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  • 1.
    Anderstaf, Susanna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Praktiknära utbildningsforskning (PUF), Preschool Education research.
    Lecusay, Robert
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Praktiknära utbildningsforskning (PUF), Preschool Education research.
    Nilsson, Monica
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Praktiknära utbildningsforskning (PUF), Preschool Education research.
    "Sometimes we have to clash": How Swedish preschool teachers' engage with cultural value differences2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research aims: This study aims to contribute knowledge about how preschool teachers engage with tensions stemming from cultural value differences among teachers, caregivers, and children.

    Relationship to previous research works: Motivating this work is current socio-cultural circumstances in Sweden in which preschool teachers are negotiating divergent curricular demands that simultaneously promote cultural diversity and a common tradition. Consequently, teachers are experiencing an increased burden to address societal expectations concerning cultural diversity without appropriate communicative and conceptual tools (Björk Willén et. al, 2013; Lunneblad, 2006).

    Theoretical and conceptual framework: We draw on Biesta’s (2006) – via Lingis (1994) - conception of the rational community (RC) and the community-without-community (CwC) as an interpretive framework.

    Paradigm, methodology and methods: Project data was gathered through a series of focus group interviews with teachers in two preschools in Sweden, using stimulus materials designed to elicit discussion about value conflicts and cultural diversity.

    Ethical Considerations: Informed consent was obtained from all study participants.

    Main finding or discussion: Teacher engagement with questions of culture and values were organized around discussions of actual and imagined disagreements between teachers and caregivers about activities with preschool children. Analysis through the lens of RC and CwC revealed that teachers on the one hand, reinforced societal values and avoided conflict through invocation of the language of the rational community; on the other hand, from a CWC perspective, they developed insights about the value of conflict as means of gaining insight into the perspectives and cultures of the caregivers, as well as about their professional development.

    Implications, practice or policy: Project findings have implications for the development of pedagogical and policy tools related intercultural processes in preschool education practice and research.

  • 2.
    Ardila-Ardila, A.
    et al.
    University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Medical Center.
    Goodkin, K.
    University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Medical Center.
    Concha-Bartolini, M.
    University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Medical Center.
    Lecusay-Ruiz, Robert
    University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Medical Center.
    O'Mellan-Fajardo, S.
    University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Medical Center.
    Suarez-Bustamante, P.
    University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Medical Center.
    Molina-Vasquez, R.
    University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Medical Center.
    Lee, D.
    University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Medical Center.
    Chayeb, G.
    University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Medical Center.
    Wilkie, F. L.
    University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Medical Center.
    HUMANS: una batería neuropsicologica para la evaluación de pacientes infectados con VIH-1: [Humans: a neuropsychological battery for evaluating HIV-1 infected patients]2003In: Revista de neurología (Ed. impresa), ISSN 0210-0010, E-ISSN 1576-6578, Vol. 36, no 8, p. 756-762Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To develop a neuropsychological test battery in Spanish for the cognitive evaluation of HIV-1 infected patients. Development. Departing from the suggestions presented by the work group of the National Institute of Mental Health (USA), a neuropsychological assessment battery was developed. It was named HUMANS (HIV/University of Miami Annotated Neuropsychological test battery in Spanish). This battery includes the following domains: 1) attention and speed of processing information, 2) memory, 3) executive function, 4) language, 5) visuospacial/visuoconstructive abilities, and 6) motor abilities. Administration takes about 3-4 hours. The English parallel version of this battery has been successfully used in English for over a decade with HIV-1 infected patients. In the paper the development and adaptation to Spanish language of the HUMANS neuropsychology section is presented Conclusions. HUMANS neuropsychological test battery fulfill the recommendations presented by the workgroup of the National Institute of Mental Health for evaluating HIV-1 infected patients. Studies regarding validity and reliability are still required.

  • 3.
    Barkhuus, Louise
    et al.
    University of California, San Diego, California, USA.
    Lecusay, Robert
    University of California, San Diego, California, USA.
    Social infrastructures as barriers and foundation for informal learning: Technology integration in an urban after-school center2012In: Computer Supported Cooperative Work, ISSN 0925-9724, E-ISSN 1573-7551, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 81-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore the relationship between social learning environments and the technological ecologies that practitioners, learners, and researchers develop to sustain them. Through an examination of ethnographic research conducted at an urban after-school learning program we show how social, technological and power infrastructures influence learning and interaction in this setting. Adopting a holistic approach we examine how technologies are integrated into activities in this program to support the learning of the after-school youth. We emphasize both positive and negative infrastructures that contribute to the learning environment and discuss how identifying these infrastructures are one of the first steps towards understanding and informing technology design in informal learning settings.

  • 4.
    Barkhuus, Louise
    et al.
    University of California, San Diego, USA.
    Lecusay, Robert
    University of California, San Diego, USA.
    Technologies and social learning in an urban after-school center2011In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM annual conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Extended Abstracts, 2011, p. 273-282Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore this relationship between social learning environments and the technological ecologies that practitioners, learners, and researchers develop to sustain them. Through an examination of ethnographic research conducted at an urban after-school learning program we gain insight into social, technological and power infrastructures that influence learning and interaction in this setting. Adopting a holistic approach we examine how technologies are integrated into activities in this program to support the learning of the after-school youth. We emphasize both positive and negative infrastructures that contribute to the learning environment and discuss how identifying these infrastructures are one of the first steps towards understanding and informing technology design in informal learning settings.

  • 5.
    Baumer, Sonja
    et al.
    University of California San Diego, Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition, La Jolla, CA, United States.
    Ferholt, Beth
    University of California San Diego, Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition, La Jolla, CA, United States.
    Lecusay, Robert
    University of California San Diego, Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition, La Jolla, CA, United States.
    Promoting narrative competence through adult-child joint pretense: Lessons from the Scandinavian educational practice of playworld2005In: Cognitive development, ISSN 0885-2014, E-ISSN 1879-226X, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 576-590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the effects of the playworld educational practice on the development of narrative competence in 5- to 7-year-old children. The playworld educational practice is derived from play pedagogy and the theory of narrative learning, both developed and implemented in Scandinavia. The playworld practice consists of joint adult-child pretense based in a work of children's literature, discussion, free play, and visual art production. When compared to children under a control intervention (conventional school practices without pretend play), children who participated in the playworld practice show significant improvements in narrative length, coherence, and comprehension, although not in linguistic complexity. These findings provide further evidence concerning the role of pretense in the narrative development of young children.

  • 6.
    Burbano, X.
    et al.
    University of Miami School of Medicine, Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Miami, FL, United States.
    Miguez, M. J.
    University of Miami School of Medicine, Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Miami, FL, United States.
    Lecusay, Robert
    University of Miami School of Medicine, Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Miami, FL, United States.
    Rodriguez, A.
    University of Miami School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Ruiz, P.
    University of Miami School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Morales, G.
    University of Miami School of Medicine, Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Miami, FL, United States.
    Castillo, G.
    University of Miami School of Medicine, Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Miami, FL, United States.
    Baum, M.
    Florida International University, College of Health Dietetics and Nutrition, Miami, FL, United States.
    Shor-Posner, G.
    University of Miami School of Medicine, Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Miami, FL, United States.
    Thrombocytopenia in HIV-infected drug users in the HAART era2001In: Platelets, ISSN 0953-7104, E-ISSN 1369-1635, Vol. 12, no 8, p. 456-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present case-control study compared 26 HIV+ drug users having persistent thrombocytopenia (TCP< 150 000/mm(3)) with 54 available age, gender and HIV CDC classification matched controls with normal platelet counts. Participants were followed longitudinally over a 2-year period (1998-2000), and hematological alterations evaluated in relationship to antiretroviral treatment, drug use and nutritional (selenium) status. Demographic information and medical history, including antiretroviral treatment were obtained. Blood was drawn for complete cell blood count, T lymphocytes and viral load. Sixty-nine percent of the individuals with persistent TCP and 49% of the controls were receiving antiretrovirals. At baseline, no significant differences in CD4 existed between the two groups. Over time, CD4 cell count declined in the cases (P = 0.05) and a significantly higher proportion of the cases (38%) developed AIDS (CD4< 200 cell/mm(3)), as compared to the controls (18%, P = 0.004). A high risk for development of thrombocytopenia was observed with specific drug use (heroin 2.96 times, P = 0.0007), selenium levels below 145 mug/l (6 times, P = 0.008), and abnormal liver enzyme (SGOT) levels (2 times, P = 0.002). Together, these results indicate a number of factors that may be sensitive predictors of thrombocytopenia, which, despite antiretroviral treatment, appears to be related to more rapid disease progression in drug users.

  • 7.
    Burbano, X.
    et al.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry/Behav. Sci., Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Miguez-Burbano, M. J.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry/Behav. Sci., Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    McCollister, K.
    Dept. of Epidemiology/Public Health, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Zhang, G.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry/Behav. Sci., Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Rodriguez, A.
    Department of Medicine, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Ruiz, P.
    Department of Pathology, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Lecusay, Robert
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry/Behav. Sci., Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Shor-Posner, G.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry/Behav. Sci., Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Impact of a selenium chemoprevention clinical trial on hospital admissions of HIV-infected participants2002In: HIV Clinical Trials, ISSN 1528-4336, E-ISSN 1945-5771, Vol. 3, no 6, p. 483-491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of selenium chemoprevention (200 μg/day) on hospitalizations in HIV-positive individuals. Method: Data were obtained from 186 HIV+ men and women participating in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled selenium clinical trial (1998-2000). Supplements were dispensed monthly, and clinical evaluations were conducted every 6 months. Inpatient hospitalizations, hospitalization costs, and rates of hospitalization were determined 2 years before and during the trial. Results: At enrollment, no significant differences in CD4 cell counts or viral burden were observed between the two study arms. Fewer placebo-treated participants were using antiretrovirals (p < .05). The total number of hospitalizations declined from 157 before the trial to 103 during the 2-year study. A marked decrease in total admission rates (RR = 0.38; p =.002) and percent of hospitalizations due to infection/100 patients for those receiving selenium was observed (p = .01). As a result, the cost for hospitalization decreased 58% in the selenium group, compared to a 30% decrease in the placebo group (p = .001). In the final analyses, selenium therapy continued to be a significant independent factor associated with lower risk of hospitalization (p = .001). Conclusion: Selenium supplementation appears to be a beneficial adjuvant treatment to decrease hospitalizations as well as the cost of caring for HIV-1-infected patients.

  • 8.
    Cole, Michael
    et al.
    University of California, San Diego.
    Lecusay, Robert
    University of California, San Diego.
    Rosero, Ivan
    University of California, San Diego.
    Creating hybrid after-school enrichment activities2012In: LEARNing Landscapes, ISSN 1913-5688, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 35-43Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this commentary we propose a collaborative strategy for the creation of informal learning activities in after-school settings that are also shared sites of learning, re-search, and development. We briefly trace the history of a research program—“UC-Links”—whose defining feature is a form of collaboration between institutions of higher learning and local community institutions responsible for youth in the after-school hours. These collaborations thrive only to the degree that “mutual appropria-tion” can be negotiated between partners, and it is within mutual appropriation that new possibilities for creative cross-generational and cross-cultural informal learning activities are materialized.

  • 9.
    Cole, Michael
    et al.
    Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition, University of California, San Diego.
    Lecusay, Robert
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Preschool Education Research. Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition, University of California, San Diego.
    Rosero, Ivan
    Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition, University of California, San Diego.
    Social Imaginaries about digital technologies and education in the afterschool hours: The reality is more interesting than the dream2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, a great deal of research and government money has been spent promoting the development of a digital infrastructure to support educational activities of grade school children attending after-school programs in a variety of “informal learning” environments. Based upon several years of ethnographic observations in a digitally-enriched afterschool setting in a poor, mostly African American, subsidized housing center, we have found such activities to be rich sites for understanding the way that youth media practices interact with, and enter into, activities specifically designed to enhance children’s learning through the use of powerful and attractive digital tools. The digital tools in this case included carefully designed simulations and stop motion animation. The activities included learning about parallel circuits as part of a physics curriculum and learning about the ocean and inhabitants as part of a curriculum unit on marine science. This research shows in rather stark manner the ways in which activities emanating from the school and the local cultural norms of the child participants in the after-school setting interact, often in conflictual ways that work against the best laid plans of the elders, while revealing educational potentials from hybridization in the circumstances of the local, after-school idioculture. Fostering participatory culture practices: Practical video production in an after-school program.

  • 10.
    Downing-Wilson, D.
    et al.
    Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition, University of California, San Diego, CA, United States.
    Lecusay, Robert
    Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition, University of California, San Diego, CA, United States.
    Rosero, I.
    Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition, Department of Communication, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States.
    Cole, M.
    Department of Communication, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States.
    A cultural-historical approach to university/community collaborative interventions2012In: The Oxford handbook of culture and psychology / [ed] Jaan Valsiner, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, p. 885-898Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore approaches to intervention research viewed from a broadly conceived culturalpsychological perspective. Although scholars who adopt this perspective share a belief in the centrality of culture in human development, they may differ in how they conceive of culture and how it enters into and participates in human thought and action. We examine two cultural-psychological strategies for developing and sustaining innovative educational environments: design experimentation and mutual appropriation. Design experimentation is an approach in which researchers and practitioners collaborate to simultaneously engineer innovative learning environments and understand salient aspects of human cognition and learning. They do so by developing and implementing, in a specific educational setting, a version of a learning design and iteratively revising this design in light of results from each implementation. Mutual appropriation refers to interventions in which the nature of the intervention is not prespecified, but negotiated among participants over time. We examine these approaches by introducing two examples of university-community research and educational collaborations. The first collaboration, The Beach Boys & Girls Club, is an example of an intervention based on the principles of design experimentation, while the second, the Town and Country Learning Center, illustrates the mutual appropriation approach. Through this comparative examination of the two intervention perspectives, we endeavor to show that a mutual appropriation approach can help the field create interventions that are themselves developmental in their fundamental methodology. © 2012 by Oxford University Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Downing-Wilson, Deborah
    et al.
    Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States.
    Lecusay, Robert
    Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States.
    Cole, Michael
    Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States.
    Design experimentation and mutual appropriation: Two strategies for university/community collaborative after-school interventions2011In: Theory & psychology, ISSN 0959-3543, E-ISSN 1461-7447, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 656-680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores a contrast between two strategies of intervention research. The first strategy, referred to as design experimentation, came to prominence through the writing of Ann Brown and Allan Collins. Design experiments were described as attempts to engineer innovative learning environments and simultaneously understand salient aspects of human cognition and learning. The core of the method is to place a version of a learning design into the world and iteratively revise the design in light of results from each implementation. The second strategy is referred to as mutual appropriation, a term used by Newman, Griffin, and Cole to describe teaching/learning processes in classrooms, but subsequently introduced into the intervention literature by Brown and Campione to describe an intervention process in which the nature of the intervention is not pre-specified, but negotiated among participants over time. We endeavor to show that a mutual appropriation approach can help the field create interventions which are themselves developmental in their fundamental methodology.

  • 12.
    Ferholt, Beth
    et al.
    University of California, San Diego, CA, United States.
    Lecusay, Robert
    University of California, San Diego, CA, United States.
    Adult and child development in the zone of proximal development: Socratic dialogue in a playworld2010In: Mind, culture and activity, ISSN 1074-9039, E-ISSN 1532-7884, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 59-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses adult and child development in the zone of proximal development in an educational practice based in Vygotsky's theories of play: the playworld educational practice. The playworld educational practice is a central component of a Scandinavian play pedagogy that promotes shared responsibility amongst adults and children for engaging in adult-child joint play. The playworld practice, which is based on a work of children's literature, includes joint adult-child scripted and improvisational acting and set design. We explore conditions under which playworld activities create a zone of proximal development that fosters development in both adult and child. Our analysis, based on data from a K-1 classroom, expands Vygotsky's concept of the zone of proximal development so that we see not only the unidirectional development of a child toward an adult stage of development but also the simultaneous development experienced by adults participating in the zone with the child.

  • 13.
    Ferholt, Beth
    et al.
    Brooklyn College, USA.
    Lecusay, Robert
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Praktiknära utbildningsforskning (PUF), Preschool Education research.
    Nilsson, Monica
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Praktiknära utbildningsforskning (PUF), Preschool Education research.
    Adult and Child Learning in Playworlds2018In: The Cambridge Handbook of Play: Developmental and Disciplinary Perspectives / [ed] J. Roopnarie and P. Smith, Cambridge University Press, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Goodkin, K.
    et al.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sciences, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Heckman, T.
    Department of Psychology, Ohio University, Athens, OH, United States.
    Siegel, K.
    School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States.
    Linsk, M.
    Jane Adams School of Social Work, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, United States.
    Khamis, I.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sciences, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Lee, D.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sciences, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Lecusay, Robert
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sciences, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Poindexter, C. C.
    Jane Adams School of Social Work, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, United States.
    Mason, S. J.
    Jane Adams School of Social Work, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, United States.
    Suarez, P.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sciences, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Eisdorfer, C.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sciences, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    "Putting a face" on HIV infection/AIDS in older adults: A psychosocial context2003In: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, ISSN 1525-4135, E-ISSN 1944-7884, Vol. 33, p. S171-S184Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Older HIV-1-seropositive individuals largely have not been investigated with respect to their psychosocial characteristics. In this article, the authors review research reported to date regarding the psychosocial context of this growing subgroup of HIV-1-infected individuals. Specifically, the authors consider the characteristics of mood state, life stressor burden, social support network, and coping strategies that individuals older than 50 years are more likely to adopt in adjusting to HIV-1 infection. The authors also separately consider issues of caregiving burden. Data supporting a theoretically based stressor-support-coping model are presented and related to targeting psychotherapeutic interventions for this age group.

  • 15.
    Lecusay, Robert
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Preschool Education Research.
    Book Review: Play, playfulness, creativity and innovation2016In: Journal of Playwork Practice, ISSN 2053-1621, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 2p. 174-175Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Lecusay, Robert
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Preschool Education Research.
    Building zones of proximal development with computer games in a U-C Links after-school program2014In: International Journal of Research in Extended Education, ISSN 2196-3673, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 13-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is widespread agreement that further research is needed in order to identify afterschool program characteristics useful for understanding why some programs are more successful than others. The bulk of recommendations put forth by researchers, practitioners and policy makers focus on observable characteristics of the afterschool setting as a whole. While these characteristics can be recorded on checklists for later aggregation into a quantifiable evaluation of the system, it is important to remember that they are the products of interactional processes. In the present analysis I focus on the dynamic human interactions that comprise these system-level evaluations. Drawing on video documentation of adult-child computer mediated activities in a UC-Links afterschool program, I illustrate how UC-Links design principles – which focus on the creation of cultures of collaborative learning – promote the learning and development of participating youth. In particular, I show how implementation of these principles support one of the key tasks in achieving quality teachinglearning after school: the successful negotiation of a common ground of engagement between interlocutors in an instructional interaction.

  • 17.
    Lecusay, Robert
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Preschool Education Research.
    Telementoring Physics: University-Community After-school Collaborations and the Mediation of the Formal/ Informal Divide2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For several decades improvement of science education has been a major concern of policy makers concerned that the U.S. is a “nation at risk” owing to the dearth of students pursing careers in science. Recent policy proposals have argued that provision of broadband digital connectivity to organizations in the informal sector would increase the reach of the formal, academic sector to raise the overall level of science literacy in the country.

    This dissertation reports on a longitudinal study of a physics telementoring activity jointly run by a university-community collaborative at a community learning center. The activity implemented a digital infrastructure that exceeds the technical and social-institutional arrangements promoted by policy makers. In addition to broadband internet access (for tele-conferencing between students at the community center and physicists at a university), supplemented by digital software designed to promote physics education, the activity included the presence of a collaborating researcher/tutor at the community learning center to coordinate and document the instructional activities.

    The current research revealed a fundamental contradiction between the logic, goals, and practices of the physics instructors, and the corresponding logic, goals, and practices of the participants at the community learning center. This contradiction revolves around a contrast between the physicists’ formal, logocentric ways of understanding expressed in the ability to explain the scientific rules underlying physical phenomena and the informal, pragmatic orientation of the youth and adults at the learning center.

    The observations in this dissertation should remind techno-enthusiasts, especially in the arena of public education policy, that there are no turnkey solutions in “distance” science education. Technically “connecting” people is not equivalent to creating conditions that expand opportunities to learn and a functioning socio-technical system that supports learning. Secondly, for designers and practitioners of informal learning in community-university collaborative settings, it is critically important to understand distance learning activities as developing “cross-cultural, ” collaborative encounters, the results of which are more likely to be hybrids of different ways of learning and knowing than the conversion of informal learning into a tool for instruction that will allow youth to “think like physicists.” 

  • 18.
    Lecusay, Robert
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Praktiknära utbildningsforskning (PUF), Preschool Education research. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Sustainability Education Research (SER).
    Mrak, Lina
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Praktiknära utbildningsforskning (PUF), Preschool Education research.
    Nilsson, Monica
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Praktiknära utbildningsforskning (PUF), Preschool Education research.
    Teachers Making Sense of Children’s Sense-making: Negotiating Pretense, Exploration, and Teaching in Sustainable, Multi-functional Preschool Environments.2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preschool teachers in Sweden are currently coping with growing curricular demands to engage in a more formal instruction, and to further develop education for sustainable development (ESD). A consequence of this is that teachers feel pressure to organize activities for very young children that privilege ”knowing that” over ”knowing how,” and to do so in the service of an interdisciplinary project – ESD – that can be challenging to organize in early childhood. As teachers adapt to these new challenges they negotiate tensions consequential to preschool children’s learning and develop- ment. The pressure to reorient to disciplinary learning can detract from arrangements of activities involving pretend and exploratory play. This is because the learning outcomes of these activities can be unpredictable and difficult to define. However, these activities are also associated with the kinds of outcomes (e.g. creativity, innovation, empathy, counterfactual thinking) and ethics (e.g. cultures of collaborative learning) of concern in ESD.

    In this paper we consider how preschool teachers in Sweden are negotiating the demands of engag- ing in more formal instruction and ESD, while cultivating local idiocultures that support children’s pretend and exploratory play. Our examination is based on case studies of teacher teams in three preschools that participated in a series of regional government-sponsored workshops organized to support teachers’ efforts to design their preschools’ outdoor spaces as sustainable, multifunctional environments. The case studies were based on field observations at the participating preschools and teacher interviews conducted prior to, during, and following the said workshops.

    Drawing on cultural-historical concepts of disruptive and productive tensions, we characterize how the participating teachers conceived of pretend play, exploration, teaching, and sustainability in relation to children’s engagement in preschool activities. We focus in particular on how teachers considered examples of activities in which the interaction of children and the material environment afforded pretend and exploratory play; how the teachers and children made sense of their activities through pretense and exploration; and if/how the teachers remediated these activities in ways intended to make the children’s learning visible. How and for whom this learning becomes visible is a central question of concern for us.

  • 19.
    Lecusay, Robert
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Praktiknära utbildningsforskning (PUF), Preschool Education research.
    Nilsson, Monica
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Praktiknära utbildningsforskning (PUF), Preschool Education research.
    Ferholt, Beth
    Brooklyn College, US.
    Exploratory playworlds: Reconsidering the relationship between pretend play and exploration in early childhood education2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preschools are increasingly focused on children’s cognitive development and school preparation at the expense of supporting the development of children as whole persons. Two preschool pedagogies that fall outside of this trend, and which have roots in Vygotsky’s theories of learning and development, are playworlds and the Reggio Emiliainspired pedagogy of listening. In playworlds, children’s pretend play is based in an understanding of children as creative. The pedagogy of listening does not focus on play but understands children as engaged, reflective culture creators, and focuses on the creation of environments that afford children’s exploration, a concept not theorized to the same degree as pretend play. In this paper we investigate the concept of exploration and exploratory play in relation to pretend play, and present our understanding of a preschool pedagogy that focuses simultaneously on play and exploration as sufficient for the growth of the whole person, that is, their becoming as a subject. We make this case by presenting two projects, drawn from an ethnography of three Swedish Preschools, in which children’s play and exploration were both foci. We argue that these examples force us to rethink what children do in pretend play and in exploration, and how both pretend play and exploration are related to learning and growth. Emphasizing subjectivity the introduction of scientific concepts, and school-based learning should be reconsidered from a didactical perspective: What, when, and how will scientific concepts be useful in the life of the child and for the growth of subjectivity?

  • 20.
    Lecusay, Robert
    et al.
    University of California, San Diego, Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition, Department of Communication, La Jolla, CA, United States.
    Rossen, Lars
    University of California, San Diego, Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition, Department of Communication, La Jolla, CA, United States.
    Cole, Michael
    University of California, San Diego, Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition, Department of Communication, La Jolla, CA, United States.
    Cultural-historical activity theory and the zone of proximal development in the study of idioculture design and implementation2008In: Cognitive Systems Research, ISSN 2214-4366, E-ISSN 1389-0417, Vol. 9, no 1-2, p. 92-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For a large part of its history cognitive science has been grounded in views of the mind based on the traditional Cartesian dualisms. These dichotomies have been reinforced in particular by the view of the mind as an encased symbol-processing system ''protected from the external world'' (Newell, A., Rosenbloom, P. S., & Laird J. E. (1990). Symbolic architectures for cognition. In M. I. Posner (Ed.), Foundations of cognitive science, Cambridge, MA: Bradford Books/MIT Press, pp. 93-131: 107). Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) seeks to supersede Cartesianism, thinking about cognition and culture as mutually constitutive of each other. This approach analyzes thought processes as embedded in and manifested through systems of historically developing, culturally mediated activity. Consequently for CHAT, a basic unit for the study of human thought is joint mediated activity. In this paper we will discuss an example of research that follows the CHAT approach to the analysis of learning and development. The data sample is taken from a session of the Fifth Dimension, an after-school activity designed to implement CHAT principles in order to promote the cognitive and social development of adult and child participants alike. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 21.
    Lemke, Jay
    et al.
    University of California, San Diego, USA.
    Lecusay, Robert
    University of California, San Diego, USA.
    Cole, Michael
    University of California, San Diego, USA.
    Michalchik, Vera
    Center for Teaching and Learning, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.
    Documenting and assessing learning in informal and media-rich environments2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today educational activities take place not only in school but also in after-school programs, community centers, museums, and online communities and forums. The success and expansion of these out-of-school initiatives depends on our ability to document and assess what works and what doesn’t in informal learning, but learning outcomes in these settings are often unpredictable. Goals are open-ended; participation is voluntary; and relationships, means, and ends are complex. This report charts the state of the art for learning assessment in informal settings, offering an extensive review of the literature, expert discussion on key topics, a suggested model for comprehensive assessment, and recommendations for good assessment practices.

    Drawing on analysis of the literature and expert opinion, the proposed model, the Outcomes-by-Levels Model for Documentation and Assessment, identifies at least ten types of valued outcomes, to be assessed in terms of learning at the project, group, and individual levels. The cases described in the literature under review, which range from promoting girls’ identification with STEM practices to providing online resources for learning programming and networking, illustrate the usefulness of the assessment model.

  • 22.
    Miguez-Burbano, M. J.
    et al.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences, Division of Disease Prevention, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Burbano, X.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences, Division of Disease Prevention, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Rodriguez, A.
    Department of Medicine, University of Miama School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Lecusay, Robert
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences, Division of Disease Prevention, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Rodriguez, N.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences, Division of Disease Prevention, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Shor-Posner, G.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences, Division of Disease Prevention, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Development of thrombocytosis in HIV plus drug users: Impact of antiretroviral therapy2002In: Platelets, ISSN 0953-7104, E-ISSN 1369-1635, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 183-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the exception of hemolytic anemia, the potential hematological toxicity of antiretrovirals (ARV) and combination treatments in HIV treated individuals has not been well established. We report, for the first time, hematological toxicity defined as thrombocytosis in 9% of the HIV+ patients receiving highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) being followed in a nutritional clinical trial. Participants were evaluated every 6 months during a 2-year period (1998-2000) and blood drawn for biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters. NK cells were negatively correlated with platelet counts in the total cohort (P = 0.018) and persistently elevated with ARVT. Chronic thrombocytosis was associated with significantly lower NK percentages (P = 0.005). Twenty-five percent of the patients with thrombocytosis developed a cardiovascular disease. Together, these results support the proposal that HAART may increase the risk of hematological dysfunction and impact the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  • 23.
    Miguez-Burbano, M. J.
    et al.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, United States.
    Pineda-Medina, L.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, United States.
    Lecusay, Robert
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, United States.
    Page, J. B.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Castillo, G.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, United States.
    Burbano, X.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, United States.
    Rodriguez, A.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Rodriguez, N.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, United States.
    Shor-Posner, G.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, United States.
    Continued high risk behaviors in HIV infected drug abusers2002In: Journal of Addictive Diseases, ISSN 1055-0887, E-ISSN 1545-0848, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 67-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To characterize current risk behaviors of HIV drug abusers in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, socio-demographic, medical and behavioral information were obtained and immune measurements determined. High-risk sexual practices were prevalent. Participants diagnosed before 1995 were 6 times more likely to have unprotected sex with HIV+ partners (p = 0.05) and 11 times more likely to use contaminated needles (p = 0.05) than participants with later diagnosis. Consistent condom use was reported by only 7% of the cohort. Many (43%) of the participants reported multiple HIV+ and HIV- concurrent partners. Most (65%), particularly women (OR = 3, p = 0.02), did so for drugs or money. Despite detectable viral loads, 36% reported unprotected anal sex. Antiretroviral-treated men, compared to non-treated, tended to have unprotected anal sex (OR = 2, p = 0.07). The continued high-risk behaviors of HIV drug users, particularly those diagnosed before 1995 and/or on antiretroviral therapy, indicates an urgent need for new public health strategies.

  • 24.
    Nilsson, Monica
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Preschool Education Research.
    Ferholt, Beth
    Brooklyn College, Early Childhood Education.
    Lecusay, Robert
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Preschool Education Research.
    Professional development through participation in playworld2016In: Abstract book: 26th EECERA Annual Conference, 'Happiness, Relationships, Emotion & Deep Level Learning', Dublin, Ireland, 31st August – 3rd September 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the paper is to develop knowledge about preschool teacher's professional development in activities based on a play pedagogical approach known as playworlds (Lindqvist, 1995). There is scant literature on teacher development that focuses on the teacher understood as a whole self -that is as a professional and a person. One exception is Ferholt and Lecusay's (2010) case study of adult-child mutual development in a playworld activity which highlights the potential of the playworld pedagogy for promoting qualitative changes in preschool teacher's pedagogical practices. We will apply the framework of relational pedagogy and particularly the concept of co-existence (Aspelin, 2011). The research presented draws on narrative analyses of transcripts of preschool teacher reflection meetings. These meetings were documented as part of an ethnography of three preschool units that incorporated a playworld approach during one school year in their Reggio-inspired classrooms. Informed consent was obtained from allthe teacher participants in this study. Participating preschool teachers described experiencing changes in their engagement at the preschool that were based on the integration of their professional and personal selves. This included a greater understanding of children's perspectives leading to a deepened connection with the children, and concomitant positive effects on collaboration between children and teachers. The teacher's attributed these changes to the ways in which in role-play with the children helped them step outside of their traditional role as teachers This research describes features of the playworld that promote this kind of holistic teacher development.

  • 25.
    Nilsson, Monica
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Praktiknära utbildningsforskning (PUF), Preschool Education research.
    Ferholt, Beth
    Brooklyn College, USA.
    Lecusay, Robert
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Praktiknära utbildningsforskning (PUF), Preschool Education research.
    'The Playing-Exploring Child': Re-conceptualizing the Relationship between Play and Learning in  Early Childhood Education2018In: Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, ISSN 1463-9491, E-ISSN 1463-9491, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 231-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we problematize the dichotomization of play and learning that often shapes the agenda of early childhood education research and practice. This dichotomization is driven in part by the tendency to define lerning in terms of formal learning (i.e. learning as an outcome of direct instruction; and of school-based approaches that focus on teacher-led, goal directed activities and declarative knowledge; and learning in the content areas, such as math and literacy). We argue for a re-conceptualization of early childhood education that understands learning and development not as an outcome, primarily, of instruction and teaching, but as an outcome of play and exploration. We develop this argument by drawing on Vygotsky’s theories of play, imagination, realistic thinking and creativity. These theories challenge another dichotomy -  that between imagination and reality -  by arguing that imagination is implicated in the meaning making of both play and exploration. Instead of relating play to learning where play is characterized by imagination and learning by reality, our re-conceptualization relates play to exploration and proposes that learning, defined as leading to human development, is an outcome of both of these two activities. We further develop our argument by presenting ethnographic material from a qualitative research project implemented in three Swedish preschools, whose practices are influenced by the Reggio Emilia pedagogical approach. The research conducted in this study contributes to new perspectives on the relationship between play and learning by introducing exploration as a counterpart to play, and this new perspective has implications for the design and practice of early childhood education, as well as for early childhood education research.

  • 26.
    Nilsson, Monica
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Praktiknära utbildningsforskning (PUF), Preschool Education research.
    Lecusay, Robert
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Praktiknära utbildningsforskning (PUF), Preschool Education research.
    Alnervik, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Praktiknära utbildningsforskning (PUF), Preschool Education research.
    Undervisning i förskolan: Holistisk förskoledidaktik byggd på lek och utforskande2018In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 9-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching in preschool: holistic preschool didactics built on play and exploration. In this article we critically examine and prob- lematize the concept of teaching in contemporary Swedish preschool provision, and sketch a holistic preschool didactics aimed at addressing key problems that emerge from the implementation of the concept of teaching in preschool. We briefly survey how teaching is conceptualized and managed from different theoretical perspectives and institutional discourses. Drawing on cultural historical activity theory and situated learning approaches, we argue for the formation of a preschool didactics based on a socio-cultural understanding of play in combination with a Reggio Emilia-inspired understanding of exploratory and project-based work methods.

  • 27.
    Nilsson, Monica
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Praktiknära utbildningsforskning (PUF), Preschool Education research.
    Lecusay, Robert
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Praktiknära utbildningsforskning (PUF), Preschool Education research.
    Alnervik, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Praktiknära utbildningsforskning (PUF), Preschool Education research.
    Undervisning i förskolan: Holistisk förskoledidaktik byggd på lek och utforskande2018In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 9-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we critically examine and problematizethe concept of teaching in contemporary Swedish preschoolprovision, and sketch a holistic preschool didactics aimed at addressingkey problems that emerge from the implementation of the concept ofteaching in preschool. We briefly survey how teaching is conceptualizedand managed from different theoretical perspectives and institutionaldiscourses. Drawing on cultural historical activity theory and situatedlearning approaches, we argue for the formation of a preschool didacticsbased on a socio-cultural understanding of play in combination with aReggio Emilia-inspired understanding of exploratory and project-basedwork methods.

  • 28.
    Nilsson, Monica
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Preschool Education Research.
    Lecusay, Robert
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Preschool Education Research. University of California, San Diego, United States.
    Ferholt, Beth
    Brooklyn College, United States.
    Alnervik, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Preschool Education Research.
    Preschool Didactics from Within2015In: Innovation, Experimentation and Adventure in Early Childhood: 25th EECERA annual conference, 2015, p. 16-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce ‘Preschools Didactics From Within’ (PDFW), a novel approach to preschool-based research. This approach focuses on the design of research projects that (a) specifically address issues faced by preschool teachers and children and (b) create opportunities for teachers and children to contribute their expertise by mutually occasioning self-reflection among teachers, children and researchers. Conquergood (2002) calls for the development of research models that “bridge segregated and differently valued knowledges” and bring together “legitimated as well as subjugated modes of inquiry,” (p.151-152). PDFW is one such model. Specifically, PDFW is a kind of formative intervention organized around principles of cultural historical activity theory (Engeström, 2008). Data include field notes, audio and video recordings, interviews and artwork that were collected by researchers, teacher and students. Informed consent was obtained from teachers, parents and guardians. Our analyses show that teachers and children who participate in PDFW construct novel solutions and concepts that can be used in other instances as tools for the development of locally appropriate pedagogical adaptations. The practice of pedagogical documentation is key to understanding the rich, dynamic processes underlying the development of these concepts ''from within". 'Preschool Didactics From Within' has wide implications for research design - not just in preschool didactics - that is rigorous, democratic and that promotes a collaborative ethic among research participants (researchers included) that positively transforms both partner organisations (preschools in this case) and the academy. 

  • 29.
    Nilsson, Monica
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Preschool Education Research.
    Lecusay, Robert
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Preschool Education Research. University of California, United States.
    Mrak, Lina
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Preschool Education Research.
    Ferholt, Beth
    Brooklyn College, City University of New York, United States.
    Alnervik, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Preschool Education Research.
    Toddlers and Teachers in Aesthetic Communication2015In: Innovation, Experimentation and Adventure in Early Childhood: 25th  EECERA annual conference, 2015, p. 99-99Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation outlines a preschool didactic of exploration focused on designing aesthetically-oriented learning environments in which teachers and children dialogically explore themes based on children’s interests. The work expands on recent research on pre-K teaching practices that combine performance art and drama pedagogies, Nordbø (2012); Haugen et al (2006). In this project we apply a performance studies framework, Johansson (2012) to analysis of data from an ongoing qualitative study of one-year old preschoolers. Our claims are based on video and interview data collected in a preschool over a period of four months. Informed consent was obtained from teachers, parents and guardians. We describe how the teachers create “installations” that occasion children’s aesthetic exploration, and argue that the communication that subsequently unfolds between children and teachers promotes their development as culture and knowledge creators, Dahlberg & Lenz Taguchi (1994). These installations form a kind of metaphorical dance: The teacher and children mutually lead one another in remediating the installations in ways that leverage repetition. This enables the children to explore differences and similarities among different iterations of these installations over time. Critical to this process is the practice of pedagogical documentation which teachers use to longitudinally chronicle and narrativise children's experiences of the changing installations. We show how children use their bodies to explore the environment, and how teachers correspondingly adapt these environments in ways that challenge the form and content of prior installations. These observations provide a general framework for practitioners interested in designing and implementing aesthetically oriented preschool activities. 

  • 30. Rosero, Ivan
    et al.
    Lecusay, Robert
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Preschool Education Research.
    Cole, Michael
    Ambiguous Coordination: Collaboration in Informal Science Education Research2011In: Versus: Quaderni di Studi Semiotici, ISSN 0393-8255, Vol. 112/113, p. 215-240Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Shor-Posner, G.
    et al.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sci. (D21), Division of Disease Prevention, Miami, United States.
    Lecusay, Robert
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sci. (D21), Division of Disease Prevention, Miami, United States.
    Miguez, M. J.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sci. (D21), Division of Disease Prevention, Miami, United States.
    Moreno-Black, G.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sci. (D21), Division of Disease Prevention, Miami, United States.
    Zhang, G. Y.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sci. (D21), Division of Disease Prevention, Miami, United States.
    Rodriguez, N.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sci. (D21), Division of Disease Prevention, Miami, United States.
    Burbano, X.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sci. (D21), Division of Disease Prevention, Miami, United States.
    Baum, M.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sci. (D21), Division of Disease Prevention, Miami, United States.
    Wilkie, F.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sci. (D21), Division of Disease Prevention, Miami, United States.
    Psychological burden in the era of Haart: Impact of selenium therapy2003In: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, ISSN 0091-2174, E-ISSN 1541-3527, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 55-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To determine the impact of nutritional (selenium) chemoprevention on levels of psychological burden (anxiety, depression, and mood state) in HIV/AIDS. Method: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled selenium therapy (200 mug/day) trial was conducted in HIV+ drug users from 1998-2000. Psychosocial measures (STAI-State and Trait anxiety, BDI-depression, and POMS- mood state), clinical status (CD4 cell count, viral load), and plasma selenium levels were determined at baseline and compared with measurements obtained at the 12-month evaluation in 63 participants (32 men, 31 women). Results: The majority of the study participants reported elevated levels of both State (68%) and Trait (70%) anxiety. Approximately 25% reported overall mood distress (POMS > 60) and moderate depression (BDI > 20). Psychological burden was not influenced by current drug use, antiretroviral treatment, or viral load. At the 12-month evaluation, participants who received selenium reported increased vigor (p = 0.004) and had less anxiety (State, p = 0.05 and Trait, p = 0.02), compared to the placebo-treated individuals. No apparent selenium-related affect on depression or distress was observed. The risk for state anxiety was almost four times higher, and nearly nine times greater for trait anxiety in the placebo-treated group, controlling for antiretroviral therapy, CD4 cell decline (> 50 cells) and years of education. Conclusions: Selenium therapy may be a beneficial treatment to decrease anxiety in HIV+ drug users who exhibit a high prevalence of psychological burden.

  • 32.
    Shor-Posner, G.
    et al.
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Lecusay, Robert
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Miguez-Burbano, M. J.
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Quesada, J.
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Rodriguez, A.
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Ruiz, P.
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    O'Mellan, S.
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Campa, A.
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Rincon, H.
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Wilkie, F.
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Page, J. B.
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Baum, M. K.
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Quality of life measures in the Miami HIV-1 infected drug abusers cohort: Relationship to gender and disease status2000In: Journal of Substance Abuse, ISSN 0899-3289, E-ISSN 1873-6491, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 395-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study examined activity, daily living, health, support, and outlook in HIV+ drug users. Methods: Using the physician-administered Spitzer Index, the study assessed 75 HIV-1 seropositive men (n = 51) and women (n = 24) enrolled in the Miami HIV-1 Infected Drug Abusers Study (MIDAS). Results: Total composite scores were significantly lower in the HIV-1 infected women than the men (p = .03). Significant gender differences were observed in activity assessment, independent of disease status, with women six times as likely to have lower activity scores (p = .0038). Most women (45%) in this category were homeless or marginally housed, compared to II percent of the men. Additionally, women with low activity scores had less social support than women with high activity scares. Cocaine use was significantly related to reports of normal activity, and varied across genders; more men used cocaine than women (p = .03). Conylared to non-AIDS participants, AIDS patients were more likely to have lower scores in health (p = .009) and poorer outlook (p = .03). Implications: These findings reveal specific deficits in areas of psychosocial capacity particularly in HIV-1 infected women who abuse drugs, that may need to be strengthened in order to enhance function and adherence to treatment, as well as well-being.

  • 33.
    Shor-Posner, G.
    et al.
    University of Miami School of Medicine, Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Miami, FL, United States.
    Lecusay, Robert
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Division of Disease Prevention, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Morales, G.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Division of Disease Prevention, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Campa, A.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Division of Disease Prevention, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Miguez-Burbano, M. J.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Division of Disease Prevention, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Neuroprotection in HIV-positive drug users: Implications for antioxidant therapy2002In: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, ISSN 1525-4135, E-ISSN 1944-7884, Vol. 31, p. S84-S88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Impaired neuroprotection resulting from oxidative stress has been implicated in neurodegeneration in a number of pathologic conditions of the brain, including both subcortical and cortical type dementias. Production of excessive oxidative stress, moreover, can lead to elevated levels of certain proinflammatory cytokines that are considered to be contributing factors to neuronal injury and are evident in HIV-related dementia as well as in other neurodegenerative conditions. Inhibitors of oxidative damage could thus be promising therapeutic agents for preventing progressive nerve cell death and slowing the advance of neurodegenerative disease. The potential of antioxidant therapy to provide neuroprotection is substantiated by studies demonstrating reduced oxidative stress with supplementation and lower risk for cognitive impairment with higher plasma antioxidant levels.

  • 34.
    Shor-Posner, G.
    et al.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry, Miami, FL, United States.
    Miguez, M. J.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry, Miami, FL, United States.
    Pineda, L.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry, Miami, FL, United States.
    Rodriguez, A.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry, Miami, FL, United States.
    Ruiz, P.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry, Miami, FL, United States.
    Castillo, G.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry, Miami, FL, United States.
    Burbano, X.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry, Miami, FL, United States.
    Lecusay, Robert
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry, Miami, FL, United States.
    Baum, M.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry, Miami, FL, United States.
    Impact of selenium status on the pathogenesis of mycobacterial disease in HIV-1-infected drug users during the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy2002In: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, ISSN 1525-4135, E-ISSN 1944-7884, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 169-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The risk of mycobacterial disease is significantly increased in drug abusers as well as in immunocompromised HIV-1-infected individuals. The essential trace element selenium has an important function in maintaining immune processes and may, thus, have a critical role in clearance of mycobacteria. The impact of selenium status on the development of mycobacterial diseases in HIV-1-seropositive drug users was investigated over a 2-year period (1999-2001). Twelve cases of mycobacterial disease (tuberculosis, 9; infection due to atypical Mycobacterium species, 3) occurred; these 12 cases were compared with 32 controls with no history of respiratory infections who were matched on age, sex, and HIV status. Significant risk for development of mycobacterial disease was associated with a CD4 cell count of <200/mm(3), malnutrition, and selenium levels of less than or equal to 135 mug/L (patients with these levels were 13 times more likely to develop mycobacterial disease). Multivariate analyses controlling for antiretroviral treatment and CD4 cell count revealed that both body mass index and selenium level remained significant factors in the relative risk for developing mycobacterial disease (relative risk, 3; p =.015); these findings suggest that selenium status may have a profound impact on the pathogenesis of mycobacterial disease.

  • 35. Valcour, V.
    et al.
    Goodkin, K.
    Shiramizu, B.
    Shikuma, C.
    Asthana, D.
    Shapshak, P.
    Concha, M.
    Wilkie, F.
    Khamis, I.
    Lee, D.
    Ardila, A.
    Lecusay, Robert
    University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL., United States.
    Suarez, P.
    Rigg, D.
    Zheng, W.
    O'Mellan, S.
    Neundorfer, M.
    Camp, C.
    Lee, M.
    Malone, M.
    Carr, J.
    Skrajner, M.
    Justice, A.
    McGinnis, K.
    Wagner, J.
    Conigliaro, J.
    Rabeneck, L.
    Stoff, D.
    Linsk, N.
    Aging, HIV-1 infection and neurocognitive function: Clinical correlates2002In: The Gerontologist, ISSN 0016-9013, E-ISSN 1758-5341, Vol. 42, no (Special issue I), p. 81-82Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Wilkie, F. L.
    et al.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sciences, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Goodkin, T.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sciences, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Khamis, L.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sciences, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    van Zuilen, M. H.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sciences, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Lee, D.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sciences, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Lecusay, Robert
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sciences, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Concha, M.
    Department of Neurology, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Symes, S.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Suarez, P.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sciences, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Eisdorfer, C.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sciences, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Cognitive functioning in younger and older HIV-1 - Infected adults2003In: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, ISSN 1525-4135, E-ISSN 1944-7884, Vol. 33, p. S93-S105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In young adults, a major neurologic complication of HIV-1 infection is cognitive motor impairment. Epidemiologic findings suggest that increasing age is a significant risk factor for HIV-1-associated dementia as the AIDS-defining illness. Findings from the few studies that have directly measured cognition in younger and older HIV-1-infected adults, however, have been mixed, in pan, because of small sample sizes and other methodologic differences between studies. The authors present preliminary findings on cognitive functioning in symptomatic HIV-1-infected younger (aged 20-39 years) and older (aged 50 years or older) adults. Independent of age, HIV-1 infection was accompanied by learning and memory retrieval deficits, which were significantly associated with high plasma viral loads in the young adults. Relative to the younger and older HIV-1-negative (HIV-1-) groups, only the younger HIV-1-positive (HIV-1(+))group had significantly longer reaction times (RTs). Within the older HIV-1(+) group, however, longer simple and choice RTs were significantly correlated with higher viral loads and lower CD4 cell counts. Although HIV-1 infection affects cognition independent of age, longitudinal studies involving large numbers of older individuals are needed to determine whether there are age differences in the prevalence, nature, and severity of HIV-1-associated cognitive dysfunction.

1 - 36 of 36
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