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  • 1.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS). Centre for Innovation, Research and Competence in the Learning Economy (CIRCLE), Lund University.
    Klaesson, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Larsson, Johan P.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    How local are spatial density externalities? Neighbourhood effects in agglomeration economies2016In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 50, no 6, p. 1082-1095Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The geographic scale at which density externalities operate is analysed in this paper. Using geocoded high-resolution data, the analysis is focused on exogenously determined within-city squares (‘neighbourhoods’) of 1 km2. The analysis confirms a city-wide employment density–wage elasticity and an economically significant density–wage elasticity at the neighbourhood level that attenuate sharply with distance. Panel estimates over 20 years suggest a neighbourhood density–wage elasticity of about 3%, while the city-wide elasticity is about 1%. It is argued that the neighbourhood level is more prone to capture learning, e.g. through knowledge and information spillovers. This interpretation is supported by (1) significantly larger neighbourhood elasticities for university educated workers and (2) sharper attenuation with distance of the effect for such workers.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Centre for Innovation, Research and Competence in the Learning Economy (CIRCLE), Lund University.
    Klaesson, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    The sources of the urban wage premium by worker skills: Spatial sorting or agglomeration economies?2014In: Papers in regional science (Print), ISSN 1056-8190, E-ISSN 1435-5957, Vol. 93, no 4, p. 727-747Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the respective importance of spatial sorting and agglomeration economies in explaining the urban wage premium for workers with different sets of skills. Sorting is the main source of the wage premium. Agglomeration economies are in general small, but are larger for workers with skills associated with non-routine job tasks. They also appear to involve human capital accumulation, as evidenced by the change in the wage of workers moving away from denser regions. For workers with routine jobs, agglomeration economies are virtually non-existent. Our results provide further evidence of spatial density bringing about productivity advantages primarily in contexts when problem-solving and interaction with others are important.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Centre for Innovation, Research and Competence in the Learning Economy (CIRCLE), Lund University.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Local entrepreneurship clusters in cities2016In: Journal of Economic Geography, ISSN 1468-2702, E-ISSN 1468-2710, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 39-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show that entrepreneurs are co-located within cities. One plausible source of such spatial clustering is local social interactions, where individuals' decisions to become entrepreneurs are influenced by entrepreneurial neighbors. Using geo-coded matched employer-employee data for Sweden, we find that sharing residential neighborhood with established entrepreneurs has a statistically significant and robust influence on the probability that an individual leaves employment for entrepreneurship. An otherwise average neighborhood with a 5% point higher entrepreneurial intensity, all else equal, produces between six and seven additional entrepreneurs per square kilometer, each year. Our estimates suggest a local feedback-effect in which the presence of established entrepreneurs in a neighborhood influences the emergence of new local entrepreneurs. Our analysis supports the conjecture that social interaction effects constitute a mechanism by which local entrepreneurship clusters in cities develop and persist over time.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Blekinge tekniska högskola.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Näringslivsdynamik, städer och agglomerationsekonomier – forskningsöversikt och agenda2017Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Wernberg, Joakim
    Lunds universitet.
    Närhet och nätverk: Urbaniseringens roll utanför storstäderna2017Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Wernberg, Joakim
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Social capital and the economies of cities2016In: Handbook of social capital and regional development / [ed] H. Westlund & J. P. Larsson, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016, p. 166-192Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Andersson, Martin O.
    et al.
    Umeå Universitet, Department of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, Umeå, Sweden.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE). Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wernberg, Joakim
    Lunds Universitet, Centre for Innovation, Lund, Sweden.
    Urban preferences, amenities and age: Exploring the spatial distribution of age in Stockholm from 1991 to 20112018In: Regional Science Policy & Practice, E-ISSN 1757-7802, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 367-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities exhibit a rich and complex heterogeneity in people and activities. This poses a sizable challenge for planners when planning new neighbourhoods or the reconstruction of old ones as well as when considering the allocation of supply of and demand for amenities, e.g. kindergartens or health facilities. However, individual preferences may also exhibit common denominators that may provide structure to this heterogeneity. One such denominator is age. In this paper we introduce the concept of neighbourhood age, defined as the mean age of people living in exogenously defined squares of 1km2 in a city. We use highly disaggregated geocoded data to map how the spatial distribution of neighbourhood age changes over a 20-year period from 1991 to 2011 in the city of Stockholm, Sweden. We then test the correlation between neighbourhood age and two categories of urban amenities: supply of local consumption amenities and distance to the city's central business district (CBD). The paper presents three main findings: First, neighbourhood age changes and polarizes significantly over the observed period, suggesting that different age groups are concentrating in different parts of the city. Second, there is a rejuvenation in the central parts of the city but also in more distant clusters of amenities. Third, over a long-term perspective, the results suggest that local clusters of consumption amenities outside the inner city may become increasingly attractive to younger people. Our conclusion is that neighbourhood age and age-related patterns over time provides a tool for planners to better understand the spatial distribution of age-related demand. 

  • 8.
    Klaesson, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Norman, Therese
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Accessibility and market potential analysis2015In: Handbook of research methods and applications in economic geography / [ed] Charlie Karlsson, Martin Andersson and Therese Norman, Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 412-435Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this chapter is to overview the advances in the field of measuring and modeling the influence of geographic market potential and accessibility. In general the models are designed to assess the influence on location choices and growth performance. The initial question concerns the relationship between the two concepts ‘market potential’ and ‘accessibility’. Accessibility can be defined as the ability to reach goods, services, activities or destinations. Market potential can be described as the possibility of reaching customers, demand or some other resource. Both concepts have a long tradition in research. The concepts are often used to describe similar or even the same sort of phenomena. Evidently, we have two related concepts that essentially mean the same thing. Examples of this are illustrated by the following statements. ‘The concept of accessibility is not a new one, and has been introduced into regional economics and trade under the form of market potential’ (Behrens and Thisse, 2007, p. 462). The measure is ‘often called a potential accessibility index (sometimes simply called market potential), that measures accessibility’ (Yoshida and Diechmann, 2009, p. 3). In Combes et al. (2008, p. 304), the authors refer to Harris’s concept of market potential as ‘an indicator for the degree of accessibility to market’.

  • 9.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Distance Decay in Labor Market Matching – Job Switching as a Source of Localized Density ExternalitiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Networking Regionalised Innovative Labour Markets, edited by Ulrich Hilpert and Helen Lawton Smith2013In: Papers in regional science (Print), ISSN 1056-8190, E-ISSN 1435-5957, Vol. 92, no 3, p. 684-685Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Nonmarket Interactions and Density Externalities2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The four individual papers in this thesis all explore some aspect of the relationship between productivity and the density of economic activity.

    The first paper (co-authored with Martin Andersson, and Johan Klaesson) establishes the general relationship between regional density and average labor productivity; a relationship that is particularly strong for workers in interactive professions. In the paper, we also caution that much of the observed differences are not causal effects of density, but driven by sorting of actors to

    dense environments.

    Paper number two (co-authored with Martin Andersson, and Johan Klaesson) addresses the attenuation of density externalities with space. Using data on the neighborhood-level, and information on first- and second-order neighboring areas, we conclude that the neighborhood effects are stronger for highly educated workers, and that the attenuation of the effect is sharp.

    In the third paper, I estimate an individual-level wage equation to assess appropriate levels of aggregation when analyzing density externalities. I conclude that failure to use data on the neighborhood level will severely understate the  benefits of working in the central parts of modern cities.

    The fourth paper departs from the conclusions of the previous chapters, and asks whether firms position themselves to benefit from density externalities. Judging by job switching patterns, the attenuation of density externalities are a real issue for the metropolitan workforce. Employees, especially those in interactive professions, tend to move short distances between employers, consistent with clustering to take advantage of significant but sharply attenuating human capital externalities.

  • 12.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Non-routine activities and the within-city geography of jobs2017In: Urban Studies, ISSN 0042-0980, E-ISSN 1360-063X, Vol. 54, no 8, p. 1808-1833Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Externalities are believed to drive the productivity benefits of cities, and also of dense sub-parts within cities, e.g. the central business district (CBD). Recent research claims that density externalities accrue mostly to non-routine activities, and that their effects, e.g. human capital spillovers, attenuate sharply with distance. Consistent with these claims, I demonstrate strong clustering tendencies in non-routine professions as evidenced by job-switching patterns, specifically switchers’ distances moved between employers. Individual-level geo-coded data for switchers within Sweden’s metropolitan areas are used to illustrate that employees hired to non-routine occupations tend to switch to jobs close to the previous work establishment, while blue collar workers show dispersion. The differences are chiefly explained by (1) non-routine activities concentrate in the CBD (the strongest effect) and local employment centres, (2) non-routine activities cluster also outside of centres, and (3) industry-specific effects. The patterns are consistent with the importance of sharply attenuating non-market interactions (e.g. knowledge spillovers) in the production of non-routine products and services.

  • 13.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    The Neighborhood or the Region? – Reassessing the Density-wage Relationship using Geocoded DataManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    The neighborhood or the region? Reassessing the density-wage relationship using geocoded data2014In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 367-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I analyze the effects of sub-city-level density of economic activity on wages. Using a geocoded dataset on employment and wages in the city areas of Sweden, the analysis is based on squares representing "neighborhoods" (, "districts" (, and "agglomerations" (. The wage-density elasticity depends on spatial resolution, with the elasticity being highest in neighborhood squares, where a doubling of density is associated with wage increases of 1.2 %, or roughly the size of the elasticity for region density. Moving from a mean-density neighborhood to the densest neighborhood would on average increase wages by 9 %. The results are consistent with (i) the existence of a localized density spillover effect and (ii) quite sharp attenuation of human capital spillovers. An implication of the findings is that if the data source is not sufficiently disaggregated, analyses of the density-wage link risk understating the benefits of working in dense parts of regions, such as the central business districts.

  • 15.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Klaesson, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    The Jack of all Trades entrepreneur - Diversity of experience and the self-employment transition2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE). Department of Land Economy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Thulin, Per
    Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Independent by necessity?: The life satisfaction of necessity and opportunity entrepreneurs in 70 countries2018In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between self-employment and subjective well-being (SWB) is contingent on the heterogeneity observed among entrepreneurs. We argue that independence and job control, two commonly suggested sources of entrepreneurs’ higher SWB, are likely to disproportionately benefit opportunity entrepreneurs who were pulled into their occupation choice. A review of the psychological literature on the determinants of well-being further supports the view that more dynamic and impactful entrepreneurship should lead to higher SWB. Analysis of Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data from 70 countries (N = 111,589) confirm this proposition. We show that entrepreneurs, all else equal, rate their life satisfaction substantially higher than employees and, further, that this effect is entirely driven by opportunity entrepreneurs.

  • 17.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum, Sweden.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Institute for Analytical Sociology (IAS), Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Johan
    Whitman School of Management, Syracuse University, United States.
    Wright, Mike
    Imperial College London, England, UK.
    Location choices of graduate entrepreneurs2017In: Research Policy, ISSN 0048-7333, E-ISSN 1873-7625, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 1490-1504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We review complementary theoretical perspectives on location choices of university graduate entrepreneurs derived from the individual-opportunity nexus and local embeddedness perspectives on entrepreneurship. Analysis of the full population of 215,388 graduates from Swedish institutions of higher education between 2002 and 2006 provides support for both location choice perspectives. Overall, 63% of graduate entrepreneurs start businesses locally in their region of graduation while 37% start businesses elsewhere. The likelihood of starting locally is substantially higher in metropolitan regions, if the graduate was born locally or has university peer entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial family members in the region of graduation. Implications for theory and public policy are discussed. 

  • 18.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Westlund, Hans
    KTH.
    Betydelsen av socialt kapital för entreprenörskap: Regional utveckling i en polariserad tid2017Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Öner, Özge
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Location and co-location in retail: a probabilistic approach using geo-coded data for metropolitan retail markets2014In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 385-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we employ geo-coded data at a fine spatial resolution for Sweden’s metropolitan areas to assess retail co-location. Retail clusters and their place in urban space are assessed from several angles. The probability of a specific type of retail unit to be established in a 250 by 250 m square is modelled as a function of (i) the presence of other similar retail establishments, (ii) the presence of stores that belong to other retail sectors and (iii) other characteristics of the square area, and its access to demand in the pertinent urban landscape. The analysis clarifies which types of retail clusters one can expect to find in a metropolitan region, as well as their relationship to the urban landscape. We analyse three distinct types of stores: clothing, household appliances, and specialized stores. Stores with high intensities of interaction are co-located, and predominantly located close to the urban cores, consistent with predictions from bid rent theory and central place theory. We further document negative location tendencies between shops that sell frequently purchased products and shops that sell durables. Moreover, our results highlight the importance of demand in the close surroundings, which is particularly strong for small-scale establishments.

  • 20.
    Olsson, Amy Rader
    et al.
    Division of Urban and Regional Studies, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Entrepreneurial governance for local growth2015In: The rise of the city: Spatial dynamics in the urban century / [ed] Karima Kourtit, Peter Nijkamp and Roger R. Stough, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 135-159Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Westlund, Hans
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Johan P.Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Handbook of social capital and regional development2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Westlund, Hans
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Rader Olsson, Amy
    KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Start-ups and Local Entrepreneurial Social Capital in the Municipalities of Sweden2014In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 974-994Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Start-ups and local entrepreneurial social capital in the municipalities of Sweden, Regional Studies. This paper contains one of the first empirical attempts to investigate the influence of local entrepreneurial social capital (ESC) on start-up propensity. A unique database, including not only total start-ups but also data on start-ups divided into six sectors, is used to study the impact of ESC on start-ups per capita. The results support the hypothesis that social capital, measured both as (1) firm perception of local public attitudes to entrepreneurship and (2) the share of small businesses influences start-up propensity in Swedish municipalities. The findings also support previous results suggesting that social capital has a somewhat stronger influence in rural areas than in urban areas.

  • 23.
    Westlund, Hans
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Rader Olsson, Amy
    KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Economic Entrepreneurship, Startups and their Effects on Local development: The Case of Sweden2011In: Uddevalla Symposium 2011: Entreprenuerial Knowledge, Technology and Transformation of Regions / [ed] Bernhard, I., Trollhättan: Department of Economics and IT, University West , 2011, p. 451-470Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The current empirical entrepreneurship literature mainly shows a positive correlation between entrepreneurship (measured as the number of startups) and economic growth. However, the mechanisms by which entrepreneurship exerts its positive influence are not obvious. This paper studies the connections between startups and local development at the municipal level in Sweden 2000-2008. We use a unique database including not only total startups, but data on startups divided in six branches to study the impact of entrepreneurship on population and employment growth. Analyses are performed on all municipalities as well as by municipality type and by growth rate. In contrast to previous research, our results indicate that for several branch groups startup effects on growth may be more pronounced in low density areas than in urban agglomerations. This paper also contains one of the first empirical attempts to investigate the influence of local norms, values, networks and other spacebound assets on entrepreneurship propensity. We find that this “local Entrepreneurial Social Capital” (ESC) is highly correlated with startup frequency in Swedish municipalities.

  • 24.
    Westlund, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Rader Olsson, Amy
    KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Entrepreneurship and its effects on local employment and population in Sweden2014In: Social Capital and Development Trends in Rural Areas Vol. 8. / [ed] S Westerdahl, H Westlund, K Kobayashi, Jönköping: Jönköping International Business School , 2014, p. 73-87Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Westlund, Hans
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Rader Olsson, Amy
    Division of RUrban and Regional Studies, KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Startups and their effects on local development: the case of Sweden2013In: Entrepreneurial Knowledge, Technology and the Transformation of Regions / [ed] B. Johansson, C. Karlsson & R. Stough, London: Routledge, 2013, p. 51-67Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Westlund, Hans
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Department of Urban Planning and Environment.
    Rader Olsson, Amy
    KTH.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Startups, social capital and local development2012In: Social Capital and Development Trends in Rural Areas Vol. 7 / [ed] Kobayashi, K., Westlund, H., Jeong, H, Kyoto: MARG , 2012, p. 25-43Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Öner, Özge
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Which retail services are co-located?2014In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 281-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Which retail services are co-located in space? Is it possible to categorize retail stores of different kinds with respect to their location pattern? Acknowledging the spatial dependency between different and similar kinds of retailing activities, the aim of this paper is to find if and to what extent co-location is present in a retail market and what kind of retailing activities are co-located.

    Design/methodology/approach – The authors analyse the co-location of different types of retail stores in Sweden by using geo-coded data. The data they use allows them to pinpoint each establishment in Sweden down to a 250 by 250m square in space. First, they identify a measure of co-location for each retail service by utilizing pairwise correlations between the different retail service establishments with respect to the squares in which they are present. Later, by using the finest level of industrial categorization for all physical retailing activities (and limiting their geographical unit to the Stockholm metropolitan market), they perform factor analysis to nest these retailing activities under relevant categories based on their co-location pattern.

    Findings – In this analysis the authors obtain four major factors for the squares with retail stores, in which several kinds of retail activities are nested. These factors reveal a certain degree of location commonality for the markets in question.

    Originality/value – The authors' empirical design is based on a highly disaggregated spatial information and the methodology is novel in a sense that it has not been used to address a similar question. Rather than sampling, the authors use the total population, where they take all physical retailing activities into account to be able to draw a general picture for the co-location phenomena in the entire retail market.

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