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  • 1.
    Dini, Hoda
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    As-cast AZ91D Magnesium Alloy Properties- Effect of Microstructure and Temperature2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnesium and magnesium alloys are used in a wide variety of structural applications including automotive, aerospace, hand tools and electronic industries thanks to their light weight, high specific strength, adequate corrosion resistance and good castability. Al and Zn are the primary alloying elements in commercial Mg alloys and commonly used in automotive industries. AZ91 is one of the most popular Mg alloys containing 9% Al and 1% Zn. Hence, lots of research have been done during last decades on AZ91D. However, the existing data concerning mechanical properties and microstructural features showed large scatter and is even contradictory. This work focused on the correlation between the microstructure and the mechanical properties of as-cast AZ91 alloy. An exhaustive characterization of the grain size, secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) distribution, and fraction of Mg17Al12 using optical and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) was performed. These microstructural parameters were correlated to offset yield point (Rp0.2), fracture strength and elongation to fracture. It was understood that the intermetallic phase, Mg17Al12, plays an important role in determining the mechanical and physical properties of the alloy at temperature range from room temperature up to 190oC. It was realized that by increasing the Mg17Al12 content above 11% a network of intermetallic may form. During deformation this rigid network should break before any plastic deformation happen. Hence, increase in Mg17Al12 content resulted in an increase in offset yield point. The presence of this network was supported by study of thermal expansion behaviour of the alloy containing different amount of Mg17Al12. A physically-based model was adapted and validated in order to predict the flow stress behaviour of as-cast AZ91D at room temperature up to 190ºC for various microstructures. The model was based on dislocation glide and climb in a single-phase (matrix) material containing reinforcing particles. The temperature dependant variables of the model were quite well correlated to the underlying physics of the material.

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  • 2.
    Dini, Hoda
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    As-cast AZ91D magnesium alloy properties: Effects of microstructure and temperature2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, there is an essential need for lightweight, energy-efficient, environmentally benign engineering systems, and this is the driving force behind the development of a wide range of structural and functional materials for energy generation, energy storage, propulsion, and transportation. These challenges have motivated the use of magnesium alloys for lightweight structural systems. Magnesium has a density of 1.74 g/cm3, which is almost 30% less than that of aluminium, one quarter of steel, and almost identicalto polymers. The ease of recycling magnesium alloys as compared to polymers makes them environmentally attractive, but their poor mechanical performance is the primary reason for the limited adoption of these alloys for structural applications.

    The Mg-Al-Zn alloy AZ91D exhibits an excellent combination of strength, die-castability, and corrosion resistance. However, its mechanical performance with regard to creep strength, for example, at evaluated temperatures is poor. Moreover, very little is known about the correlation between its mechanical properties and microstructural features. This thesis aims to provide new knowledge regarding the role played by microstructure in the mechanical performance of the magnesium alloy. The properties/performance of the material in relation to process parameters became of great interest during the investigation.

    An exhaustive characterisation of the grain size, secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) distribution, and fraction of Mg17Al12 was performed using optical and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). These microstructural parameters were correlated to the offset yield point (Rp0.2), fracture strength, and elongation to failure of the material. It was proposed that the intermetallic phase, Mg17Al12, plays an important role in determining the mechanical and physical properties of the alloy in a temperature range of room temperature to 190°C by forming a rigid network of intermetallic. The presence of this network was confirmed by studying the thermal expansion behaviour of samples of the alloy containing different amounts of Mg17Al12.

    A physically based constitutive model with a wide validity range was successfully adapted to describe the flow stress behaviour of AZ91D with various microstructures. The temperature-dependent variables of the model correlated quite well with the underlying physics of the material. The model was validated through comparison with dislocation densities obtained using EBSD.

    The influence of high-pressure die-cast parameters on the distortion and residual stress of the cast components was studied, as were distortion and residual stress in components after shot peening and painting. Interestingly, it was found that intensification pressure has a major effect on distortion and residual stresses, and that the temperature of the fixed half of the die had a slight influence on the component's distortion and residual stress.

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  • 3.
    Dini, Hoda
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Andersson, Nils-Eric
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Ghassemali, Ehsan
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Jarfors, Anders E.W.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Microstructural Scale Effects on Thermal Expansion Behaviour of Cast AZ91D2015In: Magnesium Technology 2015 - TMS 2015 144th Annual Meeting and Exhibition, Orlando, March 15-19, 2015, Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2015, p. 361-365Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of microstructure on thermal expansion of AZ91D cast alloy was studied. Samples with equiaxed grains and a controlled secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) were fabricated using gradient solidification. SDAS was chosen to represent the range ofmicrostructural scale found in sand castings down to that of high pressure die casting. Optical microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) were used for microstructural characterization. The relation between thermal expansion and microstructuralscale of existing phases precipitated, in particular grain size, SDAS and fraction of Mg17Al12 was analyzed.

  • 4.
    Dini, Hoda
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Andersson, Nils-Eric
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Jarfors, Anders E.W.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Effect of Mg17Al12 content on mechanical properties of AZ91D cast alloyIn: Scripta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6462, E-ISSN 1872-8456Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Dini, Hoda
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Andersson, Nils-Eric
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Jarfors, Anders E.W.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Effect of Mg17Al12 Fraction on Mechanical Properties of Mg-9%Al-1%Zn Cast Alloy2016In: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 6, no 10, article id 251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current study it was observed that the offset yield point of Mg-9%Al-1%Zn alloy was strongly influenced by the connectivity of Mg17Al12. It was suggested that an increase in the fraction of Mg17Al12 from 8% to 11% could lead to the formation of a Mg17Al12 network which resulted in a higher offset yield point. In addition, it was observed that elongation to failure of the Mg-9%Al-1%Zn alloy strongly depended on the fraction of Mg17Al12. Moreover, the apparent toughness showed a strong inverse relation to the secondary dendrite arm spacing. This approach might be extended to forecast the behavior in other magnesium alloys forming a network of the Mg-Al phase.

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  • 6.
    Dini, Hoda
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Andersson, Nils-Eric
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Mechanical Engineering.
    Jarfors, Anders E.W.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Effect of process parameters on distortion and residual stress in high pressure die cast AZ91D components after shot peening and paintingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Dini, Hoda
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. Husqvarna, AB Drottninggatan 2, Huskvarna, 561 82, Sweden.
    Andersson, Nils-Eric
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Jarfors, Anders E.W.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Effect of Process Parameters on Distortion and Residual Stress in High-Pressure Die Cast AZ91D Components After Clean Blasting and Painting2020In: International Journal of metalcasting, ISSN 1939-5981, E-ISSN 2163-3193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high-pressure die-casting process was employed to produce AZ91D components. These cast components were exposed to three different post-treatments: (1) clean blasting, (2) clean blasting and painting, and (3) painting (without clean blasting). The influence of the process parameters first phase injection speed, temperature of fixed half of the die, cooling time, and intensification pressure on distortion and residual stress of the components after each post-treatment were investigated. The results showed that intensification pressure was the most significant factor among the four parameters.

  • 8.
    Dini, Hoda
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Andersson, Nils-Eric
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Jarfors, Anders E.W.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Effect of process parameters on distortion and residual stress of high-pressure die-cast AZ91D components2018In: International Journal of metalcasting, ISSN 1939-5981, E-ISSN 2163-3193, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 487-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study of distortion and residual stress within a high-pressure die-cast AZ91D component, cast under different processing conditions. The influence of process parameters, i.e., die temperature, cooling time, intensification pressure and first-phase injection speeds, was examined. Distortions were measured using the in-house standard analog quality control fixture. Residual stress depth profiles were measured using a prism hole-drilling method. It was found that the most important process parameter affecting the distortion was intensification pressure and the second most important was temperature difference between the two die halves (fixed and moving side). Tensile residual stresses were found very near the surface. Increasing the intensification pressure resulted in an increased level of tensile residual stresses.

  • 9.
    Dini, Hoda
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Andersson, Nils-Eric
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Jarfors, Anders E.W.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Effects of microstructure on deformation behaviour of AZ91D cast alloy2014In: TMS 2014 Annual Meeting Supplemental Proceedings TMS, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, San Diego, February 16-20, 2014, John Wiley & Sons, 2014, p. 565-572Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deformation behavior of AZ91D cast magnesium alloy was investigated using uniaxial tensile tests from room temperature up to 190°C and strain rates from 0.0001 up to 0.1 1/s. In present work gradient solidification in a Bridgeman furnace was employed to study the effect of initial microstructure on the tensile mechanical response of the AZ91D alloy. The furnace drawing rate was varied from minimum 0.3 to maximum 6 mm/s, which yielded a variation of SDAS from 4.2 up to 25 as well as a variation of the fraction of the γ -phase (Mg17Al12),. The effects of microstructural parameters such as SDAS and γ -phase morphology on the yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and hardening were investigated

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  • 10.
    Dini, Hoda
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Svoboda, A.
    Andersson, Nils-Eric
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Mechanical Engineering.
    Ghassemali, Ehsan
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Lindgren, L.
    Jarfors, Anders E.W.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Mechanical Engineering.
    Modeling the Deformation Behavior of As-Cast AZ1D Including the Effect of The Cast Microstructure2017In: Proceedings of PLASTICITY ’17: The Twenty Third International Conference on Plasticity, Damage, and Fracture, 2017, p. 37-39Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Dini, Hoda
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Svoboda, Ales
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Andersson, Nils-Eric
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Ghassemali, Ehsan
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Lindgren, L.
    Jarfors, Anders E.W.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Dislocation Density Model for Flow Stress of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy-Effect of Temperature and MicrostructureIn: International journal of plasticity, ISSN 0749-6419, E-ISSN 1879-2154Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Dini, Hoda
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Svoboda, Ales
    Department of Materials and Manufacturing, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Andersson, Nils-Eric
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Ghassemali, Ehsan
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Lindgren, Lars-Erik
    Division of Mechanics of Solid Materials, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Jarfors, Anders E.W.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Optimization and validation of a dislocation density based constitutive model for as-cast Mg-9%Al-1%Zn2018In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 710, p. 17-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A dislocation density-based constitutive model, including effects of microstructure scale and temperature, was calibrated to predict flow stress of an as-cast AZ91D (Mg-9%Al-1%Zn) alloy. Tensile stress-strain data, for strain rates from 10-4 up to 10-1 s-1 and temperatures from room temperature up to 190 °C were used for model calibration. The used model accounts for the interaction of various microstructure features with dislocations and thereby on the plastic properties. It was shown that the Secondary Dendrite Arm Spacing (SDAS) size was appropriate as an initial characteristic microstructural scale input to the model. However, as strain increased the influence of subcells size and total dislocation density dominated the flow stress. The calibrated temperature-dependent parameters were validated through a correlation between microstructure and the physics of the deforming alloy. The model was validated by comparison with dislocation density obtained by using Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) technique.

  • 13.
    Zamani, Mohammadreza
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Dini, Hoda
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Svoboda, Ales
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Lindgren, Lars-Erik
    Division of Mechanics of Solid Materials, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Seifeddine, Salem
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Andersson, Nils-Eric
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Jarfors, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    A dislocation density based constitutive model for as-cast Al-Si alloys: Effect of temperature and microstructure2017In: International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, ISSN 0020-7403, E-ISSN 1879-2162, Vol. 121, p. 164-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow stress of an as-cast Al-Si based alloy was modeled using a dislocation density based model. The developed dislocation density-based constitutive model describes the flow curve of the alloy with various microstructures at quite wide temperature range. Experimental data in the form of stress-strain curves for different strain rates ranging from 10−4 to 10−1 s−1 and temperatures ranging from ambient temperature up to 400 °C were used for model calibration. In order to model precisely the hardening and recovery process at elevated temperature, the interaction between vacancies and dissolved Si was included. The calibrated temperature dependent parameters for different microstructure were correlated to the metallurgical event of the material and validated. For the first time, a dislocation density based model was successfully developed for Al-Si cast alloys. The findings of this work expanded the knowledge on short strain tensile deformation behaviour of these type of alloys at different temperature, which is a critical element for conducting a reliable microstructural FE-simulation.

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