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  • 1.
    Aktaş, Vezir
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Sustainable Societies (SUS).
    İsveç’teki Müslümanların algıladıkları dini ayırımcılığın incelenmesi [Examining the perceived religious discrimination by Muslims in Sweden]2022Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Aktaş, Vezir
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Sustainability Education Research (SER).
    Borell, Klas
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Social scientists under threat: Resistance and self-censorship in Turkish academia2019In: British Journal of Educational Studies, ISSN 0007-1005, E-ISSN 1467-8527, Vol. 67, no 2, p. 169-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Attacks on academic freedom in Turkey have become increasingly systematic in recent years and thousands of academics have been dismissed. This study reflects on the effects of this worsening repression through interviews with academics in the social sciences, both those dismissed and those still active in their profession. Although the dismissed academics are socially in a very precarious position, they are continuing their scholarly activities in alternative, underground forms. This resistance stands in contrast to the accommodation and self-censorship that seem, according to the interviewees, to prevail in university departments.

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  • 3.
    Aktaş, Vezir
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Sustainability Education Research (SER).
    Borell, Klas
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Persson, Roland S.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Taking to the streets: A study of the street academy in Ankara2020In: British Journal of Educational Studies, ISSN 0007-1005, E-ISSN 1467-8527, Vol. 68, no 3, p. 365-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In wide-ranging attacks on academic freedom in Turkey in recent years, thousands of academics have lost their university positions. At the end of 2016 oppositional academics, many of whom were dismissed from their positions for having signed a peace petition, established a Street Academy as an alternative way to reach out to both students and the public in Ankara. In this study we analyse the experiences of these street academy lecturers from the perspective of Social Representation Theory. Our main aims were to explore teaching experience perceptions and representations and, in addition, also the opportunities and challenges generated by this alternative academy. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews with five female and five male street academy lecturers. The results of a qualitative thematic analysis revealed that the way participants explained their experiences could be organised into three major themes and several subordinate themes. One of the most salient results was that participating in the street Academy had become a way to defend academic freedom. More generally suggested results demonstrated that teaching in this new setting, outside of the universities and away from customised learning environments, was quite a novel experience. The possible implications of street academy lecturers? experiences are discussed.

  • 4.
    Aktaş, Vezir
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Sustainable Societies (SUS).
    Kindap Tepe, Yeliz
    Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi.
    Gendered aspects of policies to fight the COVID-19 outbreak2023In: Humanitas, ISSN 2147-088X, Vol. 11, no 22, p. 42-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Countries have taken different measures to limit the spread of COVID-19. However, it is unclear how such measures affect the daily lives of people in different cultural contexts. Using a qualitative research method and the framework of gender roles, this study analyzes the potential effects of the Turkish government’s policies to fight the COVID-19 pandemic on married men and women in Turkey. The respondents answered the open-ended questions developed by the researchers on the Google platform. 20 men (aged 27-54) and 20 women (aged 22-55) participated in the study. The respondents’ experiences were grouped into three themes: gender-related problems; adaptation and new habits/hobbies; and balancing between positive and negative effects. While men stressed the economic effects, women focused on social relations or deeper values of life. The findings were discussed within the framework of Gender Schema Theory and Social Role Theory.

  • 5.
    Aktaş, Vezir
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Tepe, Y. K.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Sustainable Societies (SUS).
    Persson, Roland S.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Mültecilere yönelik tutumlar üzerine kültürlerarası bir çalışma [A cross-cultural study on attitudes towards refugees]2022Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Borell, Klas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Sustainability Education Research (SER).
    Debatt: Samhällsvetenskaperna och den akademiska friheten i Turkiet: Massavskedanden, resignation och motstånd2019In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, E-ISSN 2002-066X, Vol. 56, no 3-4, p. 311-317Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Allvarliga kränkningar av den akademiska friheten förekommer idag i flera av Europarådets medlemsstater och det är ofta samhällsvetenskaperna som utgör måltavlan. Situationen är särskilt allvarlig i Turkiet där tusentals universitetslärare avskedats. Intervjuer med avskedade turkiska samhällsvetare och samhällsvetare som lever under hot om avsked ger en sammansatt bild: här finns både resignation och motstånd.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 7.
    Borell, Klas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue). Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Social Work.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Sustainable Societies (SUS).
    Turkey’s universities face a troubled future2023In: Research Professional NewsArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Introductory paragraph: Erdoğan’s election victory promises renewed authoritarianism, but resistance remains, say Klas Borrell and Marco Nilsson.

  • 8.
    Borell, Klas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Global Studies. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Sustainability Education Research (SER).
    Aktaş, Vezir
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Den akademiska friheten i Turkiet har snöpts2019In: Sans Magasin, ISSN 2000-9690, Vol. 1, p. 30-35Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Escobar, Karla
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Praktiknära utbildningsforskning (PUF), Epistemic Cultures & Teaching Practices. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Sustainability Education Research (SER). Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Multi-level governance and civil society’s work on integrating migrants after the migrant crisis of 2015 in Jönköping2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    From foreword: This report describes how civil society and the public sector in Jönköping municipality collaborated with each other in assisting the welcoming and integration of the refugees who arrived in the municipality during the so-called ‘migrant crisis’ of 2015.

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    Fulltext
    Download (png)
    Cover
  • 10.
    Escobar, Karla
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Praktiknära utbildningsforskning (PUF), Epistemic Cultures & Teaching Practices. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Sustainability Education Research (SER). Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Styrda fast ändå inte?: Flernivåstyrning och civilsamhällets arbete med att integrera flyktingar efter flyktingkrisen 2015 i Jönköping2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Från förordet: Den här rapporten handlar om hur civilsamhället och offentlig sektor i Jönköpings kommun har samarbetat för att hjälpa till att välkomna och integrera alla de flyktingar som kom i samband med flyktingkrisen 2015. Rapporten är en del av en större studie som i förlängningen syftar till att jämföra civilsamhällets roll i mottagningssystemen i Kanada och Sverige och är finansierad av Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council i Kanada.

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    Fulltext
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    Omslag
  • 11. Hjerm, Mikael
    et al.
    Lindgren, Simon
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Global Studies.
    Introduktion till samhällsvetenskaplig analys2014 (ed. 2., [utök. och uppdaterade])Book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Jaresand, Wilhelm
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Sustainable Societies (SUS).
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Sustainable Societies (SUS).
    Female combat commanders of the YPJ and political agency – framing the fight on their own terms2023In: Critical Military Studies, ISSN 2333-7486, E-ISSN 2333-7494, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 532-550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Women have taken part in several insurgencies. Research shows that women resort to violence not only for private reasons but also as a means to achieve political goals. The aim of this study is to explore how high-ranking YPJ commanders’ frame their decision to first joint the PKK and their use of violence as founding members of the YPJ. This is done with the help of a thematic analysis of life history interviews with three YPJ commanders in the midst of the civil war in Syria. The focus is on how the interviewees frame the themes. When highlighting some aspect of reality over other aspects, for example, in the context of a conflict, frames act to define problems, diagnose causes, make moral judgements, and suggest remedies. The study argues that the respondents’ framing connected their personal experiences with broader ideology. Thus, personal experiences can lead to embracing a broader ideology such that they motivate women to join the violent struggle. Three themes emerged from the analysis: Patriarchy; inspiring examples; and global liberation and democracy. These explorative results suggest a corresponding three-stage analytical framework for analysing how women join militant movements during civil wars: Personal experiences that define the problem and prepare the ground for action; other women’s roles as pathbreakers making the previously seemingly impossible action appear possible; and finally, the formulation of a political goal to guide action. This framework focuses on agency as inherently relational.

  • 13.
    Josefsson, Tommy
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Global Studies.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Global Studies. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Communication, Culture & Diversity @ JU (CCD@JU).
    Borell, Klas
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Global Studies. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Everyday resistance to violent radicalism and fundamentalism: Sufi strategies in Sweden2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using qualitative interviews with representatives of Sufi communities in Sweden, the study directs attention toward the strategies developed byEuropean Muslims themselves in fighting violent radicalism and fundamentalism.

  • 14.
    Josefsson, Tommy
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Global Studies.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Global Studies. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Communication, Culture & Diversity @ JU (CCD@JU).
    Borell, Klas
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Global Studies. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Muslims opposing violent radicalism and extremism: Strategies of Swedish Sufi communities2017In: Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, ISSN 1360-2004, E-ISSN 1469-9591, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 183-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Europe has seen the development of a new research agenda in response to Islamist terror attacks of recent years. Researchers are not only trying to solve the “radicalization puzzle” in order to understand the reasons why young Muslims in Western countries are attracted to extremism, but they are also making proposals for de-radicalizing extremists and creating relationships of trust with Muslim communities. Directly or indirectly, Europe’s Muslim minorities are the objects of the interventions and preventive work under discussion. This study suggests an alternative approach. Rather than regarding Muslims in Europe as more or less passive objects of various anti-extremism interventions, it directs attention toward the strategies developed by European Muslims themselves in fighting Islamist extremism. Using qualitative interviews with leaders of five Sufi communities in Sweden, the study examines a series of strategies for meeting the challenges posed by extremists.

  • 15.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Sustainable Societies (SUS).
    “Aren’t You Tired of Talking?” – Priming Men and Women into Violence through Gateway Organizations2022In: Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, ISSN 1057-610X, E-ISSN 1521-0731Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social movement approaches have explored how protest movements transition into terrorist organizations. However, there has been little academic work examining potential causal mechanisms that drive the movement of individuals from nonviolent organizations to violent ones. This study uses priming theory to explain how nonviolent organizations can function as inadvertent gateways that facilitate the movement of individuals into violent organizations. Rather than elaborating on social contacts between nonviolent and violent organizations, priming shifts the analytical focus to socialization processes inside gateway organizations and how they can be exploited by violent organizations through framing. The study also analyzes priming in gateway organizations as a gendered process. Although the examples provided are drawn from the Islamist context, the priming process applies to all religious, far-left, far-right, and nationalist/separatist groups.

  • 16.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Global Studies. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Communication, Culture & Diversity @ JU (CCD@JU).
    Causal Beliefs and War Termination: Religion and Rational Choice in the Iran-Iraq War2018In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 94-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes the length of interstate wars and the process of reaching a mutually acceptable bargaining solution. Rational choice scholarship has mainly sought to explain long wars in terms of commitment problems and private information. This article complements these rational choice perspectives by arguing that causal beliefs—a variable not considered by previous research—can also prolong wars by increasing expectations of battlefield performance and slowing down information updating. The article illustrates the role of religiously based causal beliefs with the case of one of the longest interstate wars of modern time, the Iran-Iraq War of 1980–1988. Even though commitment problems were present, they do not identify the root cause of Iran’s high expected utility of continuing the war, as religiously based causal beliefs played a more prominent role in prolonging the war. Religious causal beliefs constitute a real word mechanism that not only creates different priors about expected military capacity, but also slows down the process of updating beliefs, as battlefield events are not seen as credible information. Although the prevalence of religious conflicts has increased ove r time, the formation of beliefs and their effects on wars remains understudied when applying rational choice to real world conflicts.

  • 17.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Sustainable Societies (SUS).
    Detta innebär krigsplacering i Jönköping2024In: Jönköpings-Posten, ISSN 1103-9469, Vol. 21 februariArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning: För några veckor sedan riktades mycket kritik mot att flera kommuner i Jönköpings län inte hade krigsplacerat sin personal trots att både regeringen och Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap betonat vikten därav. Den militära underrättelse- och säkerhetstjänsten (Must) skriver i en ny rapport att Sverige befinner sig i ett allvarligt säkerhetsläge. Med bakgrund i denna rapport och Natos militära scenarier för slaget om Östersjön vill jag här bättre förklara varför krigsplaceringar är mycket viktiga för just Jönköpings län.

  • 18.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Global Studies.
    Foreign Fighters and the Radicalization of Local Jihad: Interview Evidence from Swedish Jihadists2015In: Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, ISSN 1057-610X, E-ISSN 1521-0731, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 343-358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern jihadism has experienced two distinct crises. The present study analyzes recent developments in jihadism, which can be seen in connection with efforts to solve the latest recruitment crisis of global jihad, and is based on comparative interviews with eight Swedish jihadists defined as foreign fighters. The study identifies three new trends evident in the interviews comparing jihadists active in Syria with those who fought in Afghanistan and Bosnia: socialization to global jihad, normalization of jihad, and an increasing use of the doctrine of takfir (i.e., ex-communication). This can be described as indicating the radicalization of local jihad, as the territorially based jihad, championed by Abdullah Azzam, and the global jihad of Osama bin Laden meet in the territorial realities of Syria and Iraq.

  • 19.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Sustainable Societies (SUS), Sustainability Education Research (SER).
    Forskaren om frivilligkrigarna: ”De söker ofta en högre mening i livet” [tv-sändning]2022Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett antal svenskar har frivilligt åkt till Ukraina för att strida mot Ryssland. Marco Nilsson, konfliktforskare på högskolan i Jönköping, har studerat just människor som väljer att delta i krig för andra nationer.– Det som de flesta frivilliga har gemensamt är att de oftast söker en högre mening i livet, säger han. 

    Trots att det är flera svenskar som anmäler intresse att åka till Ukraina, så är en del som backar när de ska skriva på ett avtal som innebär att man ska strida under hela krigsperioden, säger konfliktforskaren Marco Nilsson.  

    Är det lagbrott att kriga i ett annat land? 

    – Den svenska lagstiftningen säger ingenting om att det skulle vara förbjudet att åka ner till Ukraina för att strida för den ukrainska militären eller någon annanstans ute i världen.  

    I klippet ovan berättar Marco Nilsson också vad det innebär för Sveriges säkerhet att svenskar strider för Ukraina

  • 20.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Sustainable Societies (SUS).
    Går det att veta när Putin inte längre bluffar om kärnvapen?2024In: Göteborgs-Posten, Vol. 14 marsArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ingress: Många ryska uttalanden om kärnvapenanvändning har väckt mycket oro i Sverige. Som medlem i Nato är Sverige under Natos kärnvapenparaply, men hur stor är risken att kriget i Ukraina eskalerar till en sådan ödesdiger konfrontation mellan Ryssland och Nato? Och går det att ens veta om Putin bluffar? Svaret är inte enkelt, men det går att resonera med hjälp av forskning om spelteori, skriver Marco Nilsson, docent i statsvetenskap.

  • 21.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Global Studies. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Plats, Identitet, Lärande (PIL).
    Hard and soft targets: the lethality of suicide terrorism2018In: Journal of International Relations and Development, ISSN 1408-6980, E-ISSN 1581-1980, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 101-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many scholars have assumed that suicide terrorism is the most lethal form of terrorism. Increasing lethality is important for the terrorists’ expected ability to coerce target states and may explain the increasing popularity of suicide terrorism since the 1980s. This article analyses statistically the lethality of suicide terrorism and suicide bombings with 96,649 terror incidents in the Global Terrorism Database. The results corroborate the hypothesis that suicide terrorism inflicts more casualties than other terrorist tactics. However, suicide bombings are not associated with a greater increase in the casualty rates as compared with non-suicidal terrorist tactics involving, for example, the use of firearms. Moreover, neither suicide terrorism in general nor suicide bombings in particular are associated with an increase in the count of dead when there are many soft targets to choose from, such as in Palestine and Afghanistan. The lethality of suicide bombings is the greatest when there are many hard targets, such as in Israel.

  • 22.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Sustainability Education Research (SER).
    Hezbollah and the Framing of Resistance2020In: Third World Quarterly, ISSN 0143-6597, E-ISSN 1360-2241, Vol. 41, no 9, p. 1595-1614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study builds on the insight that Hezbollah is a holistic network whose social, political, military, and cultural dimensions are all parts of a discourse of resistance. Conducting a qualitative frame analysis of speeches by Hezbollah’s General Secretary Nasrallah, supported by interviews with Hezbollah leadership privy to its ideology, this study analyzes the construction of muqawama [resistance]. Resistance is a complex social phenomenon, which can be manifested, for example, in the differences in how resistance is framed in varying contexts, often addressing different audiences. However, three unifying themes emerged from the frame analysis: diversity of resistance; normalization of resistance; and social dimensions of resistance.

  • 23.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Global Studies. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Communication, Culture & Diversity @ JU (CCD@JU).
    Interviewing Jihadists: On the Importance of Drinking Tea and Other Methodological Considerations2018In: Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, ISSN 1057-610X, E-ISSN 1521-0731, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 419-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of terrorism research has arguably long been characterized by a separation of the scholars from their subject of inquiry. Interviews can be used to bridge this chasm, but making contact with potential interviewees, conducting interviews, and analyzing the data pose unique challenges when conducting research into jihadists, especially active ones. This article focuses on the author's experience of interviewing both former and active jihadi foreign fighters. It is specifically intended to contribute to a better methodological understanding of conducting first-hand empirical research into jihadi foreign fighters and builds on field work conducted in Sweden, Iraq, and Lebanon.

  • 24.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Sustainable Societies (SUS).
    Jihad after the Fall of IS: Reframing the Apocalyptic Narrative2023In: Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, ISSN 1057-610X, E-ISSN 1521-0731, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the use of apocalyptic frames by jihadist groups and how they have been developing after the fall of IS. It contextualizes these developments in the history of Muslim apocalyptic though and literature. After describing the apocalyptic narrative in the hadith literature and in the Quran, as well as the differences between classical and modern apocalyptic literature, the study analyzes differences in how jihadist groups have used apocalyptic framing of their fight. Finally, using interview data, the study analyzes how the Salafi-jihadist environment in Sweden has started to reframe the apocalyptic narrative after the military defeat of IS.

  • 25.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Sustainable Societies (SUS).
    Jihad and heroic hypermasculinity: Recruitment strategies, battlefield experiences, and returning home2024In: Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, ISSN 1057-610X, E-ISSN 1521-0731Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a gap in knowledge when it comes to jihadism and how it is associated with notions of masculinity. Especially empirical studies on masculinity that are based on interviews with active or former jihadists are lacking. This study seeks to analyze the role that notions of masculinity have played in different phases of jihadiship among Swedish jihadist foreign fighters, from recruitment to traveling to the conflict zone, and then eventually returning to Sweden. With a focus on heroic jihadist hypermasculinity, which is a form of hegemonic masculinity that exaggerates male stereotypical behavior such as violence and aggression, the study identifies five themes: Recruitment strategies and masculinity; from masculine failure to protecting sisters in faith; jihad and street culture; the warrior ideal; jihad, patriarchy, and brotherhood; and returning home and preventing re-emasculation. The empirical material is based on interviews with six Swedish jihadists and a former jihadist recruiter.

  • 26.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Sustainable Societies (SUS).
    Jihadiship: From radical behavior to radical beliefs2021In: Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, ISSN 1057-610X, E-ISSN 1521-0731, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 181-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Jihadism is a complex social phenomenon that changes people, but not always uniformly. This article argues that cognitive and behavioral radicalization can be seen as a discursive journey or jihadiship involving (e)merging ideas, problems, and solutions that change with encounters with new circumstances—both material and immaterial. The differences observed between various generations of jihadists are one manifestation of this complexity. Especially in a jihadi group, the processes of radicalization are bound to continue and take new forms, compared with those experienced in the West. Another example of the complexity of jihadiship is that not only can radical ideas lead to radical behavior, but also radical behavior can increasingly give rise to radical ideas in jihadi groups.

  • 27.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Sustainable Societies (SUS).
    Jihadism in Scandinavia: Motivations, Experiences, and Change2022Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is based on unprecedented interviews with active and former jihadists, even IS fighters. It focuses on the changing nature of jihad as a social phenomenon and how jihad changes jihadists. It argues that there are fascinating generational differences between jihadists’ ideas and behaviors. Moreover, it argues that jihad changes jihadists through socialization in jihadists groups. Indeed, radicalization continues in new forms after entering the conflict zone. Recognizing that jihadism is a complex social phenomenon and a discourse on religiously legitimized violence with deep roots in the history of Islam and Muslim societies, the book asks two simple questions. Why have some Muslims residing in the West taken up arms to enter the global battlefields of jihad? Have the motivations and experiences of different jihadists all been the same? To create a more coherent analysis than the article format allows, and to offer new insights, the author summarizes and further develops several years of research into jihadism. As gaining access to and conducting interviews—especially with active jihadists—often differs from standard interviews, much of the data were collected in a gray zone between more formal interviewing and ethnographic research. The empirical material, which is based on interviews with active and former jihadists, is unique. Moreover, the methodological reflections are unprecedented, and the project offers new analytical insights into jihadism with a focus on how jihadism and jihadists change.

  • 28.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Global Studies.
    Juridik i professionellt lärarskap: lagar och värdegrund in den svenska skolan2013 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Sustainable Societies (SUS), Sustainability Education Research (SER).
    Konfliktforskaren: Mer skärrade i Finland än här i Sverige [tv-sändning]2022Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Konfliktforskaren Marco Nilsson på högskolan i Jönköping säger att kriget i Ukraina verkar ha påverkat finnarna mer än svenskarna i dagsläget.– Man är av historiska skäl mer skärrade och tagna av händelserna, säger han.

    Från sitt kontor på högskolan i Jönköping följer Marco Nilsson medierapporteringen från Sverige, Finland och andra västländer. Hans analys är att finnarna verkar mer oroliga av Rysslands anfallskrigsföring i Ukraina än svenskarna för tillfället.

    – Finland har ju en lång gräns mot Ryssland, säger Marco Nilsson som är både svensk och finsk medborgare.

    Den 30 november 1939 anföll sovjetiska trupper Finland, en händelse som gjort sig påmind för det finska folket när Ryssland för snart en vecka sedan inledde det omfattande anfallet mot Ukraina.

    Nato-fråganFinlands riksdagspartier samlas under gårdagen för att diskutera Nato-frågan, som blivit allt hetare i landet efter den ryska invasionen av Ukraina.

    41 procent av svenskarna är för ett Nato-medlemskap visar nya siffror. Enligt mätningen från Yle är 53 procent av finländarna positiva till att landet går med i Nato.

    Ideologiska ledare kan förlänga krigMarco Nilsson som är universitetslektor och docent i statsvetenskap vid högskolan för lärande och kommunikation i Jönköping har doktorerat om hur ideologiskt motiverade ledare förlänger krig. Man kan i hans forskning dra paralleller till det rådande läget i Ukraina där flera experter menat att Vladimir Putin blivit allt mer ideologisk.

    – Han bryr sig inte om sanktionerna i sig och han har ideologiskt motiverade målsättningar, men jag tror att det som skulle få honom att sluta kriga är om han känner att det inrikespolitiska stödet och förmågan att stanna kvar vid makten hotas.

    I klippet ovan hör du Marco Nilsson berätta vad han ser som största faran med Putin just nu och hur synen på säkerhetsläget hittills verkar skilja sig något mellan Finnland och Sverige.

  • 30.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Plats, Identitet, Lärande (PIL). Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Global Studies.
    Kurdish Women in the Kurdish-Turkish Conflict: Perceptions, Experiences, and Strategies2018In: Middle Eastern Studies, ISSN 0026-3206, E-ISSN 1743-7881, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 638-651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes how Kurdish women experience the violence and other consequences of the civil war raging between the PKK and the Turkish state. Interviews conducted in Istanbul, Ankara, and Diyarbakir suggest that Kurdish women experience the conflict both as members of an oppressed minority and as women. The study first focuses on identifying sources of conflict related stress that are specific to women, such as the need to be silent to protect their families, and then analyzes the strategies that Kurdish women use to deal with this stress as women, including networking and education.

  • 31.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Global Studies. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Communication, Culture & Diversity @ JU (CCD@JU).
    Mental strategies for fighting the IS: A field study of the Peshmerga soldiers in Northern Iraq2016In: Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, ISSN 1057-610X, E-ISSN 1521-0731, Vol. 39, no 11, p. 1007-1018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the war against the Islamic State (IS), specifically on the front in northern Iraq, and the mental strategies that the Kurdish Peshmerga soldiers use to maintain their combat motivation. For this field study, dozens of soldiers of various ranks were interviewed and observed on three fronts outside of Mosul, Erbil, and Kirkuk in February 2014. While some mental strategies are nearly universal, others depend on the characteristics of the fighting force and the threat that they face. The article identifies five distinct mental strategies for dealing with the stress of fighting the IS: simultaneous dehumanization and humanization of the enemy, seeing a larger cause, use of humor, religious identity, and martyrdom. The findings suggest that factors beyond primary group cohesion, on which much previous research has focused, can play an important role in increasing soldiers’ fighting power.

  • 32.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Sustainability Education Research (SER).
    Motivations for Jihad and Cognitive Dissonance: A Qualitative Analysis of Former Swedish Jihadists2022In: Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, ISSN 1057-610X, E-ISSN 1521-0731, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 92-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is based on interviews with three former Swedish jihadists, and it uses cognitive dissonance theory to analyze how their motivations for jihad changed—from the early stages of radicalization to fighting as part of a jihadist group and finally leaving jihad. It argues that cognitive dissonance is a causal mechanism, alternative to empathy and collective relative deprivation, that can explain how individuals with collective identities can be motivated to opt for jihad. For none of the interviewees did fundamentalist Islam provide a gateway into jihadism, nor did they seem to use Islam as a mere justification for violent behavior. Cognitive dissonance can also shed light on how motivations change and why some jihadists have not been susceptible to further radicalization by accepting even more radical ideas.

  • 33.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Global Studies. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Communication, Culture & Diversity @ JU (CCD@JU).
    Muslim Mothers in Ground Combat Against the Islamic State: Women’s Identities and Social Change in Iraqi Kurdistan2018In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 261-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the experiences and identities of Kurdish women fighting the Islamic State(IS) in northern Iraq as part of the Peshmerga Army. The case is especially interesting because these women have engaged in ground combat and because there is an empirical gap in knowledge, especially concerning Muslim women’s experiences as soldiers. Wars bring great destruction but can also catalyze social change. While seeking balance between their identities as good mothers and professional soldiers, many Kurdish women see their war participation as a chance to increase their agency and improve equality in society, as combat operations create a window of opportunity to change perceptions of women’s roles. Women soldiers still face prejudices and feel that they must prove their worth as fearless warriors in ground combat. However, interviewed soldiers said that they were not striving for equality but equivalency, stressing those qualities that women in particular can contribute in battle.

  • 34.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Offense-Defense Balance, War Duration, and the Security Dilemma2012In: Journal of Conflict Resolution, ISSN 0022-0027, E-ISSN 1552-8766, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 467-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The systemic offense–defense theory argues that the security dilemma and the risk of war become doubly severe in offense-dominant eras in the state system. However, the theory assumes in support of its main argument that wars are shorter when offense has the advantage. This article empirically tests the expected connection between the systemic offense–defense balance and war duration. A statistical analysis of wars 1817–1992 disconfirms the theory’s expectations. The article then draws different conclusions about the severity of the security dilemma when offense is dominant: both arms racing and the fear of aggression that the security dilemma thrives on should be less severe than offense–defense theorists assume.

  • 35.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Global Studies. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Communication, Culture & Diversity @ JU (CCD@JU).
    Primary unit cohesion among the Peshmerga and Hezbollah2018In: Armed forces and society, ISSN 0095-327X, E-ISSN 1556-0848, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 647-665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the creation of primary unit cohesion among the Kurdish Peshmerga soldiers fighting the IS in northern Iraq and among Hezbollah fighters active in Syria. For this comparative study, Kurdish soldiers were interviewed on three fronts outside Mosul, Erbil, and Kirkuk in February 2015 and May 2016, and Hezbollah fighters were interviewed in Lebanon in March 2016. In contrast to many studies’ depictions of unit cohesion as relating to shared experiences of training and battle, this study argues that the Kurdish soldiers also import into their units various ideas relating to Kurdish identity. These include ideas about nationalism and reli gion, produced through discourses within the Kurdish military and society. However, Hezbollah seeks to minimize political damage in the multi-sectarian political context in Lebanon while conducting domestically contested military operations abroad. This has led to a downplaying of the sectarian aspects of the conflict, which could be imported from the Shia community to increase unit cohesion, and to an ideological framing of the conflict. The general ideas circulating in society and the political context therefore matter for the strategies that can be used to increase primary unit cohesion and soldiers’ fighting power.

  • 36.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Global Studies. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Communication, Culture & Diversity @ JU (CCD@JU).
    Radicalization Processes: From Sweden to the Jihadi Groups in Syria2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Global Studies. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Communication, Culture & Diversity @ JU (CCD@JU).
    Review of the book: A Sociology of the Total Organization: Atomistic Unity in the French Foreign Legion by Mikaela Sundberg2017In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, E-ISSN 2002-066X, p. 135-137Article, book review (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    Fulltext
  • 38.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Sustainability Education Research (SER).
    Scandinavian Jihad2020In: Exporting Global Jihad, Volume One: Critical perspectives from Africa and Europe / [ed] Tom Smith &Hussein Solomon, I.B. Tauris, 2020, p. 187-204Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Sustainable Societies (SUS), Sustainability Education Research (SER).
    Splittring kan leda till ökat deltagande i kyrkovalet [tv-sändning]2021Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Fler partier på högerkanten som ställer upp i kyrkovalet kan leda till ökat valdeltagande, enligt universitetslektor Marco Nilsson. I klippet hör du varför.

    På söndag är det den stora dagen för kyrkovalet, då medlemmar i Svenska kyrkan ska rösta fram styret i det lokala kyrkofullmäktige, det regionala stiftsfullmäktige och det nationella kyrkomötet.

    Kan närma sig 30 procent

    När fler partier på högerkanten ställer upp i valet leder det troligtvis till högre valdeltagande, det syntes redan i förra valet där deltagandet ökade från 12 procent till 19 procent. I år kommer det troligen bli högre än 20 procent och kanske till och med upp mot 30 procent, tror Marco Nilsson som är universitetslektor i statsvetenskap på Jönköping university.

    – Det låter bra för demokratin, men om det beror på ökad polarisering så är det inte nödvändigtvis så bra. Kyrkan bygger ju på en idé om gemenskap och inte polarisering, säger han.

    Se mer från Marco Nilsson i klippet ovan.

  • 40.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Sustainable Societies (SUS), Sustainability Education Research (SER).
    Statsvetaren om kränkningar mot politiker: ”Det är ett hot mot demokratin” [tv-sändning]2022Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Allt fler politiker har blivit utsatta för kränkningar på sociala medier under pandemin, enligt statsvetaren Marco Nilsson. Och han menar att det utgör ett hot mot demokratin.

    I över 12 år har Marco Nilsson varit forskare och lärare i statsvetenskap, både på Göteborgs Universitet och på högskolan i Jönköping. Enligt honom har kränkningarna på sociala medier ökat under pandemin.

    – Det finns rapporter och berättelser om att folk avstår från att bli politiker för att de inte vill utsätta sig hoten och riskerna som finns där ute om man engagerar sig som politiker, säger Marco Nilsson.

    Mia Frisk (KD), regionstyrelsens ordförande i Jönköping, vittnar också om partikamrater som övervägt att lämna politiken efter de ökade hoten.

    Vad kan de få för konsekvenser?

    – Vi kommer fortfarande kunna rösta på politiker som ställer upp i val, så det ändrar inte den delen av demokratin. Men det kan ändra på urvalsramen. Alltså det blir bara personer som kan tänka att tåla lite ”stryk” och ta risker som man kan rösta på framöver, det kan även förändra innehållet i politiken, säger Marco Nilsson.

    I klippet berättar han varför hot mot politiker är ett hot mot demokratin.

  • 41.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Sustainable Societies (SUS).
    Stöd till Ukraina kan förebygga nya krig2024In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, Vol. 29 februari, p. 4-4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning: Att inte stödja Ukraina kan leda till en snabb fred med en rysk seger, men den långsiktiga effekten riskerar att bli mer lidande när Ryssland och Kina inser att krig mot demokratier lönar sig. Det skriver Marco Nilsson, konfliktforskare.

  • 42.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Sustainable Societies (SUS).
    Sverige är det nya Frankrike [bloggpost]2023Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ingress: Två svenskar mördades nyligen brutalt i ett terrordåd i Bryssel. Detta måste ses i ljuset av den tidigare utvecklingen i Sverige. Efter de senaste koranbränningarna har al-Qaida uttalat allvarliga hot mot Sverige och utmålat Frankrike som en enbart liten vapendragare i konflikten mellan väst och den muslimska världen.

  • 43.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Sustainable Societies (SUS).
    Tala klarspråk – även israeler utför terrorism: Terrorforskare: Svenska medier och politiker borde vara konsekventa2024In: Aftonbladet, no 5 januariArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ingress: 

    Som terrorforskare blir man ofta förvånad när man läser svenska tidningar, lyssnar på radio eller ser på tv.

    Jag menar att medier inte sällan är inkonsekventa när man kallar vissa våldsamma attacker för terrorism medan andra skäligen liknande attacker benämns något annat. Ett bra exempel är Palestina-Israel konflikten.

  • 44.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Global Studies. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Plats, Identitet, Lärande (PIL).
    The logic of suicide terrorism: Does regime type affect the choice of targets?2018In: Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, ISSN 1943-4472, E-ISSN 1943-4480, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 176-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pape (2003, 2005) famously argued that suicide terrorism is specifically designed to coerce democracies. However, also several autocracies have been targeted. This article argues that suicide attacks as a strategy of coercion rely on a general expectation of being able to raise the cost of conflict for the target state. Raising costs may require attacking different types of targets depending on the regime type one seeks to coerce. While the cost of conflict can be raised for democracies by attacking civilian targets, it can be raised for autocratic regimes if the targets are chosen strategically, for example, by focusing on actors that are particularly important for the government. The article then analyzes statically the risk of government targets being attacked with all incidents of suicide attacks in the Global Terrorism Database, 1981-2014. The results corroborate the hypothesis that the more autocratic the regime, the more likely are suicide terrorists to attack government rather than civilian targets.

  • 45.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Sustainability Education Research (SER).
    The Magnitude of Warfare Revisited: System Polarity and War Duration2021In: Journal of Strategic Security, ISSN 1944-0464, E-ISSN 1944-0472, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 25-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the intractable debates in the study of international conflict is the linkage between polarity and magnitude of interstate warfare. Speculations about the effects of the structure of the international system can be traced back to the Treaty of Westphalia. This article revisits this debate with a focus on war duration, which has received little attention in the literature, and presents the first theoretical discussion of the connection between polarity and war duration. It also uses a hazards model to statistically test whether five different measures of polarity are associated with war duration (1816-1992). The results provide initial support for the hypothesis that an increase in the number of poles in the state system is associated with longer wars on average. The empirical analysis and the theoretical discussion are important for understanding the consequences of the declining U.S. hegemony.

  • 46.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Sustainable Societies (SUS).
    The mother, the politician, and the guerilla2024In: Turkish Studies, ISSN 1468-3849, E-ISSN 1743-9663Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Introductory paragraph: Focusing on the roles and defiant performances of Kurdish women, The Mother, the Politician, and the Guerilla is an inquiry into the Kurdish-Turkish conflict and the political visions of Kurdish women. In exploring radical imagination, a path previously trodden by Franz Fanon, Nazan Üstündağ writes that texts have a rhythm: ‘As I travelled through Kurdistan, its rhythm has always been halay, and this book is written in its rhythm’ (p. 19). As she explains, halay is a dance where several individuals hold hands. In writing her book, she has been holding many hands from feminism and black studies to decolonial thought, just to name a few.

  • 47.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Sustainable Societies (SUS).
    Vad innebär Finlands Nato-inträde för Sverige? [bloggpost]2023Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ingress: Med anledning av att Finland blev fullvärdiga medlemmar av Nato 4 april så svarar Marco Nilsson, docent i statsvetenskap, på frågor om Finlands Natomedlemskap och hur det kommer att påverka bland annat Sverige.

  • 48.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Sustainability Education Research (SER).
    Vad är terrorism?2020In: Ikaros - Tidskift om människan och vetenskapen, ISSN 1796-1998, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 8-9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 49.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Sustainable Societies (SUS).
    Var försiktig när du reser – men inte rädd: Terrorforskare: Terroristerna hoppas att rädslan ska påverka vårt land2023In: Aftonbladet, no 17 oktoberArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ingress: 

    Två svenskar mördades i måndags brutalt i ett terrordåd i Bryssel. En tredje skadades.

    Detta måste ses i ljuset av den tidigare utvecklingen i Sverige med otaliga koranbränningar.

    Efter att al-Qaida snappat upp koranbränningarna och uttalat allvarliga hot mot Sverige har budskapet om att Sverige är ett prioriterat mål för islamistiska terrorgrupper spridits effektivt och brett.

  • 50.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Sustainable Societies (SUS).
    Var ligger terrorhotet mot Sverige i dag?2023In: Jönköping-Posten, ISSN 1103-9469, no 9 september, p. 20-20Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ingress: Ayman al-Zawahiri, al-Qaidas före detta ledare, lade fram sin syn på grundprinciperna för den jihadistiska kampen i sin självbiografi Riddare under Profetens fana (2001). Då, för drygt 20 år sedan såg han ”martyrdomsoperationer”, det vill säga, självmordsbombningar som ”det mest framgångsrika sättet att tillfoga motståndaren skada och det minst kostsamma för jihadister.” Al-Qaeda har nyligen riktat starka hot mot Sverige som har blivit ett prioriterat mål för terrorattacker, och terrorhotsnivån har höjts till en fyra. Men hur ser den strategiska situationen ut i dag?

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