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  • 1.
    Zhu, Baiwei
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Casting and anodising of Al alloys- Alloy design, manufacturing process and material properties2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Casting and semi-solid metal (SSM) casting are widely used to manufacture near-net-shape components of Al-Si alloys in the automotive and electronic industries. In such applications, casting components need to meet the combined requirements of good mechanical properties and corrosion and wear resistance. Hence, a good understanding of the relevant aspects such as material design, manufacturing and surface treatments have a significant impact on the final performance of the component. The objective of this thesis is to understand the interaction among manufacturing and surface treatments and how their combination impacts the microstructure and final properties. The results will accordingly highlight the potential for improving the mechanical and anodising properties of rheocast components.

    The influence of the most relevant alloying elements has been investigated in this study. It is found that Si and Fe have a significant influence on anodising. During anodising, Si particles are oxidised at a much lower rate than Al phase and embedded in the oxide layer. Due to the presence of Si particles and their morphology, residual metallic Al phase and cracks are introduced in the oxide layer. A reduced number of residual metallic Al phase, as well as defects, can be obtained by changing the Si particle morphology to disconnected fibrous by Sr modification. On the contrary, Fe-rich intermetallics could be partly dissolved during anodising, leaving vacancies or voids as defects in the oxide layer. So, it was proved that by modifying Si particles and removing Fe-rich intermetallics from the surface, the defects in the oxide layer are reduced, and better corrosion protection is achieved.

    The SSM process increases the microstructural inhomogeneity such as transverse macrosegregation and longitudinal macrosegregation in the cast component. The results show that the presence of surface liquid segregation (SLS) layer by transverse macrosegregation does not have a significant impact on the corrosion resistance and hardness of the oxide layer of as-cast surfaces compared to liquid casting. The longitudinal macrosegregation influences the corrosion protection provided by the anodised layer but does not affect the hardness of the rheocast component before or after anodising. In this study, it is also found that, during the casting of Al-Si alloys, the surface of the component can be enriched in Fe-rich intermetallics due to the SLS or interaction with the die material. Despite this affects only the very superficial thickness, it has a big impact on the corrosion resistance and hardness of the oxide layer.

    This study has revealed that the high value of the oxide layer thickness, as well as the hydrothermal sealing, is not a guarantee for improving the corrosion resistance of the oxide layer. An increase of the oxide layer thickness by increasing applied voltage or anodising time decreases both the corrosion resistance and hardness of the oxide layer. Moreover, the hydrothermal sealing after anodising significantly decreases the corrosion protection provided by the anodised layer in Al-Si alloys due to cracks formation.

    This study has observed that the casting defects such as oxide film, cold shots and the solute-rich layer which are related to the casting process dominate the fatigue behaviours of the SSM cast components. The fractographic examination indicates that the oxide film, cold shots and solute-rich layer act as crack initiation points during fatigue testing. Therefore, it was found that, in these conditions, the anodising does not have an evident impact on fatigue properties, despite the anodising process adds a brittle anodised layer on the surface.

  • 2.
    Zhu, Baiwei
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Persson, Per (Contributor)
    Jarfors, Anders (Contributor)
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Leisner, Peter (Contributor)
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Zanella, Caterina (Contributor)
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Effect of Si particle modification on the growth and microstructure of anodised aluminium oxide2016Other (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Zhu, Baiwei
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    On the influence of Si on anodising and mechanical properties of cast aluminium alloys2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of two cost-effective processes, i.e. casting and anodising, would be an interest for the aluminium component applications. However, there are some obstacles in the application of anodising on cast Al alloys. The challenges mostly relate to the alloying elements especially Si and the surface quality. With the development of casting process, cast aluminium alloys with low Si content can be casted, and a complex geometry component with reasonably good surface finish can be achieved. This study aims to identify the influence of Si on anodising and mechanical properties of Al-Si alloys.

    In this study, six Al-Si alloys with three different Si level and two different Sr level were investigated. Sr acts as a modifier to change the morphology of Si particles. The directional solidification technology was used to vary the microstructure coarseness by controlling the cooling rate to study the influence of Si level, Si particle morphology and cooling rate on mechanical properties, oxide layer formation and corrosion protection performance in cast Al-Si alloys.

    This study has observed that Si has a significant influence on anodising. During anodising, Si particles are anodised at a lower rate than the Al phase. The presence of Si particles in eutectic phase make the oxide layer locally thinner and more defected due to the low oxide growth rate in eutectic phase. This study observed the presence of residual metallic Al phase beneath or between Si particles. Due to their presence and their geometry, Al can be shielded by Si particles and prevented from oxidation. Si particles also act as a key role in the corrosion protection of oxide layer in Al-Si alloys. The corrosion attack propagates along Si particles as well as oxide defects to the Al substrate.

    It is found that the morphology of Si particles has a significant influence on the oxide layer formation and corrosion protection performance of the oxide layer on cast Al-Si alloys. A substantially improvement the corrosion resistance of anodised layer on Al-Si alloys is attributed to the morphology change from interconnected flakes to disconnected Si fibres when Sr is added, with less oxide defects and better oxide distribution.

    The Si level governs the mechanical properties of Al-Si based alloys. An increase of Si content in Al alloys improves the mechanical properties such as ultimate tensile and yield strength as well as hardness of the materials, but decreases the ductility. However, an increase of Si level in Al alloys decreases the thickness of oxide layer, and thereby, the corrosion protection of the oxide layer is deteriorated.

  • 4.
    Zhu, Baiwei
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Fedel, Michele
    Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, Trento, Italy.
    Andersson, Nils-Eric
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. SP-Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Deflorian, Flavio
    Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, Trento, Italy.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Effect of Si content and morphology on corrosion resistance of anodized cast Al-Si alloys2017In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 164, no 7, p. C435-C441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the influence of Si content and Si particle morphology on the corrosion protection of anodized oxide layers on Al-Si alloys. Two Al alloys with low Si concentrations (2.43 wt-% and 5.45 wt-%, respectively) were studied and compared with 6082-T6 via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3 wt-% NaCl solution prior to oxide layer sealing. Si particles were also modified by the addition of Sr to study the influence of Si particle morphology on the corrosion protection of the oxide layer. The EIS showed that the corrosion protection provided by the oxide layer on Al-Si alloys is significantly affected by the presence of Si particles. Si particles make the oxide layer locally thinner and more defective in the eutectic region, thereby increasing the ease of substrate corrosion attack. However, the addition of Sr can improve the corrosion protection of anodized Al-Si alloys significantly. Furthermore, it was proved that higher Si level influences negatively the anodized oxide corrosion protection due to the higher amount of cracks and defects, but Sr modification is efficient in preventing this negative effect.

  • 5.
    Zhu, Baiwei
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Fedel, Michele
    Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, Trento, Italy.
    Andersson, Nils-Eric
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. RISE Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Deflorian, Flavio
    Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, Trento, Italy.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Influence of the Sr modification and post-treatment on corrosion resistance of oxide layer of cast Al-(low)Si alloys2017In: EUROCORR 2017 - The Annual Congress of the European Federation of Corrosion, 20th International Corrosion Congress and Process Safety Congress 2017, Asociace koroznich inzenyru z.s.- AKI - Czech Association of Corrosion Engineers , 2017, p. 27-39Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current development of casting process makes it possible to cast low Si content aluminium alloys, which open the gate for the application of anodising on cast aluminium components. This paper aims to investigate the influence of Sr modification as well as the post-treatment on corrosion resistance of oxide layer of low Si content cast Al alloys. In the present study, designed Al-Si alloys with 5.45 wt-% Si were studied by performing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3 wt-% NaCl solution. The morphology of Si particle was determined by controlling the level of Sr. The microstructure features were evaluated by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, focus ion beam-SEM (FIB-SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) was applied to exam the corrosion morphology and the anodised layer with Si rich eutectic phases. The EIS study revealed that the corrosion resistance of the oxide layer on cast Al alloys can be significantly influenced by the morphology of Si particle and the post-treatment. It was found that the change of Si particle morphology from flake-like to fibrous by Sr addition can substantially improve the corrosion resistance of the oxide layer in the unsealed condition due to the formation of the more compacted oxide layer with less defects. Normally, the application of a sealing step such as the hydrothermal sealing can improve the corrosion protection of the oxide layer. However, in the current study, it was found the hydrothermal sealing step leads to a significant reduce of the corrosion protection due to the generation of cracks into the oxide layer, and the hydrothermal sealing step can counteract the improvement of the corrosion protection by Sr addition.

  • 6.
    Zhu, Baiwei
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Seifeddine, Salem
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Jarfors, Anders E.W.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Influence of Si and cooling rate on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Si-Mg cast alloys2015In: Proceedings of the 7th Symposium of Aluminium Surface Science and Technology, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to investigate the effect of Si-content and microstructure on mechanical properties of Al-Si-Mg alloys with the purpose of to develop high strength cast aluminum alloys that are anodizable. The Si-content was 2.5, 3.5 and 5.5 wt% Si and both Sr-modified and unmodified conditions were used. The samples were produced using the gradient solidification furnace to generate a well-controlled microstructure. The resulting secondary dendrite arm spacing was 10µm and 20µm. The microstructural features were evaluated by employing SEM/EDS, and optical microscopy. Furthermore, CT-scan technology was used to provide a 3-D view of high density phases in the microstructure. The mechanical properties of these alloys were studied by means of tensile and hardness testing where the latter were performed on the macro- and micro-level. The results demonstrate clearly how the Si growth in the microstructure is restricted by increased cooling rate and modification and its role in strength development in Al-Si alloys. Additionally, the CT-scan visualized the morphology of intermetallics as well as supported in identifying the oxide layer growth as a result of the anodizing process.

  • 7.
    Zhu, Baiwei
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Seifeddine, Salem
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Jarfors, Anders E.W.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Influence of Si and cooling rate on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al–Si–Mg cast alloys2016In: Surface and Interface Analysis, ISSN 0142-2421, E-ISSN 1096-9918, Vol. 48, no 8, p. 861-869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to investigate the effect of Si-content and microstructure on mechanical properties of Al–Si–Mg alloys with thepurpose of to develop high-strength cast aluminum alloys that are anodizable. The Si-content was 2.5, 3.5 and 5.5wt% Si, andboth Sr-modified and unmodified conditions were used. The samples were produced using the gradient solidification furnaceto generate awell-controlled microstructure. The resulting secondary dendrite armspacingwas 10 and 20μm. Themicrostructuralfeatures were evaluated by employing SEM/EDS and optical microscopy. Furthermore, computed tomography (CT) scan technologywas used to provide a 3D view of high-density phases in the microstructure. The mechanical properties of these alloys werestudied by means of tensile and hardness testing where the latter was performed on the macrolevel and microlevel. The resultsdemonstrate clearly how the Si growth in the microstructure is restricted by increased cooling rate and modification and its rolein strength development in Al-Si alloys. Additionally, the CT scan visualized the morphology of intermetallics and supported inidentifying the oxide layer growth as a result of the anodizing process.

  • 8.
    Zhu, Baiwei
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Persson, Per O.Å.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Seifeddine, Salem
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Jarfors, Anders E. W.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    A study of formation and growth of the anodized surface layer on Al-Si casting alloys based on different analytical techniques2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Zhu, Baiwei
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. SP-Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. SP-Technical Research Institute of Sweden; University of Trento, Dept of Industrial Engineering.
    Persson, Per
    Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University.
    Seifeddine, Salem
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Jarfors, Anders E.W.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    A study of formation and growth of the anodised surface layer on Al-Si casting alloys based on different analytical techniques2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major limitations in the application of anodizing of aluminum casting alloys is the non-uniform thickness of the oxide layer. Previous researches have studied the formation of the oxide film during anodizing in detail. These investigations have mainly been limited to aluminum and wrought aluminum alloys, and only a few papers have given some insights about the formation of the oxide layer on cast aluminum alloys. The majority of cast aluminum alloys contains relatively higher amounts of Si and other elements (e.g. Cu and Fe) than wrought alloys. This paper aims to investigate the mechanisms of formation and growth of the anodized surface layer on Al-Si casting alloys by applying different analytical techniques such as optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray computer tomography (X-ray CT) scanning. Three different Al alloys with various Si content (2.4%, 3.5% and 5.5%) were investigated. Si morphological modification by Sr addition, as well as gradient solidification was used to vary the microstructural coarseness in a controlled manner to study the influence of these parameters on the growth of the oxide layer. The microstructure features of the anodized layer and the interface between matrix and the oxide layer were studied, employing optical microscopy (figure 1), and SEM/EDS (figure 2). X-Ray CT-scanning (figure 3) was used to examine the high density phases (Fe and Cu bearing phases) and also to give a 3-D view of the anodized oxide surface. Furthermore, TEM was used to examine the general filming behavior of anodized layer and the local effects associated with Si particles in the matrix.

    It was found that: (i) during anodizing, the oxide front grew around the Si particles and tends to engulf them; (ii) the oxide front grew inwards but did expand in other directions in the eutectic areas; (iii) a scalloped interface between substrate and oxide indicated different anodizing rates in dendrites and eutectic phases. The oxide front was moving faster in the primary dendrite Al-phase than in the eutectic, and the growth rate was particularly slow in larger eutectic areas; (iv) different anodizing rates in dendrite and eutectic phases resulted in thinner layers in specimens with lower SDAS (secondary dendrite arm spacing); and (v) a more uniform layer thickness in Sr-modified specimens illustrates that oxide growth speed was faster in modified eutectic phase. However, diffusion of Si or long distance between Si particles after modification could even results in the adverse situation with a bad anodized surface appearance. 

  • 10.
    Zhu, Baiwei
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Santos, Jorge
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Jarfors, Anders E.W.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Influence of Mg content on the fatigue behaviour of Al-Si-Mg alloys by rheocasting processManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Zhu, Baiwei
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Seifeddine, Salem
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Jarfors, Anders E.W.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    A study of anodising behaviour of Al-Si components produced by rheocasting2019In: Solid State Phenomena, ISSN 1012-0394, E-ISSN 1662-9779, Vol. 285, p. 39-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to investigate the anodising behaviour of Al-Si components produced by rheocasting, to understand the effect of the surface liquid segregation (SLS) on the anodising response. The material investigated was EN AC 42000 Al-alloy with an addition of 150 ppm Sr. The component was rheocast and conventionally liquid cast for benchmarking. The RheoMetalTM process was used to prepare slurry and subsequently cast using a vertical pressure die casting machine. Prior to anodising, mechanical grinding was used as pre-treatment method for selected samples as comparison with components in the as-cast state. Anodising was performed on the components using a constant controlled voltage at 25 V, in 1 M H2SO4, at room temperature. The duration of anodising was varied from 30 mins to 120 mins to examine the relationship between oxide layer thickness and the anodising time. The oxide layer was investigated and characterised. The results demonstrated that the presence of the SLS layer, which was enriched with alloying elements, had a significant influence on the anodising behaviour of the cast component. The oxide layer thickness of the components produced by rheocasting and fully liquid casting was measured and compared. The relations between the oxide layer thickness and anodising time, as well as the casting methods are presented and discussed in this paper.

  • 12.
    Zhu, Baiwei
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Seifeddine, Salem
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Persson, Per O.Å:
    Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University.
    Jarfors, Anders E.W.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. SP-Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. SP-Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    A study of formation and growth of the anodised surface layer on cast Al-Si alloys based on different analytical techniques2016In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 101, p. 254-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to investigate the mechanisms of formation and growth of the anodised surface layer on Al-Si castings by applying different analytical techniques such as optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and X-ray computer tomography (X-ray CT) scanning. Three different Al alloys with various Si content (2.43%, 3.53% and 5.45%) were investigated. Si particle morphological modification by Sr addition, as well as directional solidification, was used to vary the microstructural coarseness in a controlled manner to study the influence of these parameters on the growth behaviour of the oxide layer. This study observed residual unanodised Al phases trapped beneath or between Si particles in the oxide layer. It was found, depending on the geometry and morphology of Si particles, that Al can be shielded by Si particles and prevented from oxidising.

  • 13.
    Zhu, Baiwei
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Hardness and corrosion behaviour of anodised Al-Si produced by rheocasting2019In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 173, article id 107764Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The anodised layer of Al-Si alloys produced by rheocasting was studied and compared to anodised traditional liquid casting in this paper. The anodising was performed in 1.0 M H2SO4 solution at room temperature on the as-cast substrates, and anodising voltage and time were optimised as process parameters. This study focuses on understanding the effect of the surface liquid segregation (SLS) layer by rheocasting on the hardness and corrosion protection of the oxide layer. The hardness depends on the anodising parameters and varies along the oxide thickness. The corrosion protection given by the oxide layer was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3 wt-% NaCl solution, and the results revealed that the longitudinal macrosegregation influences the corrosion protection, with the near-to-vent region showing lower corrosion protection due to a higher eutectic fraction. A comparison between liquid and rheocast samples indicated that the presence of SLS layer by the transverse macrosegregation does not have a significant impact on the corrosion resistance of the oxide layer. Moreover, it was found that an increase of the oxide layer thickness by longer anodising time or higher applied voltage decreases both the hardness and corrosion resistance of the oxide layer.

  • 14.
    Zhu, Baiwei
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Influence of Fe-rich intermetallics and their segregation on anodising properties of Al-Si-Mg rheocast alloysManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
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