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  • 1.
    Algurén, Beatrix
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Nordin, Annika
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Så blir ditt register attraktiv för kliniknära förbättringsarbete: Noteringar från en pågående studie - angreppsätt för att förbättra ANVÄNDANDET av kvalitetsregister2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Algurén, Beatrix
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Department of Food and Nutrition and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Faculty of Education, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nordin, Annika
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Andersson-Gäre, Boel
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare). Futurum, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Peterson, Anette
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Futurum, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    In-depth comparison of two quality improvement collaboratives from different healthcare areas based on registry data - Possible factors contributing to sustained improvement in outcomes beyond the project time2019In: Implementation Science, ISSN 1748-5908, E-ISSN 1748-5908, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Quality improvement collaboratives (QICs) are widely used to improve healthcare, but there are few studies of long-term sustained improved outcomes, and inconsistent evidence about what factors contribute to success. The aim of the study was to open the black box of QICs and compare characteristics and activities in detail of two differing QICs in relation to their changed outcomes from baseline and the following 3 years.

    Methods: Final reports of two QICs - one on heart failure care with five teams, and one on osteoarthritis care with seven teams, including detailed descriptions of improvement projects from each QIC's team, were analysed and coded by 18 QIC characteristics and four team characteristics. Goal variables from each team routinely collected within the Swedish Heart Failure Registry (SwedeHF) and the Better Management of Patients with OsteoArthritis Registry (BOA) at year 2013 (baseline), 2014, 2015 and 2016 were analysed with univariate statistics.

    Results: The two QICs differed greatly in design. The SwedeHF-QIC involved eight experts and ran for 12 months, whereas the BOA-QIC engaged three experts and ran for 6 months. There were about twice as many activities in the SwedeHF-QIC as in the BOA-QIC and they ranged from standardisation of team coordination to better information and structured follow-ups. The outcome results were heterogeneous within teams and across teams and QICs. Both QICs were highly appreciated by the participants and contributed to their learning, e.g. of improvement methods; however, several teams had already reached goal values when the QICs were launched in 2013.

    Conclusions: Even though many QI activities were carried out, it was difficult to see sustained improvements on outcomes. Outcomes as specific measurable aspects of care in need of improvement should be chosen carefully. Activities focusing on adherence to standard care programmes and on increased follow-up of patients seemed to lead to more long-lasting improvements. Although earlier studies showed that data follow-up and measurement skills as well as well-functioning data warehouses contribute to sustained improvements, the present registries' functionality and QICs at this time did not support those aspects sufficiently. Further studies on QICs and their impact on improvement beyond the project time should investigate the effect of those elements in particular. 

  • 3.
    Nordin, Annika
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Expressions of shared interpretations - Intangible outcomes of continuous quality improvement efforts in health- and elderly care2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is anchored in improvement science, the research field of improvement. Improvement science describes and explores improvement in real-life contexts and “system of profound knowledge” (Deming, 2000) is a cornerstone. Performance measures, including their variation over time, are fundamental in the research and evaluation of outcomes of continuous quality improvement efforts (CQI efforts). However, the strong emphasis on operationalisations and measurements risks overshadowing other kinds of outcomes to which CQI efforts can lead.

    Research has shown that it is advantageous that those performing change have some kind of “sharedness”, e.g. shared cognitions, understanding, knowledge, interpretations or frame of reference. Despite the diversity of concepts and scientific studies, “sharedness” is mainly described as a prerequisite for change.

    This thesis addresses the call to broaden the scientific approach in improvement science and to take advantage of knowledge developed since Deming's time. It has a point of departure in the presumption that CQI efforts also lead to intangible outcomes; qualitative effects that are not easily captured with traditional performance measures. The concept “Expressions of shared interpretations” is used to study “sharedness” as intangible outcomes.

    The overall aim with this thesis is to explore Expressions of shared interpretations as intangible outcomes of CQI efforts from the perspective of clinical microsystems and healthcare professionals. The specific aims are to examine and establish how Expressions of shared interpretations develop, influence CQI efforts and change over time.

    Using a qualitative approach, this thesis comprises four papers, based on three studies. The empirical context is healthcare and welfare organizations providing care: hospital clinics in county councils/regions and nursing homes in municipalities. The studies include time periods from one to three and a half years, totalling six years. Expressions of shared interpretations inherently mean that the methods for data analysis need to be based on commonalities or patterns in the data. In this thesis three methods are used: qualitative content analysis, thematic analysis and directed content analysis. To examine time-related changes, year-to-year comparative analyses of themes and categories are done.

    To explore Expressions of shared interpretations, different theoretical frameworks are used: team cognitions (Paper 1), sensemaking theory (Paper 2), cognitive shifts (Paper 3) and programme theories (Paper 4).

    A directed content analysis is applied in a meta-analysis of the results presented in the four papers. The results indicate that Expressions of shared interpretations develop as intangible outcomes of CQI efforts and a general programme theory of CQI efforts in health- and elderly care is developed, illuminating how Expressions of shared interpretations change and influence CQI efforts. The general programme theory incorporates the PDSA cycle and describes the complex, interconnected and continuous development of Expressions of shared interpretations. It also illuminates how Expressions of shared interpretations provide change performers with momentum to engage in forthcoming PDSA cycles and how sensemaking is a central activity.

    CQI efforts in health- and elderly care are characterised by a “just get on with it” attitude, while in this thesis, thoughtfulness is emphasized. Existing improvement tools support collaboration, creativity and analysis of critical aspects of the operations, yet none of the improvement tools help change performers gain understanding of the CQI effort as such. To address this, this thesis suggests that change performers complement the use of improvement tools with an inquiring mind, that they collaborate in thoughtful dialogues and that leaders function as inquirers. To support this posture, the widely used Model for improvement is complemented with a fourth question: What are our assumptions? The question pinpoints the need to be thoughtful in every step of the CQI effort, not just in the analysis of the problem at hand.

  • 4.
    Nordin, Annika
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Intangible outcomes of the work with a doctoral thesis2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Nordin, Annika
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Region Jönköping County, Jönköping .
    Andersson-Gäre, Boel
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Andersson, Ann-Christine
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Emergent programme theories of a national quality register - a longitudinal study in Swedish elderly care2017In: Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice, ISSN 1356-1294, E-ISSN 1365-2753, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 1329-1335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationale, aim, and objective: This study aimed to explore programme theories of a national quality register. A programme theory is a bundle of assumptions underpinning how and why an improvement initiative functions. The purpose was to examine and establish programme theories of a national quality register widely used in Sweden: Senior alert. The paper reports on how programme theories among change recipients emerge in relation to the established programme theory of the initiator.

    Methods: A qualitative approach and a longitudinal research design were used. To develop programme theories among change recipients, individual semistructured interviews were conducted. Three sets of interviews were conducted in the period of 2011 to 2013, totalling 22 interviews. In addition, 4 participant observations were made. To develop the initiator's programme theory, an iterative multistage collaboration process between the researchers and the initiator was used. A directed content analysis was used to analyse data.

    Findings: The initiator and change recipients described similar programme logics, but differing programme theories. With time, change recipients' programme theories emerged. Their programme theories converged and became more like the programme theory of the initiator.

    Conclusions: This study has demonstrated the importance of making both the initiator's and change recipients' programme theories explicit. To learn about conditions for improvement initiatives, comparisons between their programme theories are valuable. Differences in programme theories provide information on how initiators can customize support for their improvement initiatives. Similar programme logics can be underpinned by different programme theories, which can be deceptive. Programme theories emerge over time and need to be understood as dynamic phenomena. 

  • 6.
    Nordin, Annika
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Andersson-Gäre, Boel
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare). Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Andersson, Ann-Christine
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Prospective sensemaking of a national quality register in health care and elderly care2018In: Leadership in Health Services, ISSN 1751-1879, E-ISSN 1751-1887, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 398-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how external change agents (ECAs) engaged to disseminate a national quality register (NQR) called Senior alert nationwide in the Swedish health care and elderly care sectors interpret their work. To study this, sensemaking theories are used.

    Design/methodology/approach

    This is a qualitative inductive interview study including eight ECAs. To analyze the data, a thematic analysis is carried out.

    Findings

    Well-disseminated NQRs support health care organizations’ possibility to work with quality improvement and to improve care for patient groups. NQRs function as artifacts that can influence how health care professionals make sense of their work. In this paper, a typology depicting how the ECAs make sense of their dissemination work has been developed. The ECAs are engaged in prospective sensemaking. They describe their work as being about creating future good results, both for patients and affiliated organizations, and they can balance different quality aspects.

    Originality/value

    The number of NQRs increased markedly in Sweden and elsewhere, but there are few reports on how health care professionals working with the registers interpret their work. The use of ECAs to disseminate NQRs is a novel approach. This paper describes how the ECAs are engaged in prospective sensemaking – an under-researched perspective of the sensemaking theory.

  • 7.
    Nordin, Annika
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Andersson-Gäre, Boel
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare). Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Andersson, Ann-Christine
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Sensemaking and cognitive shifts – learning from dissemination of a National Quality Register in health care and elderly care2018In: Leadership in Health Services, ISSN 1751-1879, E-ISSN 1751-1887, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 371-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this study is to examine and establish how sensemaking develops among a group of external change agents (ECAs) engaged to disseminate a national quality register nationwide in Swedish health care and elderly care. To study the emergent sensemaking, the theoretical concept of cognitive shift has been used.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The data collection method included individual semi-structured interviews, and two sets of interviews (initial sensemaking and renewed sensemaking) have been conducted. Based on a typology describing how ECAs interpret their work, structural analyses and comparisons of initial and renewed sensemaking are made and illuminated in spider diagrams. The data are then analyzed to search for cognitive shifts.

    Findings

    The ECAs’ sensemaking develops. Three cognitive shifts are identified, and a new kind of issue-related cognitive shift, the outcome-related cognitive shift, is suggested. For the ECAs to customize their work, they need to be aware of how they interpret their own work and how these interpretations develop over time.

    Originality/value

    The study takes a novel view of the interrelated concepts of sensemaking and sensegivers and points out the cognitive shifts as a helpful theoretical concept to study how sensemaking develops.

  • 8.
    Nordin, Annika
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Areskoug Josefsson, Kristina
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Behavioural and operational outcomes of a Master’s programme on improvement knowledge and leadership: A survey study2019In: Leadership in Health Services, ISSN 1751-1879, E-ISSN 1751-1887, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 525-542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate behavioural changes and operational outcomes resulting from a Master’s programme on improvement knowledge and leadership in the Swedish welfare sector. The welfare sector is the collective term for tax-funded services the state, county councils and municipalities are responsible to provide.

    Design/methodology/approach: A survey combined open-ended and closed questions using a five-point Likert scale. The questions were based on the learning objectives of the Master’s programme. The survey was sent to 139 graduates and achieved a response rate of 41 per cent (57 respondents). Responses were entered into a survey programme to enable the descriptive presentation of data; open-ended responses were analysed using conventional content analysis.

    Findings: Respondents reported their increased knowledge and changed behaviours had impacted operational outcomes, e.g. processes efficiency, compliance with guidelines and quality. They said the programme was of value to themselves and society but requested more leadership knowledge. All respondents recommended the programme to others.

    Originality/value: By operationalizing the Kirkpatrick framework, the paper describes outcomes on levels three and four, and the use of numerous best practice techniques for adult learning. This is valuable knowledge for organisers of improvement knowledge educations.

  • 9.
    Nordin, Annika
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Gabrielsson-Järhult, Felicia
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Improvement knowledge in health and welfare2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Nordin, Annika
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Ostrelius, M.
    How can contiuous quality improvement tools support systematic work environment management? Perspectives from practice and theory2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Suutari, Anne-Marie
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare). Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, the Highland Hospital (Höglandssjukhuset), Eksjö, Region Jönköping County, Sweden.
    Areskoug Josefsson, Kristina
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Kjellström, Sofia
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Nordin, Annika
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Thor, Johan
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Promoting a sense of security in everyday life—A case study of patients and professionals moving towards co-production in an atrial fibrillation “learning café”2019In: Health Expectations, ISSN 1369-6513, E-ISSN 1369-7625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    An improvement initiative sought to improve care for atrial fibrillation (AF) patients; many felt insecure about how to cope with AF.

    Objective

    To reveal AF patients' and professionals' experiences of pilot-testing a Learning Café group education programme, aimed at increasing the patients' sense of security in everyday life.

    Design

    Using an organizational case study design, we combined quantitative data (patients' sense of security) and qualitative data (project documentation; focus group interviews with five patients and five professionals) analysed using inductive qualitative content analysis.

    Setting

    AF patients and a multiprofessional team at a cardiac care unit in a Swedish district hospital.

    Improvement activities

    Two registered nurses invited AF patients and partners to four 2.5-hour Learning Café sessions. In the first session, they solicited participants' questions about life with AF. A physician, a registered nurse and a physiotherapist were invited to address these questions in the remaining sessions.

    Results

    AF patients reported gaining a greater sense of security in everyday life and anticipating a future shift from emergency care to planned care. Professionals reported enhanced professional development, learning more about person-centredness and gaining greater control of their own work situation. The organization gained knowledge about patient and family involvement.

    Conclusions

    The Learning Café pilot test?exemplifying movement towards co-production through patient-professional collaboration?generated positive outcomes for patients (sense of security), professionals (work satisfaction; learning) and the organization (better care) in line with contemporary models for quality improvement and with Self-Determination Theory. This approach merits further testing and evaluation in other contexts.

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