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  • 1. Alter, G.
    et al.
    Manfredini, M.
    Nystedt, Paul
    University of Linköping.
    Gender differences in mortality2004Ingår i: Life under Pressure: Mortality and living standards in Europe and Asia, 1700-1900 :, MIT Press, 2004, s. 327-358Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2.
    Berggren, Fredrik
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Nystedt, Paul
    University of Linköping.
    Changes in alcohol consumption: An analysis of self-reported use of alcohol in a Swedish national sample 1988-89 and 1996-972006Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 34, nr 3, s. 304-311Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To analyse factors associated with alcohol consumption, and how these changed over the period 1988-97, a period during which Sweden entered the European Union. Methods: Data were used from two waves (1988-89 and 1996-97) of the representative longitudinal micro-level ULF survey in Sweden to estimate a two-part model of consumption. Results: Experiencing financial stress, monthly salary, and not being married were all correlated with alcohol consumption, especially for males in 1988-89. In 1996-97 these correlations were much weaker, revealing a levelling-out trend towards conformity. The pattern was less clear for females. Further, the youngest age group (16-29 years) increased its consumption significantly more than the older age groups. Conclusion: There were significant changes in alcohol behaviour, especially for males, coinciding with Sweden joining the EU and preceding the very substantial general increase in consumption levels since 1998. This underlying process should be kept in mind when analysing the more recent trends. The results support the contention that alcohol policy should be a combination of measures targeting the whole population (e.g. via public health campaigns) with specific measures directed towards more vulnerable groups (e.g. young people).

  • 3.
    Bjursell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Björklund, Anita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för rehabilitering. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ADULT. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Sternäng, Ola
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change (SCOHOS).
    Education level explains participation in work and education later in life2017Ingår i: Educational gerontology, ISSN 0360-1277, E-ISSN 1521-0472, Vol. 43, nr 10, s. 511-521Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A prolonged working life is crucial for sustaining social welfare and fiscal stability for countries facing ageing populations. The group of older adults is not homogeneous; however, differences within the group may affect the propensity to continue working and to participate in continuing education. The aim of this paper is to explore how participation in work and education vary with gender, age, and education level in a sample of older adults. The study was performed in Sweden, a context characterized by high female labour-market-participation rates and a high average retirement age. The participants were 232 members of four of the major senior citizens? organizations. We found no differences in participation in work and education based on gender. People older than 75 years were found to be as active as people 65?75 years old in education, but the older group worked less. There were positive associations between education level and participation in both work and education. Hence, this study implies that socio-economic inequalities along these dimensions are widened later in life. This highlights the importance of engaging workers with lower education levels in educational efforts throughout life. It also emphasizes the need for true lifelong learning in society.

  • 4.
    Björklund Carlstedt, Anita
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för rehabilitering. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ADULT. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Brushammar, Gunilla
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolebiblioteket.
    Bjursell, Cecilia
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Nilsson, Gunilla
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. SALVE (Socialt arbete, Livssammanhang, Välfärd).
    A scoping review of the incentives for a prolonged work life after pensionable age and the importance of “bridge employment”2018Ingår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 60, nr 2, s. 175-189Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: With a growing share of older people in almost every population, discussions are being held worldwide about how to guarantee welfare in the immediate future. Different solutions are suggested, but in this article the focus is on the need to keep older employees active in the labor market for a prolonged time.

    Objective: The aim was to find out and describe the incentives at three system levels for older people 1) wanting, 2) being able, and 3) being allowed to work.

    Material: The literature search embraced articles from the databases Scopus, PsycInfo, Cinahl, AgeLine and Business Source Premier, from May 2004 until May 2016. After the removal of 507 duplicates, the selection and analysis started with the 1331 articles that met the search criteria. Of these, 58 articles corresponded with the research questions.

    Method: The design was a ‘scoping review’ of the research area bridge employment and prolonged work life.

    Results: The results show that most investigations are conducted on individual-level predictors, research on organizational-level predictors is more scattered, and societal-level predictor information is scarce.

    Conclusions: Attitudes and behavior according to a prolonged work life could be summarized as dependent on good health, a financial gain in combination with flexible alternative working conditions.

  • 5.
    Bolin, Kristian
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Lindgren, Björn
    Lund University.
    Lindström, Martin
    Lund University.
    Nystedt, Paul
    University of Linköping.
    Investments in social capital - Implications of social interactions for the production of health2003Ingår i: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 56, nr 12, s. 2379-2390Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops a theoretical model of the family as producer of health- and social capital. There are both direct and indirect returns on the production and accumulation of health- and social capital. Direct returns (the consumption motives) result since health and social capital both enhance individual welfare per se. Indirect returns (the investment motives) result since health capital increases the amount of productive time, and social capital improves the efficiency of the production technology used for producing health capital. The main prediction of the theoretical model is that the amount of social capital is positively related to the level of health; individuals with high levels of social capital are healthier than individuals with lower levels of social capital, ceteris paribus. An empirical model is estimated, using a set of individual panel data from three different time periods in Sweden. We find that social capital is positively related to the level of health capital, which supports the theoretical model. Further, we find that the level of social capital (1) declines with age, (2) is lower for those married or cohabiting, and (3) is lower for men than for women.

  • 6. Dozet, A
    et al.
    Lyttkens, C.H.
    Nystedt, Paul
    University of Linköping.
    Health care for the elderly: Two cases of technology diffusion2002Ingår i: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 54, nr 1, s. 49-64Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffusion of medical technology and the growing proportion of elderly people in the population are generally regarded as major contributors to the increasing health care expenditure in the industrialised world. This study explores the importance of one specific factor in this process, the change in the use of technology among elderly patients. In some instances, a new technology is first used among younger patients and then gradually extended to the elderly. Two such cases are studied, both representing costly procedures: coronary bypass surgery (treatment of coronary heart disease) and dialysis (treatment of uraemia). In both cases, we demonstrate significant diffusion to older age groups. It is also tentatively concluded that the diffusion of technology could have an important effect on per capita health care expenditure among the oldest of the old.

  • 7.
    Dribe, Martin
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Lundh, Christer
    Göteborg University.
    Nystedt, Paul
    University of Linköping.
    Widowhood strategies in preindustrial society2007Ingår i: Journal of Interdisciplinary History, ISSN 0022-1953, E-ISSN 1530-9169, Vol. 38, nr 2, s. 207-232Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The article discuses the impact that the death of a spouse would have on households in Sweden between 1814 to 1894. Widows were left without a provider and had to rely on other sources of money while widowers had to find a way to accomplish domestic tasks. The mourning period's length was different for widows and widowers, which could or could not complicate remarriage. Many widowers chose to remarry. A widowed parent also could enter a child's household or the household of a non-relative.

  • 8.
    Dribe, Martin
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Age Homogamy, Gender, and Earnings: Sweden 1990-20092017Ingår i: Social Forces, ISSN 0037-7732, E-ISSN 1534-7605, Vol. 96, nr 1, s. 239-263Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown considerable marriage premiums in earnings for men, but often penalties for women of being in a union. In this study we extend this research by analyzing how the age difference between spouses affects the earnings profiles by gender. As we follow people over time in advance as well as within their marriage, we can separate premarital from postmarital earnings movements. The data consist of information on annual earnings 1990-2009 for all Swedes born 1960-1974 (N = 926,219). The results indicate that age homogamy is related to higher earnings for both men and women, and that larger age differences are generally associated with lower union premiums, quite independently of which spouse is older. However, most of these results are explained by assortative mating, in which men and women with greater earnings potentials find partners of a similar age. Overall, the age difference between spouses seems to have a limited causal effect, if any, on individual earnings.

  • 9.
    Dribe, Martin
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Nystedt, Paul
    University of Linköping.
    Educational Homogamy and Gender-Specific Earnings: Sweden, 1990-20092013Ingår i: Demography, ISSN 0070-3370, E-ISSN 1533-7790, Vol. 50, nr 4, s. 1197-1216Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have shown strong educational homogamy in most Western societies, although the trends over time differ across countries. In this article, we study the connection between educational assortative mating and gender-specific earnings in a sample containing the entire Swedish population born 1960-1974; we follow this sample from 1990 to 2009. Our empirical strategy exploits a longitudinal design, using distributed fixed-effects models capturing the impact of partner education on postmarital earnings, relating it to the income development before union formation. We find that being partnered with someone with more education (hypergamy) is associated with higher earnings, while partnering someone with less education (hypogamy) is associated with lower earnings. However, most of these differences in earnings emerge prior to the time of marriage, implying that the effect is explained by marital selection processes rather than by partner education affecting earnings. The exception is hypogamy among the highly educated, for which there are strong indications that in comparison with homogamy and hypergamy, earnings grow slower after union formation.

  • 10.
    Dribe, Martin
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Lund University.
    Fertility and Economic Stress in Southern Sweden, 1829-18672000Ingår i: Marriage, family formation, and population behavior in the past: An East-West comparison / [ed] J. Lee, G. Songyi, & D. Yizhuang, Beijing: Peking University Press, 2000Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 11. Dribe, Martin
    et al.
    Nystedt, Paul
    University of Linköping.
    Information, trust and the diffusion of smallpox vaccination: The Case of Scania in Sweden, 1802–18352003Ingår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 51, nr 1, s. 9-28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the diffusion of a new medical technology — vaccination against smallpox — in nineteenth-century Scania in Sweden. Using an aggregated sample of parishes as well as a micro-level dataset for four parishes, we investigate the socioeconomic as well as the geographical patterns of diffusion of vaccination in the province. We also relate the adoption of vaccination across geographical areas, as well as across social groups, to the availability of information, ability to acquire and process this information, and to levels of social capital and trust in society. Our results point to the conclusion that while vaccination spread very quickly geographically after its introduction, there were considerable differences between social groups. The better situated, betted educated, landholding peasants were more ready to adopt the new technology of smallpox vaccination. This had little to do with better access to economic resources as vaccination in general was provided free of charge. Instead we hypothesize that it was related to a higher ability to acquire and utilize the information available, and/or a higher level of trust in the authorities among these peasants.

  • 12.
    Dribe, Martin
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Is there an intermarriage premium for male immigrants? Exogamy and earnings in Sweden 1990–20092015Ingår i: The international migration review, ISSN 0197-9183, E-ISSN 1747-7379, Vol. 49, nr 1, s. 3-35Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the impact of intermarriage on the economic integration of immigrants in Sweden, measured by annual earnings. We use longitudinal register data for the period 1990–2009 for the total population of immigrant men born 1960–1974. The results reveal large intermarriage premiums, but overall this seems to be a result of selection effects as most of the premium is visible already at the time of marriage. For the most economically marginalized immigrants, however, an intermarriage premium arises within marriage implying that forming a union with a native triggers a more rapid earnings growth among them.

  • 13.
    Eklund, K
    et al.
    Göteborg University.
    Sonn, U
    University, Göteborg.
    Nystedt, Paul
    University of Linköping.
    Dahlin-Ivanoff, S
    Göteborg University.
    A cost-effectiveness analysis of a health education programme for elderly persons with age-related macular degeneration: A longitudinal study2005Ingår i: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 27, nr 20, s. 1203-1212Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To analyse the cost-effectiveness of the activity-based Health Education Programme ’Discovering New Ways’ versus a standard Individual Programme. Method: Two-hundred and twenty-nine persons were randomized to either the Health Education Programme or an Individual Programme. The present study is based on 131 persons who participated in the 28-month follow-up. Costs for the low vision clinic were documented prospectively along with external costs. A cost-effectiveness analysis was done using cases with an improved level of perceived security in daily activities as the effectiveness measure. Results: The Health Education Programme led to significantly more cases with an improved level of perceived security (45 vs. 10%, CI 95%: 21-49, p value < 0.001) and the total social cost per treatment was lower (28 004 vs. 36 341 SEK). Taken separately the low vision clinic costs were slightly higher due to a higher prescription of assistive devices, but external costs were lower for the Health Education Programme compared to the Individual Programme, though neither of these differences was statistically significant. Conclusion: The results suggest that replacing the standard Individual Programme with the Health Education Programme ’Discovering New Ways’ is cost-effective as more persons experience increased security to a lesser total cost.

  • 14.
    Fristedt, Sofi
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för rehabilitering. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Skogar, Örjan
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Nystedt, Paul
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Mobile Geriatric Teams: a cost-effective way of improving patient safety and reducing health care u2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 15.
    Gerdtham, U.-G.
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Lundborg, Petter
    Lunds universitet.
    Lyttkens, Carl Hampus
    Lunds universitet.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Do education and income really explain inequalities in health? Applying a twin design2016Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 118, nr 1, s. 25-48Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We apply a twin design to examine the relationship between health and education andincome. The estimated associations between health and education and income, controlling forunobserved endowments, at the twin-pair level, are lower than estimates obtained via ordinaryleast-squares (OLS) on the same sample. Thus, OLS-based effects of education and incomeare biased, exaggerating the contribution of education and income to health inequality. Themain part of health inequality is explained by within-twin-pair fixed effects, incorporatingfamily background and genetic inheritance. It appears that education and income policieshave less to offer for reducing health inequality than is usually assumed.

  • 16.
    Gerdtham, Ulf-G
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Lundborg, Petter
    Lund University.
    Lyttkens, Carl Hampus
    Lund University.
    Nystedt, Paul
    University of Linköping.
    Do Socioeconomic Factors Really Explain Income-Related Inequalities in Health?: Applying a Twin Design to Standard Decomposition Analysis2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentration index and decomposition analysis are commonly used in economics to measure and explain socioeconomic inequalities in health. Such analysis builds on the strong assumption that a health production function can be estimated without substantial bias implying that health is caused by socioeconomic outcomes, which is hard to prove. This article contributes to the decomposition literature by applying a twin design to standard decomposition analysis of socioeconomic health inequalities in Sweden. The twin-based decomposition estimates, which control for unobserved endowments at the twin-pair level, are much lower in magnitude than estimates obtained via typical OLS on the same sample. This demonstrates that OLS-based decompositions are severely upward biased due to underlying confounders, exaggerating the contribution of income and education to health inequality, which in turn limits the usefulness of such decompositions for policy purposes.

  • 17.
    Holm, H
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Nystedt, Paul
    University of Linköping.
    Trust in surveys and games - A methodological contribution on the influence of money and location2008Ingår i: Journal of Economic Psychology, ISSN 0167-4870, E-ISSN 1872-7719, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 522-542Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores methods to study trust. In a variety of settings, answers to survey questions and choices in a trust game are obtained from student sample pools. Some subjects are approached by mail and execute their task at home whereas others participate in classroom experiments. No differences between the results obtained by these methods are observed. Furthermore, one additional group plays the trust game with purely hypothetical payments, and another receives random lottery payments. This changes trust behavior dramatically, whereas trustworthiness is unaffected. Subjects without any financial incentives exhibit less trust and their trust choices are significantly correlated with survey trust answers. There is no such correlation for the corresponding choices with real payments. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 18.
    Holm, H.J
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Nystedt, Paul
    University of Linköping.
    Collective trust behavior2010Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 112, nr 1, s. 25-53Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates trust behavior in situations where decision-makers are large groups and the decision mechanism is collective. Theories from behavioral economics and psychology suggest that trust in such situations may differ from interindividual trust. The experimental results here reveal a large difference in trust but not in trustworthiness between the individual and collective setting. Furthermore, a field experiment captures the determinants of collective trust behavior among two Swedish cohorts. Beliefs about the other group and one’s own group are strongly associated with collective trustworthiness and trust behavior.

  • 19.
    Holm, Håkan
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Nystedt, Paul
    University of Linköping.
    Intra-generational trust - A semi-experimental study of trust among different generations2005Ingår i: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, ISSN 0167-2681, E-ISSN 1879-1751, Vol. 58, nr 3, s. 403-419Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    From a public database in Sweden we obtained a subject pool consisting of one group of 20 years old and another group exactly 50 years older. The groups participated in a mail-based trust game, in which the young cohort exhibited more trust than the older one. Subjects significantly preferred to place trust in co-players of their own cohort and of the female sex. When amounts sent and proportions returned in the mail-based game are compared with other trust games conducted in standard laboratory environments, it is found that the mail-based game does not seem to generate extreme distributions.

  • 20.
    Lundborg, P
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Nystedt, Paul
    University of Linköping.
    Lindgren, B
    University of Gothenburg.
    Getting ready for the marriage market?: A response2012Ingår i: Journal of Biosocial Science, ISSN 0021-9320, E-ISSN 1469-7599, Vol. 44, nr 2, s. 235-242Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Overweight and obesity constitute a major and increasing health and welfare problem throughout the world. Assessing the multifaceted mechanisms-biological, environmental and behavioural-behind this development is a crucial task in medical, social and economic sciences. We are, therefore, grateful to have been given the opportunity to, once again, discuss whether the risk of divorce may be one of the factors influencing the incentives of becoming overweight or obese and, hence, ultimately the physical appearance among the married. In this Debate, colleagues Schneider and Grimps present the results of a multilevel analysis, in which they could not identify any statistically significant association between body mass index (BMI) and divorce risk among married people. Thus, they question the findings, previously published in this Journal (Lundborg et al., 2007). The Schneider and Grimps arguments are not convincing, however. So, we still claim that the statistical material at hand does, indeed, imply that divorce risk at the national level may well influence the weight of the married.

  • 21.
    Lundborg, P
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Nystedt, Paul
    University of Linköping.
    Lindgren, B
    University of Gothenburg.
    Getting ready for the marriage market?: Further comment2012Ingår i: Journal of Biosocial Science, ISSN 0021-9320, E-ISSN 1469-7599, Vol. 44, nr 2, s. 251-254Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 22.
    Lundborg, P
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Nystedt, Paul
    University of Linköping.
    Rooth, D
    Linnaeus University.
    Height and earnings: The role of cognitive and noncognitive skills2014Ingår i: The Journal of human resources, ISSN 0022-166X, E-ISSN 1548-8004, Vol. 49, nr 1, s. 141-166Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We use large-scale register data on 450,000 Swedish males who underwent mandatory military enlistment at age 18, and a subsample of 150,000 siblings, to examine why tall people earn more. We show the importance of both cognitive and noncognitive skills, as well as family background and muscular strength for the height-earnings relationship. In addition, we show that a substantial height premium remains after these factors have been accounted for, which originates from very short people having low earnings. This is mostly explained by the sorting of short people into low-paid occupations, which may indicate discrimination by stature.

  • 23.
    Lundborg, Petter
    et al.
    Centre for Economic Demography, IZA, HEP, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lyttkens, Carl Hampus
    Lund University, HEP Lund, Lund, Sweden.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    The effect of schooling on mortality: New evidence from 50,000 Swedish twins2016Ingår i: Demography, ISSN 0070-3370, E-ISSN 1533-7790, Vol. 53, nr 4, s. 1135-1168Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    By using historical data on about 50,000 twins born in Sweden during 1886–1958, we demonstrate a positive and statistically significant relationship between years of schooling and longevity. This relation remains almost unchanged when exploiting a twin fixed-effects design to control for the influence of genetics and shared family background. This result is robust to controlling for within-twin-pair differences in early-life health and cognitive ability, as proxied by birth weight and height, as well as to restricting the sample to MZ twins. The relationship is fairly constant over time but becomes weaker with age. Literally, our results suggest that compared with low levels of schooling (less than 10 years), high levels of schooling (at least 13 years of schooling) are associated with about three years longer life expectancy at age 60 for the considered birth cohorts. The real societal value of schooling may hence extend beyond pure labor market and economic growth returns. From a policy perspective, schooling may therefore be a vehicle for improving longevity and health, as well as equality along these dimensions.

  • 24.
    Lundborg, Petter
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Nystedt, Paul
    University of Linköping.
    Lindgren, Björn
    Lund University.
    Getting ready for the marriage market?: The association between divorce risks and investments in attractive body mass among married Europeans2007Ingår i: Journal of Biosocial Science, ISSN 0021-9320, E-ISSN 1469-7599, Vol. 39, nr 4, s. 531-544Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores to what extent married middle-aged individuals in Europe are governed by the risk of experiencing divorce, when shaping their physical appearance. The main result is that divorce risks, proxied by national divorce rates, are negatively connected to body mass index (BMI) among married individuals but unrelated to BMI among singles. Hence, it seems that married people in societies where divorce risks are high are more inclined to invest in their outer appearance. One interpretation is that high divorce rates make married people prepare for a potential divorce and future return to the marriage market.

  • 25.
    Lundborg, Petter
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Nystedt, Paul
    University of Linköping.
    Rooth, Dan- Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Unga feta mäns magra inkomster − vad vet vi om orsakerna?2011Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 39, nr 4, s. 44-54Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel visar att män som var feta redan som tonåringar har betydligt lägre inkomster än normalviktiga. Detta gäller såväl i Sverige som i USA och Storbritannien. Familjespecifika faktorer under uppväxten utgör en viktig förklaring till detta fenomen. Unga feta mäns sämre fysiska kapacitet, vilket kan länkas till deras hälsostatus, verkar också vara betydelsefull i sammanhanget. Sammantaget understryker detta vikten av att motverka uppkomsten av barn- och ungdomsfetma, vilken således inte bara har betydande återverkningar på hälsa utan även på framgången på arbetsmarknaden långt senare i livet.

  • 26.
    Lundborg, Petter
    et al.
    Centre for Economic Demography, and HEP, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Centre for Economic Demography, and HEP, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Body Size, Skills, and Income: Evidence From 150,000 Teenage Siblings2014Ingår i: Demography, ISSN 0070-3370, E-ISSN 1533-7790, Vol. 51, nr 5, s. 1573-1596Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We provide new evidence on the long-run labor market penalty of teenage overweight and obesity using unique and large-scale data on 150,000 male siblings from the Swedish military enlistment. Our empirical analysis provides four important results. First, we provide the first evidence of a large adult male labor market penalty for being overweight or obese as a teenager. Second, we replicate this result using data from the United States and the United Kingdom. Third, we note a strikingly strong within-family relationship between body size and cognitive skills/noncognitive skills. Fourth, a large part of the estimated body-size penalty reflects lower skill acquisition among overweight and obese teenagers. Taken together, these results reinforce the importance of policy combating early-life obesity in order to reduce healthcare expenditures as well as poverty and inequalities later in life.

  • 27.
    Lång, Elisabeth
    et al.
    FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Blowing up money? The earnings penalty of smoking in the 1970s and the 21st century2018Ingår i: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 60, s. 39-52Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze the earnings penalty of smoking among Swedish twins in two social contexts: the 1970s, when smoking was common and widely accepted and when there were relatively few tobacco laws aiming to reduce smoking; and the 2000s, when smoking had become more expensive, stigmatizing and less common, and when tobacco laws and regulations had intensified. The results show that the short-term earnings penalty of smoking was much higher in the 21st century than in the 1970s for men. For women, smokers had on average higher annual earnings compared to nonsmokers in the 1970s, but lower annual earnings in the 2000s. In the long run, there was an earnings gap for men between never-smokers and continuous smokers, whereas there was a pronounced earnings ‘bonus’ of smoking cessation for women. The results emphasize the importance of social context and the long-term horizon when evaluating the consequences of smoking for earnings.

  • 28.
    Lång, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Does tallness pay off in the long run? Height and earnings over the life cycle2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data on approximately 30,000 dizygotic and monozygotic twins born in Sweden 1918-58, we analyze how the height premium in earnings develops over the adult lifespan. Overall, the unconditional estimated premium increases with age for men and decreases for women. For men, within twin-pair fixed effects (WTP) estimates are on average about 40 percent lower than the corresponding unconditional OLS estimates. Including years of schooling as an explanatory variable induces a similar reduction (about 40 percent) of the estimated OLS height premium, but has no effect whatsoever on the WTP estimates, implying that the OLS and WTP estimates tend to coincide. Hence, it seems as if schooling mediates the association between height and earnings among unrelated male individuals but not among twins. For women, the estimations are less precise, but limiting the sample to those with earnings above a threshold level mirroring half time earnings at a very low wage level, the estimated OLS and WTP premiums are rather constant with age. This indicates that, for women, the unconditional premiums may well be influenced by height-related variation in labor market participation. Overall, the height premium patterns do not vary substantially between monozygotic and dizygotic twins, indicating that environmentally and genetically induced height differences affect earning levels similarly.

  • 29.
    Lång, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Learning for life? The effects of schooling on earnings and health-related behavior over the life cycle2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze how education is associated with earnings and health-related behaviors (HRBs) over the adult life cycle using a sample of 18,000 twins. The underlying motive is to improve the understanding of to what extent schooling may contribute to increased human welfare over time and age through the intermediaries of earnings and HRBs. We find that one additional year of schooling is associated with around 5-6 percent higher earnings at ages 35-75 and generally improved HRBs for both men and women. Much of the estimated relationships between schooling, earnings and HRBs can be traced back to genetic inheritance. Controlling for such inheritance, the remaining education -earnings premium is non-linear and increasing with educational level, and the education premium in HRBs is mainly concentrated to smoking habits.

  • 30.
    Lång, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Two by Two, Inch by Inch: Height as an Indicator of Environmental Conditions during Childhood and its Influence on Earnings over the Life Cycle among Twins2018Ingår i: Economics and Human Biology, ISSN 1570-677X, E-ISSN 1873-6130, Vol. 28, s. 53-66Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Adult height is a function of genetic predispositions and environmental influences during childhood. Hence, any variation in height among monozygotic twins, who share genetic predispositions, is bound to reflect differences in their environmental exposure. Therefore, a height premium in earnings among monozygotic twins also reflects such exposure. In this study, we analyze the height premium over the life cycle among Swedish twins, 10,000 of whom are monozygotic. The premium is relatively constant over the life cycle, amounting to 5–6% higher earnings per decimeter for men and less for women, suggesting that environmental conditions in childhood and youth affect earnings over most of the adult life course. The premium is larger below median height for men and above median height for young women. The estimates are similar for monozygotic and dizygotic twins, indicating that environmentally and genetically induced height differences are similarly associated with earnings.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2019-12-06 00:00
  • 31.
    Nystedt, Paul
    University of Linköping.
    Do the study of economics really shage "economic men and women"2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 32.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Lund University.
    Economic Aspects of Ageing1998Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns economic aspects of ageing and investigates incentives and outcomes related to this process. The thesis is a collection of five essays. An introductory chapter provides an overall economic perspective of ageing. Essay 1 (ch 2) examines mortality risks via duration analysis of widowed individuals in Scania, Sweden during the 19th century. The findings are qualitatively in line with previous results of studies based on modern data: Widowers in general face higher relative mortality risks than widows and the effect of spousal bereavement on mortality is decreasing through time. The estimated relative risks for widowers are dependent on socio-economic status; being landless implies high relative risks. Quantitatively, the magnitudes of our estimates are large in comparison with studies based on more recent data. Essay 2 (ch 3) investigates gender-dependent division of labour within the household. In economics this division is commonly attributed to gender differences in relative productivity. We assume completely gender-neutral production capacities, and introduce instead gender-dependent mortality risks as a factor affecting the allocation of resources within a household. In an ordinary marriage the wife faces lower mortality risk than the husband, indicating that the probability of entering into widowhood and the expected length of a potential widowhood period are greater for her. In our model this implies that the wife, via behaviour during marriage, will prepare for widowhood to a larger extent than the husband. Essay 3 (ch 4) tentatively, in the light of economic theory, analyses factors influencing the presence of a social network. Specifically, the structure of social support networks of 500 older men, aged 68 (born 1914 in Malmoe, Sweden), is studied in terms of their children and close friends. We find some support for the hypothesis that the "number of close friends", reported by the studied individuals, is negatively connected with the number of own children. This could be a result of the presence of own children diminishing the incentives for parents to create and maintain social relations with others. Essay 4 (ch 5) explores how diffusion of medical technology to older and older patient groups may have contributed to increasing health care expenditures in the industrialised world. Two specific cases are studied, both representing costly procedures: coronary bypass surgery and dialysis. In both cases, we observe significant diffusion to older age groups. Essay 5 (ch 6), proceeding from the results of the previous chapter, presents a simple theoretical framework, founded in ordinary welfare maximisation, of the diffusion of medical technology across age groups as a consequence of exogenously given technology development. The empirical part reveals major improvements for the CABG-technique regarding the mortality risk of newly treated patients and rehabilitation processes. According to welfare analysis this implies that afflicted individuals, in weaker and weaker general condition (e.g. older and older) and with lighter and lighter disability from the considered complaint, will be treated. Taking the estimates of technological improvements into account, the actual diffusion of the CABG-technique across age groups is consistent with the theoretical framework.

  • 33.
    Nystedt, Paul
    University of Linköping.
    Martial life course events and smoking behaviour in Sweden 1980-20002006Ingår i: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 62, nr 6, s. 1427-1442Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The protective effect of marriage on smoking has been extensively established in the literature. However, less is known about the dynamics of how smoking behaviour is connected to various marital life course events, and whether there are any gender discrepancies in this respect. In this article the connection between the marital life course and smoking is analysed from a stress-related perspective controlling for other socio-economic characteristics. We use information on 81,000 individuals from the Swedish longitudinal micro-level ULF (Survey of Living Conditions) database 1980-2000, which is randomly drawn from the sample population of all Swedes aged 16-84. Logistic regressions on current smoking status and changes in smoking behaviour of participants in the panel part of the data are estimated. The marital life course is strongly linked to smoking behaviour with being or getting married indicating low smoking risks and marital disruption indicating high risks. The divorced smoke to a higher extent than the widowed and there are signs that getting divorced implies higher risks than becoming widowed, both of taking up/relapsing and, for women, not being able to quit. Further, the results indicate that the connection between smoking cessation and living with a partner is stronger for men, whereas women are more affected by the propensity to start smoking after marital disruption. The protective effect of being married on smoking decreases with the age difference between spouses in households where the wife is older than the husband. Taken together, the results yield a rather complex pattern of smoking behaviour over the marital life course. Further, perceived financial stress is strongly connected to smoking and not being able to quit. Controlling for this effect still leaves a socio-economic status gradient in smoking.

  • 34.
    Nystedt, Paul
    University of Linköping.
    Widowhood-related mortality in Scania, Sweden during the 19th century2002Ingår i: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 451-478Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, mortality risks are empirically examined in connection with spousal bereavement in four parishes in Scania, southern Sweden, during the 19th century using duration analysis. The data are longitudinal and the inhabitants have been followed literally from the cradle to the grave. To simultaneously catch transitory (shock) and persistent (long-term) effects of widowhood on mortality of the surviving spouse, the Cox semiparametric proportional hazards model has been applied with time spent in widowhood as a time-dependent multiple factor. Widowers in general were found to face higher relative mortality risks than widows and the effect of bereavement decreased through time. The estimated relative risks for males were dependent on socioeconomic status and widowers classified as landless faced high relative risks. Quantitatively, the magnitude of our estimates was large in comparison with similar studies made on contemporary data.

  • 35.
    Nystedt, Paul
    et al.
    University of Linköping.
    Lyttkens, C. H.
    Age diffusion never stops?: Carotid endarterectomy among the elderly.2003Ingår i: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, ISSN 1175-5652, E-ISSN 1179-1896, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 3-7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 36. Tsuya, N.
    et al.
    Nystedt, Paul
    University of Linköping.
    Old age mortality2004Ingår i: Life under pressure: Mortality and living standards in Europe and Asia, 1700-1900 :, MIT Press, 2004, s. 399-430Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 37.
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    et al.
    University of Mannheim and IFAU-Uppsala.
    Lundborg, Petter
    Lund University and Centre for Economic Demography Lund.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University and Centre for Economic Demography Lund.
    Critical periods during childhood and adolescence2014Ingår i: Journal of the European Economic Association, ISSN 1542-4766, E-ISSN 1542-4774, Vol. 12, nr 6, s. 1521-1557Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We identify the ages that constitute sensitive (or critical) periods in children's development towards their adult health status, skills, and human capital. For this, we use data on families migrating into Sweden from countries that are poorer, with less healthy conditions. Late-life health is proxied by adult height and other adult outcomes. The relation between siblings’ ages at migration and their adult outcomes allows us to estimate the causal effect of conditions at specific childhood ages. We effectively exploit that, for siblings, the migration occurs simultaneously in calendar time but at different developmental stages (ages). We find evidence that the period just before the puberty growth spurt constitutes a critical period for adult height and we find related critical periods for adult cognition, mental health, and education.

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