the causes of failure influence the types of knowledge and skills entrepreneurs gain from failure experiences. In turn, the nature of what is learned can influence entrepreneurial motivation. The results suggest that there are two types of entrepreneurs who are motivated to re-enter self-employment after experiencing firm failure— those who potentially learn the most and those who  potentially learn the least.

  • 3.
    Jenkins, Anna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, ESOL (Entrepreneurship, Strategy, Organization, Leadership).
    It is not what is felt but how it is managed: The implications of coping for grief and re-entry after firm failure2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Using coping theory as an overarching theoretical framework, this paper investigates the effects of emotional and financial loss on re-entry into self-employment after firm failure and subsequent feelings of grief. I hypothesize that how firm failure is experienced influences the choice of coping strategies. In turn, the choice of coping strategies influences re-entry and feelings of grief. To test these hypotheses I developed a unique, longitudinal database of entrepreneurs who recently filed for firm bankruptcy. The findings largely support the hypothesized relationships. This paper shows that how entrepreneurs manage and cope with firm failure has implications for how they feel and whether they re-enter self-employment. Future research could investigate the relationship between entrepreneurial motivation and the use of adaptive coping strategies.

  • 4.
    Jenkins, Anna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, ESOL (Entrepreneurship, Strategy, Organization, Leadership).
    Managing Grief: a key to re-entry after firm failure2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Jenkins, Anna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    On the rebound: The implications of coping for adaptive outcomes after firm failureManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the transactional model of stress and coping developed by Lazarus and colleagues as an overarching theoretical framework, this paper investigates the mediating role coping plays in re-entry into self-employment and emotional recovery after firm failure. I hypothesize that the psychological and financial costs of firm failure influence the relative use of different coping strategies. In turn, the choice of coping strategies influences re-entry into self-employment and emotional recovery. To test these hypotheses, I developed a unique longitudinal database of entrepreneurs who recently filed for firm bankruptcy. The findings largely support the hypothesized relationships. The findings contribute to the emerging stream of literature on entrepreneurial failure and the habitual entrepreneurship literature by providing insights into the role of coping after firm failure.

  • 6.
    Jenkins, Anna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Who fails over and over again and who learns from firm failure?2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Jenkins, Anna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Innovation Systems, Entrepreneurship and Growth . Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, ESOL (Entrepreneurship, Strategy, Organization, Leadership).
    Who learns from firm failure and who fails again and again: Attributions, learning and motivation to re-enter2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Jenkins, Anna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Brundin, Ethel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Anger, Guilt or Shame: A Study of Emotional Responses to Firm Failure2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Jenkins, Anna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Innovation Systems, Entrepreneurship and Growth . Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, ESOL (Entrepreneurship, Strategy, Organization, Leadership).
    Brundin, Ethel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, ESOL (Entrepreneurship, Strategy, Organization, Leadership).
    Wiklund, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Innovation Systems, Entrepreneurship and Growth . Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, ESOL (Entrepreneurship, Strategy, Organization, Leadership).
    Grief or Relief: Emotional responses to firm failure2010In: Frontiers of entrepreneurship research 2010: proceedings of the thirtieth annual entrepreneurship research conference / [ed] Zacharakis et.al., 2010, p. -15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a first systematic assessment of how entrepreneurs react to firm failure. As hypothesized, we find that these reactions are complex and multifaceted, involving grief as well as relief. We use appraisal theory as an overarching theoretical framework. To test the hypotheses we develop a unique, hand collected, database of entrepreneurs who recently filed for firm bankruptcy. 310 telephone interviews were conducted (response rate 65%) directly followed by a mail questionnaire. After a three-wave mailing (i.e. two reminders) 147 valid mail questionnaires were returned (response rate 31.2%). This paper constitutes an important step in advancing empirically valid theory of emotional responses to entrepreneurial failure.

  • 10.
    Jenkins, Anna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. The University of Queensland, Australia.
    Hunter, Erik
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hellerstedt, Karin
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Davidsson, Per
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
    Stigmatization of failed entrepreneurs: prevalence and solutions2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Jenkins, Anna S.
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre.
    The Changing Role of Different Learning Methods During The Entrepreneurship Process: A Conceptual Framework2008In: Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research: Proceedings of the Twenty-Eight Annual Entrepreneurship Research Conference / [ed] Andrew Zacharakis et al., Babson College , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Jenkins, Anna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Innovation Systems, Entrepreneurship and Growth .
    Wigren, Caroline
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Getting to Know the Academic Entrepreneur: An investigation into Commercialization of Knowledge and Research2007In: The Academy of Management Conference, Philadelphia, US, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Jenkins, Anna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Wiklund, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    A risky decision or an informed choice: Re-entry after firm failureManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We use human capital theory to investigate how entrepreneurs frame the decision to re-enter self-employment after experiencing firm failure. We suggest that in the context of re-entry individuals have valuable information regarding the return on their human capital in self-employment and factor this into their decision making. We develop hypotheses that incorporate this reduction in uncertainty regarding the returns to human capital in self-employment for predicting the likelihood that an individual re-enters self-employment after experiencing firm failure. We explain our results using human capital theory and prospect theory and suggest that there are two types of entrepreneurs who re-enter after experiencing firm failure: those who make an informed choice based on the return on their human capital in self-employment and those who take the chance to “win back” prior losses.

  • 14.
    Jenkins, Anna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Wiklund, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Brundin, Ethel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Individual responses to firm failure: Appraisals, grief, and the influence of prior failure experience2014In: Journal of Business Venturing, ISSN 0883-9026, E-ISSN 1873-2003, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 17-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a systematic assessment of how entrepreneurs react to firmfailure. We use appraisal theory as an overarching theoretical framework andhypothesize that the more the failure experience is appraised as stressful interms of its implications for harm or loss, the greater the feelings of grief. Totest this hypothesis we developed a unique database of entrepreneurs whorecently filed for firm bankruptcy. Our results support that there is greatvariation in responses to firm failure, and we provide theoretically validexplanations to why this is the case. These findings have substantialimplications for how scholars conceive and theorize about entrepreneurialfailure.

  • 15.
    Wigren, Caroline
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Jenkins, Anna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Innovation Systems, Entrepreneurship and Growth .
    Knowledge Transformation from Universities to Surrounding Society: The role of the individual academic2007In: Presented at the 10th Uddevalla Symposium, June, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Wigren, Caroline
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Jenkins, Anna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Innovation Systems, Entrepreneurship and Growth .
    Wahlbin, Clas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Who is the Academic Entrepreneur?2007In: Babson Entrepreneurship Research Conference, Madrid, Spain, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 16 of 16
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