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  • 1.
    Abellan, Antonio
    et al.
    Centre for Human and Social Sciences, Spanish National Research Council, Madrid, Spain.
    Perez, Julio
    Centre for Human and Social Sciences, Spanish National Research Council, Madrid, Spain.
    Pujol, Rogelio
    Centre for Human and Social Sciences, Spanish National Research Council, Madrid, Spain.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Jegermalm, Magnus
    School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Partner care, gender equality, and ageing in Spain and Sweden2017In: International Journal of Ageing and Later Life, ISSN 1652-8670, E-ISSN 1652-8670, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 69-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We used national surveys to study how older persons’ changing household patterns influence the gender balance of caregiving in two countries with distinct household structures and cultures, Spain and Sweden. In both countries, men and women provide care equally often for their partner in couple-only households. This has become the most common household type among older persons in Spain and prevails altogether in Sweden. This challenges the traditional dominance of young or middle-aged women as primary caregivers in Spain. In Sweden, many caregivers are old themselves. We focus attention to partners as caregivers and the consequences of changing household structures for caregiving, which may be on the way to gender equality in both countries, with implications for families and for the public services.

  • 2. Abellán, Antonio
    et al.
    Ayala, Alba
    Pérez, Julio
    Pujol, Rogelio
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue). Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Ramos, María
    The new carers2018In: Ageing and care: How will we live and care for ourselves when we get old?, Palma: Observatorio Sociale de "la caxia" , 2018, p. 25-31Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Usually it is women who take care of family members in the home, but with age, gender differences become less pronounced and, from 80 years onwards, there are more men caring for a family member – generally their partner – than women. Social and demographic changes are presenting new challenges for public services. In particular, in two-person households with elderly inhabitants, one of whom is dependent, it is necessary to tackle not only the needs of the dependent partner but also those of the carer partner. For this reason, carer support programmes are needed.

  • 3.
    Adam, Davey
    et al.
    Department of Public Health, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Takagi, Emiko
    Department of Health Science, Linthicum, Towson University, Towson, MD, USA.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    (In)Formal Support and Unmet Needs in the National Long-Term care Survey2013In: Journal of Comparative Family Studies, ISSN 0047-2328, E-ISSN 1929-9850, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 437-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We linked individual-level data from the 2004 wave of the National Long-Term Care Survey with state-level data from the National Aging Program Information Systems (NAPIS) State Program Reports to predict care mix and unmet need for assistance. Our sample consisted of 2422 community-dwelling individuals aged 65 and older (69% women, 8% nonwhite) who reported at least one limitation in an instrumental or basic activity of daily living. We used the data to predict the mix of formal and informal support received, and the probability of having at least one unmet need from individual (predisposing, enabling, and need) characteristics with state-level home help coverage rates, intensity of home help services, and proportion of population aged 60+ residing in institutional settings. Consistent with past research, a majority (52.6%) of the disabled sample reported unmet need. At the individual level, enabling (availability of kin support) and need (number of basic and instrumental activity of daily living impairments, BADLs and IADLs) were most strongly associated with care mix and unmet need. State-level services were not associated with receipt of informal supports. In states providing home help services to a higher proportion of elders, women were more likely to receive formal help. In states providing more intensive services, women were less likely and individuals living alone more likely to receive formal supports. In states where a higher proportion of elders lived in nursing homes, individuals living alone were more likely to receive formal assistance, less likely overall to report unmet needs, but the oldest-old were more likely to report unmet need.

  • 4.
    Berg, Stig
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Branch, Laurence
    Doyle, Anne
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Institutional and home-based long-term care alternatives: The 1965-1985 Swedish experience1988In: The Gerontologist, ISSN 0016-9013, E-ISSN 1758-5341, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 825-829Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Berg, Stig
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Branch, Laurence
    Doyle, Anne
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Local variations in old age care in the welfare state: The case of Sweden1993In: Health Policy, ISSN 0168-8510, E-ISSN 1872-6054, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 175-186Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Berg, Stig
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Ernsth Bravell, Marie
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Predictors of institutionalization at the age of 702007In: The Gerontological Society of America, 60th Annual Meeting, San Francisco, 2007, p. 52-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predictors of Institutionalization at the Age of 70

    Existing knowledge about institutionalization of elderly individuals is mainly based on cross-sectional data and does not give good indications of the cumulative risk of institutionalization. The purpose of this study was to analyze longitudinal data prospectively, to estimate the cumulative risk of ending up in elder care institutions at some point in life. Methods: The study was based on a longitudinal investigation of a random sample of 70-year-old persons living in Gothenburg, Sweden (H70). The sample was followed from age 70 to age 100. Results: The prospective analysis showed that 50% of the subjects eventually moved to some kind of elder care institution. Significantly more women than men relocated although women moved later in life. In a Cox regression model at the age of 70, gender was a strong predictor of future institutionalization together with SES (Socioeconomic Situation), objective health, objective social network and ADL (Activities in Daily Life) functions. Discussion: The proportion of elderly relocating to institutions was significantly higher than proportions generally found in cross-sectional studies. It is noteworthy that, already at age 70 it was possible to find variables that predicted future institutionalization. Our findings confirm that longitudinal analyses give more in depth understanding of institutionalization than cross-sectional designs.

  • 7.
    Berg, Stig
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Kommunal och regional variation inom äldreomsorgen1989Report (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 8. Castiello, Mayte
    et al.
    del Barrio, Élena
    Castejon, Penélope
    Tortosa, Maria
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Johansson, Lennarth
    Family care for elders in Europe: Policies and practices.2008In: Caregiving Contexts: Cultural, familial and societal implications., New York: Springer , 2008, p. 235-267Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9. Davey, A
    et al.
    Kwee, E E
    Shea, D G
    Zarit, S H
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Smyer, M A
    How much do families help?: A cross- national comparison1996In: 49th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, Washington, 1996Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10. Davey, Adam
    et al.
    Femia, Elia
    Shea, Dennis G
    Zarit, Steven H
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    How many elders receive assistance?: A cross-national comparison1999In: Journal of Aging and Health, ISSN 0898-2643, E-ISSN 1552-6887, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 199-220Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11. Davey, Adam
    et al.
    Fermia, Elia E.
    Zarit, Steven H
    Shea, Dennis G.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Smayer, Michael A.
    Salva, Jyoti
    Life on the Edge: Patterns of Formal and Informal Help to Older Adults in the United States and Sweden2005In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 60, no 5, p. 281-288Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Davey, Adam
    et al.
    Department of Public Health, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Aging in Sweden: Local variation, local control2014In: The Gerontologist, ISSN 0016-9013, E-ISSN 1758-5341, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 525-532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aging in Sweden has been uniquely shaped by its history—most notably the long tradition of locally controlled services for older adults. We considered how local variations and local control shape the experience of aging in Sweden and organized the paper into 3 sections. First, we examine aging in Sweden along demography, economy, and housing. Next, we trace the origins and development of the Swedish welfare state to consider formal supports (service provision) and informal supports (caregiving and receipt of care). Finally, we direct researchers to additional data resources for understanding aging in Sweden in greater depth. Sweden was one of the first countries to experience rapid population aging. Quality of life for a majority of older Swedes is high. Local control permits a flexible and adaptive set of services and programs, where emphasis is placed on improving the quality and targeting of services that have already reached a plateau as a function of population and expenditures.

  • 13. Davey, Adam
    et al.
    Savla, Jyoti
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Zarit, Steven H.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    How equitable is Sweden's changing care-mix?: Linking individual and regional characteristics over time2007In: Ageing & Society, ISSN 0144-686X, E-ISSN 1469-1779, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 511-532Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. del Barrio, Élena
    et al.
    Castejón, Penélope
    Sancho Castiello, Mayte
    Ángeles Tortosa, Maria
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    La soledad de las personas mayores en España y Suecia: contexto y cultura2010In: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología, ISSN 0211-139X, E-ISSN 1578-1747, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 189-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Older people in Spain and other Southern European countries are reported to feel lonelier than the older people in the North of Europe. Data from the 1970s and onwards consistently show this. The present study explores feelings of loneliness as a product of both cultural and situational determining factors, by comparing survey data for Spain and Sweden.

    Material and method: Data derived from several national surveys of the older people in Spain and Sweden with questions about loneliness. For closer analysis we use the Spanish 2006 Encuesta de Condiciones de Vida (Living conditions Questionnaire), and the Swedish 2002–2003 Survey of Living Conditions.

    Results: On average, 24% of older people in Spain and 10% of elderly Swedish people expressed sentiments of loneliness in the surveys used here (2006 and 2002-03 respectively). Living arrangements and perceived health are related with factors of loneliness in both countries, although levels differ. For example, people in good health who live alone are five times more likely to feel lonely in Spain (45%) than in Sweden (9%) and two-three times more likely when living alone in poor health (82% and 32% respectively). People in good health who live with their spouse/partner only are equally unlikely in both Spain and Sweden to express loneliness (4–5%). It often seems — when it occurs — to be due to caring for a spouse/partner, or problems in the relationship.

    Conclusions: Results highlight the importance of contextual features — health and living arrangements — and cultural expectations in interpreting reported loneliness.

  • 15.
    Ericsson, Iréne
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Metodutveckling inom vård och omsorg: en studie för att pröva olika metoder för kunskapsinhämtning av äldres preferenser om den kommunala äldreomsorgen2006Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Ernsth Bravell, Marie
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Sooner or later?: A study of institutionalization in late life2009In: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 1594-0667, E-ISSN 1720-8319, Vol. 21, no 4/5, p. 329-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Existing information about institutionalization of elderly individuals is mainly based on cross-sectional data and does not address the cumulative risk of institutionalization. The purpose of the present study was to analyze longitudinal data prospectively and estimate the risk of placement in an elder care institution for individuals aged 70 years or older. Methods: The study was based on a longitudinal investigation (the H70 study) of a random sample of 70-year-olds living in Gothenburg, Sweden, in 1971. Individuals were followed from age 70-100 years. Three different analyses were performed: a descriptive prospective analysis, cross-sectional analyses at ages 70, 79 and 85 years, and a longitudinal analysis of predictors for institutionalization. Results: The prospective analysis indicated that 50% of the individuals eventually moved to an elder care institution. Significantly more women than men were institutionalized, although for women the move occurred later in life. Cross-sectional analyses demonstrated that various factors were important to institutionalization at different ages. The Cox regression model with time-varying covariates indicated that gender, socio-economic situation, marital status, number of symptoms, having children living nearby, and activities in daily life were related to institutionalization. Conclusions: The proportion of elderly persons relocating to institutions was significantly higher than that generally found in cross-sectional studies. It was possible to identify variables that predict institutionalization during a subsequent 30-year period, but different analyses revealed different effects from the factors evaluated.

  • 17. Femia, E E
    et al.
    Davey, A
    Shea, D G
    Zarit, Z H
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Smyer, M A
    Formal and informal help for people at risk of institutionalization in the US and Sweden1997In: 50th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Gerontogical Society of America, Cincinatti, 1997Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18. Grafström, Margareta
    et al.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    SPF:s medlemmar i närbild: en enkätundersökning2010Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Jegermalm, Magnus
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Anhöriga äldre angår alla!2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Anhörigomsorg är del av en komplex väv med olika nivåer, individuella, familjemässiga och övergripande samhälleliga, där åtminstone de senare har begränsade resurser. Denna rapport presenterar och diskuterar kunskapsläget inom svensk och internationell forskning om anhöriga till äldre. Vi sätter den svenska anhörigomsorgen i ett större sammanhang genom resonemang om demografiska förutsättningar, historiska tillbakablickar och internationella utblickar. Nutid belyses med aktuella undersökningar och vi tror att framtiden kan klaras tack vare den allt större överlappning vi redan ser mellan många olika former av hjälp, service, omsorg och vård. Vi ställer frågan om dessa mönster kanske förbises i de ofta dystra, rent demografisk-ekonomiska framskrivningarna. Rapporten redovisar många svenska undersökningar av anhörigomsorg, både i befolkningen i stort och bland äldre. Det förefaller klart att det skett en faktisk ökning av anhörigomsorgens omfattning från 1990-talet och början av 2000- talet, något som flera studier visar. Resultat från en europeisk undersökning med gemensamma frågor och svarsalternativ tyder på att anhörigomsorg är vanligare i Nordeuropa än i Sydeuropa vilket nog strider mot gängse föreställningar. Kanske är det i Norden vanligare att vara hjälpgivare men inte med lika omfattande engagemang eller lika länge och man bor sällan tillsammans. Då fördelas nog omsorgen på fler händer. I Sverige angav mindre än 1 procent att de gav omsorg på heltid, i Spanien 5 procent. Sammantaget har, i Sverige liksom i övriga Europa, mer än 4 av 10 i befolkningen en aktuell eller tidigare personlig erfarenhet av att ge omsorg, och på befolkningsnivå är anhörigomsorgen klart större än den offentliga. De flesta svenska studier visar att det är ungefär lika vanligt bland kvinnor och män att vara givare av anhörigomsorg. Kvinnor ger dock oftare personlig omvårdnad och de ger fler timmar omsorg än männen. De flesta omsorgsgivare ger ganska få hjälptimmar, men timinsatserna ökar med stigande ålder och är högst bland de äldsta. I genomsnitt ger omkring 30 procent av omsorgsgivarna daglig hjälp, men den andelen stiger till nästan 40 procent för anhörigvårdare i 65–80 årsåldern och till 80 procent för dem som är ännu äldre. Äldre utgör således 30 procent av alla som ger omsorg, oftast till andra äldre, men utför ungefär 4 av 10 omsorgstimmar. Äldre personer är inte bara mottagare av omsorg utan minst lika ofta också givare. De flesta givare av anhörigomsorg ger ”lättare” former av insatser (skjutsning, passning, tillsyn etc.), insatser som många gånger säkerligen är viktiga och kan vara avgörande för mottagaren. Det är viktigt att se det stora spektret av anhörigomsorg och att det också finns grupper av anhöriga (ofta äldre personer) som gör omfattande insatser som kan påverka såväl egen hälsa som arbetsliv. Vid små hjälpbehov – fallet för de flesta – får man lite hjälp främst av anhöriga, vid större behov mer hjälp och då av både anhöriga och av kommunen. Delat ansvar är vanligt och även vad omsorgsgivare och mottagare önskar. Få önskar bära ansvaret ensamma och få önskar att ansvaret helt ligger på det offentliga. Historiskt utgör barn och andra anhöriga en viss trygghet på ålderdomen, något som inte tillhör det förflutna, utan snarare kommer att få större betydelse framöver. Anledningen är demografisk: allt fler har nära anhöriga i form av en egen familj. Familjens relativa betydelse har ökat, inte minskat som man ibland föreställer sig. Detta accentueras av att den offentliga omsorgen visserligen är väl utbyggd i Sverige, men tycks ha nått gränsen för vad den kan uträtta, praktiskt och finansiellt. Anhörigomsorgen har även socialpolitiska aspekter. Den som är eller varit anhörigvårdare vill helst inte själv vara mottagare av omfattande anhörigvård, utan hellre få huvuddelen av omsorgen från det offentliga. Man kan nog förutse ännu strängare ransonering av offentliga tjänster i framtiden, där anhöriga och marknadsbaserade tjänster är alternativen, möjligen tillsammans med växande insatser från ideella organisationer.

  • 20.
    Jegermalm, Magnus
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Ersta Sköndal högskola.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Carers in Sweden: The public support they receive, and the support they desire2013In: Journal of Care Services Management, ISSN 1750-1679, E-ISSN 1750-1687, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 17-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary

    • This article describes and analyses public support received by unpaid carers in Sweden

    • Three types of carers were identified

    •  Very few carers helping someone living in a different household – the large majority of carers – received or desired support aimed directly at them

    • Carers mostly wanted public services for the cared-for person

    • Despite legislation in 2009 mandating municipalities to offer support to carers, very few of them know about this law

    •  There is a wide gap between policies and their implementation, but also some reluctance among carers to use public support services for themselves

    •  Social policy needs to clarify the aims of the support provided and to take the needs of both carers and cared-for persons into account.

    This article describes and analyses public support for Swedish unpaid carers, now mandated by law, and also the support that they desire, using surveys conducted in 2008, 2009, and later. Few carers helping someone in a different household – the large majority of the carers – received any support aimed directly at them, such as access to support groups, training, relief service, or financial support. Yet, most carers did not desire any support for themselves. They mostly wanted public services for the cared-for person, all of which may also indirectly support carers. Intra-household carers – about a tenth of all carers – have vastly larger care commitments than other carers. Some of them desire support for themselves, usually relief services of financial support. Three out of 10 of these carers used any public support, despite the new (2009) legislation that only a minority of carers know about. There is a wide gap between policies and their implementation, but also some reluctance among carers to use public support for themselves. The relationship between carers and the state is unclear in Sweden and this reflects on the aims and the forms of support. Stereotypes about ‘typical’ carers may have impeded adequate forms of support.

  • 21.
    Jegermalm, Magnus
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Ersta Sköndal Högskola.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Ideella insatser för och av äldre: En lösning på äldreomsorgens utmaningar?2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Många äldre är i högsta grad aktiva medborgare, inte bara mottagare av vård och omsorg. Även engagemang i ideella organisationer är vanligt, också i internationell jämförelse. Vid sidan av frivilliginsatser i organiserad och oorganiserad form, finns insatser som bestås av anhöriga, yngre och äldre, och totalt sett större än all offentlig omsorg sammantagen. Ofta överlappar olika slag av hjälp och omsorg. Många insatser av frivilliga och anhöriga är "små", vilket ingalunda betyder att de är oviktiga - de kan vara helt avgörande. Fakta och exempel ges i denna skrift med sinne för vardagslivets vanlighet och som tar upp frågor viktiga för den framtida äldreomsorgen.

  • 22.
    Jegermalm, Magnus
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Stereotypes about caregiving and lessons from the Swedish panorama of care [Stereotyper kring omsorgsgivare och det svenska omsorgspanoramat]2015In: European Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1369-1457, E-ISSN 1468-2664, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 185-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes the panorama of care provision in Sweden from the informal carers' perspective. We consider informal care, publicly financed services, for-profit agencies and voluntary organizations, using a survey conducted in 2009. Most cared-for persons with minor needs living in a separate household are helped also by others, but only a tenth use public services or other providers. About half of cared-for persons with major needs living in a separate household receive care also from other informal carers as well as public services. Only 1 in 10 of them relied on no one else beyond the carer interviewed. Among intra household carers—a minority of all persons cared for—it was common that the carer was alone in his/her commitment, without any contributions from public services or others. For the large majority of informal carers it is not a solitary undertaking as the commitment is often shared with family members and others and/or public services. The results suggest that ideal types about complementarity and substitution may understate the complex interplay between informal care and the public services (and potential other providers). The findings may suggest a need for more empirical research about ‘Care Cultures’ and expose simplistic representations of welfare societies; informal care plays a major—and increasing—role also in Sweden, a country with extensive public services.

  • 23. Johansson, Lennart
    et al.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Obelysta insatser kastar nytt ljus över äldreomsorgen1999In: Äldre i Centrum, ISSN 1401-5110, no 4, p. 23-26Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Johansson, Lennarth
    et al.
    Stiftelsen Äldrecentrum, Stockholm.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue). Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Malmberg, Bo
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Ett halvt århundrade svensk äldreomsorg2018In: Tidsskrift for omsorgsforskning, ISSN 2387-5976, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 62-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska offentliga äldreomsorgen växte starkt från 1950-talet, och nådde sin högsta nivå på 1980-talet, för att därefter minska under 2000-talet. Med hjälp av riksrepresentativa befolkningsundersökningar från 1954 och fram till 2009 studerar vi mönster i äldres hjälpbehov och insatser från familj och offentlig omsorg. Ansvarsförhållandet mellan stat och familj har skiftat över tid, men omsorg från anhöriga och det offentliga överlappar allt mer. De offentliga insatserna minskar samtidigt som allt fler på sikt får hjälp, men mindre och senare i livet. Allt fler äldre har anhöriga, som ger mer omsorg.

  • 25.
    Larsson, Birgitta
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Sjöstrand, Peter
    Hemtjänst före och efter Ädel.1996Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 26.
    Lennartsson, Carin
    et al.
    Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue). Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Wikström, Petter
    Statistiska centralbyrån.
    Allt fler guldbröllop2017In: Välfärd, ISSN 1651-6710, no 4, p. 18-19Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    "Vi lever allt längre, vilket ger möjlighet till längre äktenskap. Trots ökande skilsmässotal under 1900-talet är det allt fler som lever i äktenskap som varat 50 år och mer."

  • 27.
    Lennartsson, Carin
    et al.
    Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue). Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Wikström, Petter
    Statistiska centralbyrån.
    Cada vez más bodas de oro2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Malmberg, Bo
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Berg, Stig
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    En kvalitetsprofil för särskilt boende för äldre1994Report (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Malmberg, Bo
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Age care crisis in Sweden?1995Other (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 30.
    Malmberg, Bo
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Fortsatt inventering av ”seniorbostäder”.1992In: Planera Bygga Bo, no 6, p. 27-29,Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 31.
    Malmberg, Bo
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Health and Social Care for the Elderly with Special Emphasis on the Care for the Demented.1994In: Wordwide measures to meet the long-lived society., Tokyo: Dai-ichi Hohki Publishing Co , 1994Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Malmberg, Bo
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Mönster i anhörigomsorgen: En uppföljning i Mullsjö 20102012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Institutet för gerontologi (IFG) genomförde 2008 en enkätundersökning bland alla Mullsjöbor som var 55 år och äldre, varav närmare 70 procent svarade eller drygt 1 600 personer. En dryg femtedel gav omsorg i någon form till närstående personer och omsorgsmönstren svarade väl med resultat i andra undersökningar. En mindre del gav ”tung” omsorg, oftast till en partner. Fler gav mindre omfattande omsorg till föräldrar eller andra närstående, men det var också vanligt med ”lätt” hjälp till grannar m.fl. (Socialstyrelsen 2009).

     

    År 2010 genomfördes en uppföljningsundersökning av  IFG med 911 av dessa personer: Nu var 14 procent omsorgsgivare, varav två tredjedelar var samma personer som 2008. Rörligheten var således betydande: Många hade slutat att ge omsorg – eller såg inte längre det de gjorde som omsorg - och ganska många hade börjat göra det. Även 2010 gjorde de flesta relativt ”små” insatser, och ganska få av de ”lätta” åtagandena 2008 hade blivit ”tunga” 2010. Givare av anhörigomsorg delar fortfarande ofta omsorgsansvaret med någon annan anhörig.

     

    I växande utsträckning delas ansvaret också med den kommunala omsorgen: 2010 hade 77 procent av mottagarna av anhörigomsorgen även någon form av kommunal omsorg (40 procent hade hemtjänst), som de anhöriga ganska ofta är nöjda med. Allt fler nås av hemtjänst, färdtjänst, trygghetslarm och/eller annan offentlig omsorg.

     

    Tillräcklig och bra omsorg för mottagaren är vad omsorgsgivarna vanligen efterfrågar. Det är mer sällan de önskar något direkt stöd för egen del i form av avlösning, kontakt med anhörigkonsulent, samtalsgrupp m.m. Både givare och mottagare av informell omsorg vill att det offentliga ska ha huvudansvaret för omsorgen och att balansen för omsorgsansvaret förskjuts i den riktningen.

     

    Jämförelsevis är det en liten andel äldre som har hemtjänst i kommunen, men trots det visar enkätsvaren att ganska få personer har eftersatta behov, mätt med den sedvanlig skalan för funktionsförmåga. De flesta intervjupersoner som själva har ett hjälpbehov får enbart anhörighjälp, men fler än förväntat har också köpt privat hjälp.

     

    Många som gav omsorg växlade i enkätsvaren hur de beskrev sina insatser mellan 2008 och 2010, trots att de fortlöpande gav omsorg. Även en del partnervårdare är instabila i synen på sina egna insatser, vilket kan bero på att de ibland tolkar det de sör som omsorg och ibland inte. I huvudsak tycks det bero på att de ”bara” ger hjälp med praktiska vardagsgöromål, inte med ”tung” personlig vård: De som gör det senare har en mer stabil identitet som omsorgsgivare, men de utgör bara ungefär en tiondel av alla omsorgsgivare. Problemet med omsorgsgivarnas självuppfattning har inte uppmärksammats i tidigare undersökningar av tvärsnittskaraktär, men det får konsekvenser för vår syn på vad omsorg är och hur man med självrapportering kan identifiera omsorgsgivare. Det manar också till viss ödmjukhet i tolkningen av data kring omsorgsgivande.

     

    Omsorgsgivarna har med andra ord en föränderlig identitet, och en del vägrar möjligen att se sig som omsorgsgivare. Det bör kanske påverka hur det offentliga organiserar stöd för dem. Bara drygt hälften av alla intervjupersoner känner till kommunens skyldighet att erbjuda stöd till anhörigvårdare, något som också visade sig i Socialstyrelsens befolkningsenkät 2012. Det är möjligt att man i första hand ska inrikta sig på personer med stora omsorgsbehov och via dem finna deras närstående, snarare än leta efter anhörigvårdare. Studien har visat att omsorgs- och vårdpersonal ofta har god personkännedom i sina distrikt.

  • 33.
    Malmberg, Bo
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Omsorg – vem bryr sig.2006In: Äldre i Centrum, ISSN 1653-3585Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34.
    Malmberg, Bo
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Omsorgsmönster i Mullsjö.2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Malmberg, Bo
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Seniorbostäder - privat alternativ till ålderdomshem.1991In: Planera Bygga Bo, no 4, p. 12-14Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 36.
    Malmberg, Bo
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Johansson, Lennarth
    To give and to get care: the aerial view and the local context2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 37.
    Malmberg, Bo
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Zarit, Steven H
    Housing the Demented Elderly in Sweden.1998In: Research and practice in Alzheimer’s disease, Paris: Serdi Publisher, Springer Publishing company , 1998, p. 193-202Chapter in book (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 38.
    Malmberg, Bo
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Zarit, Steven H
    Housing the Demented Elderly in Sweden.1995In: L 'Année Gerontologique, ISSN 0990-2295, Vol. 9, p. 226- 227Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39. Nilsson, Lars
    et al.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    De äldre - Sveriges stora outnyttjade resurs?2014In: Äldre i centrum, ISSN 1653-3585, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 47-48Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Schneider, Ulrike
    et al.
    Department of Socioeconomics, Institute for Social Policy, Vienna University of Economics and Business, Austria.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Johansson, Lennarth
    School of Health Sciences, National Board of Health and Welfare, Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institute/Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Tortosa, Maria Ángeles
    Department of Applied Economics, University of Valencia, Spain.
    Policies to support informal care2016In: Long-term care reforms in OECD countries: Successes and failures / [ed] Jose-Luis Fernandez, Cristiano Gori, and Raphael Wittenberg, Bristol: Policy Press, 2016, p. 219-244Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Sigurdardottir, Sigurveig H.
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Ernsth Bravell, Marie
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Needs and care of older people living at home in Iceland2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:The Icelandic old-age care system is universal and the official goal is to support older people live independently for as long as possible. The aim of this study is to analyse living conditions and use of formal and informal care of older people in Iceland.

    Methods:The results are based on the new study ICEOLD, a telephone survey which included questions on social network, health, activities of daily living, and received support from the community and/or from relatives, neighbours, and friends.

    Results: Almost half of the sample (47%) receives some kind of care, with 27% of them receiving only informal care, which is understood to mean that informal care is of great importance and families are the main providers of help. For hypothetical future long-term care, older people wish to be cared for in their homes, but those already in need of assistance prefer to be cared for in institutions.

    Discussion:Caring relatives are the main providers of support to older people in their homes and it is important to provide them with suitable formal support when the care responsibility increases.

    Conclusions:As the care system in Iceland is now under reconstruction, the important contribution of informal carers must be recognised and taken into account when planning the care of older people.

  • 42.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    100 Years of Coresidence. The Case of the Younger Generation in Sweden1984Report (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 43.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    15 000 guldbröllop2002In: Välfärdsbulletinen, ISSN 0280-1418, no 2, p. -17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    A Haven in a Heartless World?: Living with Parents in Sweden and the United States, 1880-19821987In: Continuity and Change, ISSN 0268-4160, E-ISSN 1469-218X, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 145-187Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Ageing is riskier than it looks (Commentary).1995In: Age and Ageing, ISSN 0002-0729, E-ISSN 1468-2834, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 373-374Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Alla dessa skandaler som kom och gick - inte visste jag att det var omsorg2016In: Äldre i centrum, ISSN 1401-5110, no 1, p. 72-75Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 47.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Arvet efter morfar och Gorbatjovs favoritförfattare1991In: Aldring & Eldre, ISSN 0801-9991, no 3, p. 21-23Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Assisted Living for our parents: A son's journey.2008In: Ageing & Society, Vol. 3, p. 435-437Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 49.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Att förlora ett litet barn2012In: Välfärd, ISSN 1651-6710, 1654-1502, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 28-29Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes infant mortality in Sweden 1749-2010 both from the perspective of the chidren and - less well known - from that of the parents: How big was/is the risk for parents to lose one or more children? Data from the 1935/36 special census and the Generational Records of Statistics Sweden suggest that the average risk for parents to lose one or more of their infants was about 67 % in the 1700s, 18 % in the early 1900s and less than one percent today.

  • 50.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Behov av vård och omsorg: en kunskapsöversikt1999Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
123456 1 - 50 of 254
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