Change search
Refine search result
12345 1 - 50 of 249
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the 'Create feeds' function.
  • 1.
    Abolhosseini, Shahrouz
    et al.
    TEMEP, Seoul National University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    The Main Support Mechanisms to Finance Renewable Energy Development2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering that the major part of greenhouse gases is carbon dioxide, there is a global concern aimed at reducing carbon emissions. Additionally, major consumer countries are looking for alternative sources of energy to avoid the impact of higher fossil fuel prices and political instability in the major energy supplying countries. In this regard, different policies could be applied to reduce carbon emissions, such as enhancing renewable energy deployment and encouraging technological innovation and creation of green jobs. There are three main support mechanisms employed by governments to finance renewable energy development programs: feed-in-tariffs, tax incentives, and tradable green certificates. Considering that many of the promising technologies to deploy renewable energy require investment in small-scale energy production systems, these mechanisms could be used to enhance renewable energy development at the desired scale. Employing a carbon emission tax or emission trading mechanism could be considered ideal policies to mitigate emissions at the lowest cost. The comparison of feed-in-tariffs and renewable portfolio standard policies showed that the former is good when a policy to develop renewable energy sources with a low level of risk for investors is considered. However, the latter is an appropriate policy when a marketview policy is applied by the government.

  • 2.
    Abolhosseini, Shahrouz
    et al.
    College of Engineering, TEMEP, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    The main support mechanisms to finance renewable energy development2014In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 40, p. 876-885Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering that the major part of greenhouse gases is carbon dioxide, there is a global concern aimed at reducing carbon emissions. In addition, major consumer countries are looking for alternative sources of energy to avoid the impact of higher fossil fuel prices and political instability in the major energy supplying countries. In this regard, different policies could be applied to reduce carbon emissions, such as enhancing renewable energy deployment and encouraging technological innovation and the creation of green jobs. This study compares three main support mechanisms employed by governments to finance renewable energy development programs: feed-in-tariffs, tax incentives, and tradable green certificates. Considering that many of the promising technologies to deploy renewable energy require investment in small-scale energy production systems, these mechanisms could be used to enhance renewable energy development at the desired scale. Employing a carbon emission tax or emission trading mechanism could be considered ideal policies to mitigate emissions at the lowest cost. The comparison of feed-in-tariffs and renewable portfolio standard policies showed that the former is good when a policy to develop renewable energy sources with a low level of risk for investors is considered. However, the latter is an appropriate policy when a market view policy is applied by the government. Finally, considering technological progress and the cost reduction for power generation by renewable energy sources, we suggest that support mechanism policies should be reconsidered from the financial point of view. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Abolhosseini, Shahrouz
    et al.
    Seoul National University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Sogang University.
    Altmann, Jorn
    International University of Bruchsal.
    The Effect of Renewable Energy Development on Carbon Emission Reduction: An Empirical Analysis for the EU-15 Countries2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased concerns about climate change have made renewable energy sources an important topic of research. Several scholars have applied different methodologies to examine the relationships between energy consumption and economic growth of individual and groups of countries and to analyze the environmental effects of energy policies. Previous studies have analyzed carbon emission savings, using renewable energy usage as an individual source or in combination with traditional sources of energy (e.g., hybrid plants) in connection with lifecycle analysis methods. It is shown that after a certain period, economic growth leads to the promotion of environmental quality. However, econometric modelling critiques have opposed the results of these studies. One reason is that the effectiveness of governance-related parameters has previously been neglected. In this research, we analyze the impact of renewable energy development on carbon emission reduction. We estimate a model to evaluate the effectiveness of renewable energy development, technological innovation, and market regulations in carbon emission reduction. The empirical results are based on a panel data estimation using the EU-15 countries data observed from 1995 to 2010. The elasticities of CO2 emissions are estimated, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of each parameter. The findings show that the effects of a negative climate change could be mitigated by governance-related parameters instead of economic development.

  • 4.
    Abolhosseini, Shahrouz
    et al.
    TEMEP, Seoul National University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Altmann, Jörn
    TEMEP, Seoul National University.
    A Review of Renewable Energy Supply and Energy Efficiency Technologies2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electricity consumption will comprise an increasing share of global energy demand during the next two decades. In recent years, the increasing prices of fossil fuels and concerns about the environmental consequences of greenhouse gas emissions have renewed the interest in the development of alternative energy resources. In particular, the Fukushima Daiichi accident was a turning point in the call for alternative energy sources. Renewable energy is now considered a more desirable source of fuel than nuclear power due to the absence of risk and disasters. Considering that the major component of greenhouse gases is carbon dioxide, there is a global concern about reducing carbon emissions. In this regard, different policies could be applied to reducing carbon emissions, such as enhancing renewable energy deployment and encouraging technological innovations. Two main solutions may be implemented to reduce CO2 emissions and overcome the problem of climate change: replacing fossil fuels with renewable energy sources as much as possible and enhancing energy efficiency. In this paper, we discuss alternative technologies for enhancing renewable energy deployment and energy use efficiency.

  • 5.
    Abolhosseini, Shahrouz
    et al.
    Petr Univ Technol, Natl Iranian Oil Co, Int Affairs, Tehran, Iran.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Sogang Univ, Seoul, South Korea.
    Rashidghalam, Masoomeh
    Univ Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
    Energy security and competition over energy resources in Iran and Caucasus region2017In: AIMS Energy, ISSN 2333-8326, E-ISSN 2333-8334, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 224-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy security as a dominant factor in international stability is of great importance for major economies. The global energy market with its current level of supply and demand relies on energy sources in the Middle East, Caucasus, Central Asia and Russia. After the Fukushima disaster nuclear powers in Europe view renewable energy sources as a serious alternative. Europe’s energy vulnerability has deteriorated due to the Russia-Ukraine conflict. However, renewable energy sources are not large enough to replace nuclear power completely. This trend will continue with climbing demand especially in the natural gas sector as clean energy. In this research, Caucasus and Iran are considered the main sources and routes for energy transmission to the global market, including Europe. Caucasus plays a key role in bridging Europe and Asia. Also, Iran is an alternative for energy transmission to Europe after lifted sanctions. As part of the European active supply diversification policy Iran has capacity to reduce Europe’s energy dependency on Russia. However, changes in US new administration America First Policy is harmful for the EUs energy security. Caucasus aims to catch a large share of the European energy market since the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline has started operations and Iran is also trying to expand its market to become a sustainable source of energy for major consumers. Therefore, Iran and Caucasus are considered reliable energy suppliers for Europe. In this regard, we analyze the best motivation for changing the direction new suppliers’ energy policies towards Europe and suggest alternative solutions to compete with rival countries in order to enhance energy security.

  • 6.
    Al-Athwari, Baseem
    et al.
    Seoul National University.
    Altmann, Jorn
    Seoul National University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Sogang University.
    A Conceptual Model and Methodology for Evaluating E-Infrastructure Deployment and Its Application to OECD and MENA Countries2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As information and communication technologies have spread throughout the world, countries have realized the importance of investing more and more in building ICT-relevant infrastructure. However, for fostering further information and communication technology (ICT) development, countries are in need of an analysis tool for measuring their advancement in ICT-relevant infrastructure. Motivated by a variety of attempts to generate measures of ICT development, this study aims to develop an index that quantifies the level of ICT-relevant (e-infrastructure) deployment. In particular, this study introduces two e-infrastructure indices that are composed of six components, namely electricity, telecommunication, Internet, processing power, broadcasting, and human capital. Each component is generated from one or more indicators. This composition provides the possibility of tracking each of them separately and to identify strengths and weaknesses of each country with respect to the ICT-relevant area of the component. It will also help pointing out the source of failure in developing the ICT-related infrastructure and to develop policies for enhancing ICT-related infrastructure accordingly. For the index computation, the study uses a parametric and a non-parametric computation method rather than the traditional approaches which are frequently used in literature. In addition to this, this study also aims at analyzing the indices ranking differences among OECD countries and Middle East & North Africa (MENA) countries, using data for the time period between 2000 and 2007. The ranking of the countries shows that MENA and OECD countries differ significantly in their e-infrastructure development. However, a small group of MENA countries are ranked higher than a few OECD countries. Those countries belong to the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).

  • 7.
    Al-Hammadany, F. H.
    et al.
    Iraqi Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, Korea University, South Korea, and Iraqi Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Korea University, South Korea.
    Determinants of internet use in Iraq2011In: International Journal of Communication, ISSN 1932-8036, E-ISSN 1932-8036, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 1967-1989Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet is considered to be today’s most advanced technology and a key to progress in communications and in the exchange of information, goods, services, and technologies. Since its introduction during the late 1960s, the Internet has been instrumental in creating opportunities and conditions for progress in developed and developing nations alike. Not all nations, though, welcome this particular tool of global interconnectivity. One such nation is Iraq, which faces huge challenges in increasing Internet penetration, capacity building, and changing the traditional methods of communications. This study of Iraq’s efforts during this difficult undertaking explores the many factors that define this transition process. It concludes by explaining the determinants of Internet use in Iraq. The results of the study indicate that while Iraqis are eager to adopt this technology in order to reach out to the world, a number of factors are not allowing it to become a public domain. Factors include lack of adequate resources, insufficient incentives and encouragement from the government, and social inhibitions. ©2011 (Firas H. al-Hammadany, Almas Heshmati).

  • 8.
    Al-Hammadany, Firas H.
    et al.
    Ministry of Foreign Affairs Department of Information Technology Baghdad, Iraq.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Food and Resource Economics College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology Korea University, East Building Room #217 Anam-dong Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713, Korea.
    Analysis of the Purpose of Using Internet in Iraq: A Multinomial Logit Model2011In: Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics and Information Technology, ISSN 2069-5934, Vol. 1, no 6, p. 1-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet accessibility is positively correlated with infrastructure development and nature of government policies. Though Iraq has shown considerable increase in Internet connectivity, it constitutes only 10 % of its population. In this study, the significant factors determining the use and non-use of Internet have been identified and analyzed. The results revealed that human development, human capital, institutional and legal environment, existing technologies, government policy making and income levels affect the Internet accessibility. The non-Internet users mainly comprised from 12-25 years age group. Similarly, high school and diploma students constituted significant proportion ofnon-Internet users. Lack of awareness and poor access to Internet facility were quoted as the most significant factors that resulted in the poor Internet accessibility which were supported by the used multinomial logit model. Low income level of the people resulted in non-use of Internet. The use of Internet was found to be highest among those with high level of education. Hence, the measures like provision of ICT based training programs, effective government policy for prioritizing Internet in education sector and allowing most advanced Internet technologies in e-governance and increased efforts for enhancing human development and human capital would enhance the rate of Internet accessibility in Iraq.

  • 9.
    Al-Hammadany, Firas H.
    et al.
    Seoul National University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul National University.
    Determinants of Internet Use in Iraq2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet is considered to be today's most advanced technology and a key to progress of communication and exchange of information, goods, services and technologies. Since its introduction during the late 1960s, the Internet has led to the creation of opportunities and conditions of development both for the developed and developing nations around the globe. Not all nations though welcome this particular tool of world connection. Iraq is facing huge challenges in increasing Internet penetration and usage and changing the traditional way of communication. However, this is a difficult task as there are many factors that define this transition process. This issue and more shall be better presented in this study. Through the use of a suitable approach, this study aims to explain the determinants of Internet use in Iraq. The results indicate that while the people of Iraq are eager to adopt this technology in order to reach out to the world, a number of factors like lack of adequate resources, insufficient incentives and encouragement from the government and some social inhibitions are not allowing this technology to become a public domain.

  • 10.
    Al-mutawkkil, A.
    et al.
    Techno-Economics and Policy Program, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shillim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Bldg. # 37, Room # 320, Seoul, 151-744, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Techno-Economics and Policy Program, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shillim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Bldg. # 37, Room # 320, Seoul, 151-744, South Korea.
    Hwang, J.
    Techno-Economics and Policy Program, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shillim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Bldg. # 37, Room # 320, Seoul, 151-744, South Korea.
    Development of telecommunication and broadcasting infrastructure indices at the global level2009In: Telecommunications Policy, ISSN 0308-5961, E-ISSN 1879-3258, Vol. 33, no 3-4, p. 176-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of information and communication technology (ICT) in economic development has been increasing rapidly along with the Internet and mobile telecommunication networks. ICT development is becoming a main growth factor of many countries. As they realize the importance of the ICT industry, developing nations work to catch up with established economies. Therefore, many nations are formulating an ICT-enhanced policy. This paper introduces a number of telecommunication and broadcasting sub-indices, which include the fixed telephone network, the Internet, and mobile networks, which are aggregated into a composite Telecommunication Index (TI). The indices are computed using principal component analysis and human development type index methods. The country rankings, by different ICT-related indices, help identify the strengths and weaknesses of infrastructure development such that each country can foster economic growth. The performance of TI is compared with several other indices, such as the digital access, human development, and ArCo technology indices. The type of indices affects the country ratings. Results suggest that the parametric index approach may be preferred over those methods in which the subjective weighted summation of normalized variables used (non-parametric indices). Crown Copyright © 2009.

  • 11.
    Altmann, Jörn
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Al-Athwari, Baseem
    Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Evaluation of e-infrastructure deployment in OECD and MENA countries2017In: Catalyzing development through ICT adoption: The developing world experience / [ed] H. Kaur, E. Lechman, & A. Marszk, Cham: Springer, 2017, p. 113-148Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces new indices quantifying country's level of e-infrastructure deployment. These indices comprise six components, which include several indicators, and are based on parametric or nonparametric methods. They improve existing indices. Based on index calculations, variations between countries, regions, and over time are analyzed. The data used covers MENA and OECD countries, 2000-2007. Analysis results identified areas, in which countries need improvements, and showed that some MENA countries outperformed some OECD countries. The rankings based on the indices differ only slightly. Additionally, the parametric method-based index produces equally distributed value ranges and shows an overall e-infrastructure improvement over time. 

  • 12.
    Aoun, D.
    et al.
    Techno-Economics and Policy Program, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    University of Kurdistan HawlerHawler, Kurdistan, Iraq.
    International diversification, capital structure and cost of capital: Evidence from ICT firms listed at NASDAQ2008In: Applied Financial Economics, ISSN 0960-3107, E-ISSN 1466-4305, Vol. 18, no 12, p. 1021-1032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we intend to examine the information and communication technology (ICT) firms from a financial perspective. The relationship between capital structure and cost of capital (COC) is investigated in a simultaneous equation framework. On the one hand, we relate international diversification to the firm’s capital structure, and on the other, we test their individual and collective inferences on the combined debt and equity COC. We expect a negative correlation between international diversification and higher total and long-term debt ratios, and a reduction in the overall COC.

  • 13.
    Battese, G. E.
    et al.
    School of Economic Studies, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economic Statistics, Stockholm School of Economics, Box 6501, S-113 83, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hjalmarsson, L.
    Department of Economics, Göteborg University, P.O. Box 640, SE 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Efficiency of labour use in the Swedish banking industry: A stochastic frontier approach2000In: Empirical Economics, ISSN 0377-7332, E-ISSN 1435-8921, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 623-640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the impact of the deregulation of the Swedish banking industry in the mid-1980s, and the consequent banking crisis, on productive efficiency and productivity growth in the industry. An unbalanced panel of Swedish banks is studied over the period, 1984 to 1995. A total of 1275 observations are analysed for 156 banks that were observed for between two and twelve years. We adopt a translog stochastic frontier model to estimate the labour-use requirements in terms of the variables, loans, deposits, guarantees, number of branches and total inventories, together with the year of observation. The inefficiency effects in the labour-use frontier are modelled in terms of the number of branches, total inventories, the type of bank and year of observation. The technical inefficiencies of labour use of Swedish banks were found to be significant, with mean inefficiencies per year estimated to be between about 8 and 15 per cent over the years of study. However, the confidence interval predictions for these inefficiencies were found to be quite wide.

  • 14. Bersisa, Mekkonen
    et al.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Multidimensional Measure of Poverty in Ethiopia: Factor and Stochastic Dominance Analysis2016In: Poverty and Well-Being in East Africa: A Multi-faceted Economic Approach / [ed] Almas Heshmati, Springer, 2016, , p. 281p. 215-238Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study did an in-depth analysis of multidimensional poverty in rural and small towns in Ethiopia. As social well-being or poverty is a multidimensional phenomenon, using a multidimensional measure of poverty helps circumvent problems surrounding the conventional measures of poverty and helps show clearly the realities of households. In this line, our analysis used six dimensions with 14 indicators to construct a multidimensional index of poverty using first rounds of Ethiopian Rural Households’ Socioeconomic Survey data set. The study also employed a factor analysis for determining relative weights in computing a multidimensional index and did an in-depth analysis of stochastic dominancy of poverty for different segments of society. Besides, a comparison of the extent of poverty using the conventional measure of poverty and the multidimensional approach was also done. The results reveal that intensity, severity, and depth of poverty vary considerably across the two measures. Moreover, demographic, regional, and household heads’ characteristics are major factors in determining poverty.

  • 15.
    Bhandari, A. K.
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Kalyani, West Bengal, India.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Techno-Economics and Policy Program, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Bldg # 38, San 56-1, Shinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, South Korea.
    Labour use and its adjustment in Indian manufacturing Industries2005In: Global Economic Review, ISSN 1226-508X, E-ISSN 1744-3873, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 261-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study provides an empirical investigation of the adjustment process of labour in Indian manufacturing industries, which evolved through structural transformation in the era of globalization. The analysis is based on a dynamic model applied to a panel of 22 two-digit manufacturing industries for the time period of 22 years covering 1980/1981 to 2001/2002. It is assumed that as competition increases industries adjust their employment to a desired level which is both industry and time specific. The results indicate that the manufacturing sector has shown a considerable dynamism in adjusting its workforce. The long-run labour demand responds greatest to the output, followed by capital and least by wages. It is observed that Indian manufacturing is not inefficient in labour use as modest speed of adjustment has led employment size closer to the optimal level. ©2005 Institute of East and West Studies, Yonsei University, Seoul.

  • 16.
    Bhandari, A. K.
    et al.
    The Indian Institute of Social Welfare and Business Management (IISWBM), Management House, College Square West, Kolkata-700 073, India.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Food and Resource Economics College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Anam-dong Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 136-701, South Korea.
    Willingness to pay for biodiversity conservation2010In: Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, ISSN 1054-8408, E-ISSN 1540-7306, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 612-623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nature-based tourism is the fastest growing tourism in many parts of the world. The attitude toward conservation of nature is measured by individuals’ willingness to pay. This study has made an attempt to investigate the determinants of tourists’ willingness to pay (WTP) for biodiversity conservation. The determinants include a combination of socio-economic and site-specific characteristics of tourists. The study was conducted in Sikkim, which is India’s prime nature-based tourism destination. Results show WTP, and effects of education, and income of tourists. Among site-specific characteristics, length of stay and number of spots are the significant determinants ofWTP. This empirical research is a valuable input to identify market segment among tourists, which might help to generate more revenues for biodiversity conservation in Sikkim. ©Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  • 17.
    Bhandari, Amit Kumar
    et al.
    University of Kalyani.
    Heshmati, Almas
    TEPP, Seoul National University, Ratio Institute and IZA Bonn.
    Wage Inequality and Job Insecurity Among Permanent and Contract Workers in India: Evidence from Organized Manufacturing Industries2008In: The ICFAI Journal of Applied Economics, ISSN 0972-6861, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 80-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the early 1990s, the employment structure of organized manufacturing industries in India has undergone substantial changes with steep rise in the use of contract workers in place of permanent workers. This process has led to increased wage inequality, discrimination as well as concern of job insecurity in the labor market. The paper focuses on wage inequality between permanent and contract workers, since contract workers earn substantially lower wages than their counterparts. The study uses data at the individual level from a recent labor survey of organized manufacturing industries in the India. The lower wage earned by contract workers is largely due to cost cutting, rather than differences in labor productivity. The issue of job insecurity has been modeled in the form of a binary logistic model. The factors affecting job security are divided into productivity-related attributes such as level of education and skill, and institutional attributes such as labor market rules and regulations and union membership. Contrary to the general expectation, the study finds that permanent workers are more concerned regarding job insecurity than the contract workers.

  • 18.
    Bhandari, Amit Kumar
    et al.
    IISWBM.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul National University.
    Willingness to Pay for Biodiversity Conservation2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nature based tourism is the fastest growing tourism in many parts of the world. The attitude towards conservation of nature is measured by individuals' willingness to pay. This study has made an attempt to investigate the determinants of tourists' willingness to pay (WTP) for biodiversity conservation. The determinants include a combination of socio-economic and site-specific characteristics of tourists. The study was conducted in Sikkim, which is India's prime nature based tourism destination. Results show that willingness to pay is determined by the level of education and income of tourists. Among site-specific characteristics length of stay and number of spots are the significant determinants of willingness to pay. This empirical research is a valuable input to identify market segment among tourists, which might help to generate more revenue for biodiversity conservation in Sikkim.

  • 19.
    Borja-Barrera, S. M.
    et al.
    Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul National University, South Korea.
    A comparison of efficiency of mobile operators in South America2011In: Information and communication technologies policies and practices / [ed] Almas Heshmati and Sun Peng, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2011, p. 145-165Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Telecommunications plays a major role worldwide with the aim of achieving a bettersocial life for citizens and is one of the major factors contributing to economic growth.This study provides an efficiency analysis of mobile operators in Colombia, Venezuela,Chile and Brazil.For the empirical analysis, the stochastic frontier functions approach is employed toanalyze data from 10 mobile operators from the sample countries. Mobile operators inColombia are compared with others from Venezuela, Chile, and Brazil. Panel data from2005 to 2007 is used in the analysis.The efficiency estimation for each operator over time shows that the level is affectedby some firms and market characteristics such as: type of ownership, market share, typeof technology and firm level wages. One of the main findings of this research is thatsmaller operators work at the same level of efficiency compared with their largercounterparts. ©2010 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 20. Byambasuren, Erkhemchimeg
    et al.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul National University.
    Economic Development in Mongolia2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mongolian economy has evolved rapidly in recent decades. It has a number of particular features which makes it interesting to study from a development perspective. One is the landlocked condition which limits its development potential. Another is its high dependence on a few products and natural resources like minerals, energy and agriculture. A third is the large scale of its natural resources with its low population density. This report aims to present a detailed analysis of the abovementioned aspects of the Mongolian economy and its development. It sheds light on conditions for sustainable economic development in the country. The objective is to mobilize available resources to enhance Mongolia's self-sufficiency and reduce its vulnerability and dependency on its two economically, politically and militarily powerful neighbors. This is conducted in a descriptive and simple but illustrative way. The report provides general information about the Mongolian economy and society compared with its neighbors serving as reference for investors, planners and decision-makers. The report is divided into five main parts. The first part contains a general introduction to the economy of Mongolia. The second part is on the development and the role of the key economic sectors including agriculture, industry and services. The third part elaborates on the development and role of the mining and energy sectors in the development of the economy. The fourth part is an analysis of the international economic relations and the dependence on foreign countries. The last part is on the future directions of development. This report is expected to provide a complete picture of the national economy, its evolution, current state and future possible directions and potential. The empirical and illustrative part is mainly based on data at the aggregate national level, covering the last two decades but mainly the period from 2004 to 2009.

  • 21.
    Cho, Sungwook
    et al.
    Sogang University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Sogang University.
    What If You Had Been Less Fortunate: The Effects of Poor Family Background on Current Labor Market Outcomes2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the correlation between childhood poverty and its influence on adulthood wage distribution, where childhood poverty refers to experience of poverty or poor family background during one's childhood. With the data from Korean Labor Income Panel Study, KLIPS, quantile regression technique and decomposition method are conducted to identify and decompose the wage gap between low (poor) and middle class income group along the whole current wage distribution, based on a simulated counterfactual distribution.The results show that, those who had been less fortunate during their childhood likely had less opportunity to gain labor market favored characteristics such as a higher level of education, and even earn lower returns to their labor market characteristics in the current labor market. This leads to a discount of about fifteen percentages points off of the wage on average in total for those with underprivileged backgrounds during childhood compared to those with the middle class background, and that disadvantage is observed heterogeneously, greater at the lower quantiles than the higher quantiles of the current wage distribution. Then this research contributes to the literature by providing a partial understanding of poverty in Korea and its possible causes, in particular, in form of poor family background or childhood poverty, with which the implication of intergenerational effect issue is considered.

  • 22.
    Cho, Sungwook
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul, Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul, Korea.
    What if you had been less fortunate: The effects of poor family background on current labor market outcomes2015In: Journal of economic studies, ISSN 0144-3585, E-ISSN 1758-7387, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 20-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to examine the correlation between childhood poverty and its influence on adulthood wage distribution, where childhood poverty refers to the experience of poverty or poor family background during one’s childhood.

    Design/methodology/approach– With data from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study, a quantile regression technique and a decomposition method are conducted to identify and decompose the wage gap between low (poor) and middle class income groups along the whole current wage distribution, based on a simulated counterfactual distribution.

    Findings– The results show that those who had been less fortunate during their childhood were also less likely to have the opportunity to gain labor market favored characteristics, such as a higher level of education, and even earn lower returns to their labor market characteristics in the current labor market. This leads to a discount of about 15 percentage points in the wage, on average, in total for those with underprivileged backgrounds during childhood compared to those with a middle class background. This disadvantage is observed heterogeneously, with a greater effect at the lower quantiles compared to the higher quantiles of the current wage distribution.

    Originality/value– This research contributes to the literature by providing a partial understanding of poverty in Korea along with possible causes, including poor family background or childhood poverty, with which the implication of an intergenerational effect is considered.

  • 23.
    Choi, Eunho
    et al.
    Korea University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Korea University.
    Cho, Yongsung
    Korea University.
    An Empirical Study of the Relationships between CO2 Emissions, Economic Growth and Openness2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the existence of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and its causal relationships with economic growth and openness by using time series data (1971-2006) from China (an emerging market), Korea (a newly industrialized country), and Japan (a developed country). The sample countries span a whole range of development stages from industrialized to newly industrialized and emerging market economies. The environmental consequences according to openness and economic growth do not show uniform results across the countries. Depending on the national characteristics, the estimated EKC show different temporal patterns. China shows an N-shaped curve while Japan has a U-shaped curve. Such dissimilarities are also found in the relationship between CO2 emissions and openness. In the case of Korea and Japan it represents an inverted U-shaped curve, while China shows a U-shaped curve. We also analyze the dynamic relationships between the variables by adopting a vector auto regression or a vector error correction model. These models through the impulse response functions allow for analysis of the causal variable’s influence on the dynamic response of emission variables and it adopts a variance decomposition to explain the magnitude of the forecast error variance determined by the shocks to each of the causal variables over time. Results show evidence of large heterogeneity among the countries and variables impacts.

  • 24.
    Chung, Yeimin
    et al.
    Korea University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Sogang University.
    Measurement of Environmentally Sensitive Productivity Growth in Korean Industries2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study measures productivity growth using the Metafrontier Malmquist-Luenberger productivity growth index (MML index) method and decomposes the index. The results are compared with those obtained from the conventional Malmquist-Luenberger (ML) productivity growth index. MML has two advantages compared with the ML index. The former is able to consider undesirable output as a by-product of production which accounts for producer group heterogeneities. As a result, it enables separation and estimation of changes in the technological gap between regional and global frontier technologies. The proposed index is employed to measure productivity growth and decompose its components in 14 Korean industrial sectors during the period between 1981 and 2007. For the purpose of detailed analysis of policy effects, the study period was divided into three decades. The results show that technology innovation can be regarded as a more important factor of productivity growth, rather than efficiency change. The chemical and Petrochemical, Machinery and Transport equipment industries are treated as global innovators in the whole period. However, the result differs according to decades. It is found that the groups with higher energy efficient technology and profitability obtain a higher productivity growth rate in comparison with their low energy efficient technology industry counterparts. Policy implications of the empirical results are discussed.

  • 25.
    Chung, Yeimin
    et al.
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Republic of Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economics, Sogang University, Sinsoo-dong #1, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742, Republic of Korea .
    Measurement of environmentally sensitive productivity growth in Korean industries2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 104, p. 380-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we will attempt to measure productivity growth at the industrial level using the Metafrontier Malmquist-Luenberger (MML) productivity growth index and dissect/analyze this index to reveal further information. The results will be compared with those obtained from the conventional Malmquist-Luenberger (ML) productivity growth index. Utilizing the MML-index has two advantages when compared with the ML-index: the first is that it is able to consider undesirable output as a by-product of production; and the second is that it can account for producer group heterogeneities such as production technology. Noting such advantages, we will model this study to achieve three objectives related to productivity, technology and policy effects. To separate the results of the productivity index, we estimate the changes in the technological gap between regional and global frontier technologies. The proposed index presents productivity growth and dissects its components into 14 Korean industrial sectors from 1981 to 2010. For the purpose of detailed analysis, we have divided the relevant period into three decades. The results show that technology innovation can be regarded as an important component of productivity growth, rather than merely efficiency change. Chemical and petrochemical, iron and steel and machinery are all treated as global innovators throughout the entire period. It is also inferred that the groups with higher labor productivity obtain a higher productivity growth rate as compared with their low labor productivity counterparts. Considering the heterogeneity of production technology and the time that policy is introduced, the policy implications of the results will affect the circumstances regarding investment in environmental technology.

  • 26.
    El-Rhinaoui, R.
    et al.
    Ministry of Industry, Commerce and New Technologies, Morocco.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Mobile operators in MENA region: Impact of foreign ownership and market share on financial performance and traffic2011In: Information and Communication Technologies Policies and Practices / [ed] Almas Heshmati and Sun Peng, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2011, p. 167-190Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As the process of telecommunication liberalization and increased competitionevolves, the situation of market competition and the structure of mobile operators differsconsiderably across the Middle East and North African (MENA) countries. This studyattempts to analyze the effects of foreign ownership and the market share on the trafficand financial performance of mobile operators in MENA region. To achieve theseobjectives, we use panel data estimation methods to assess MENA mobile industryperformances using an unbalanced panel data of 13 mobile operators observed over theperiod 2002-2007. The empirical analysis results, using fixed and random effect models,showed that both foreign ownership and a higher market share have a significant positiveimpact on traffic, revenues, returns on sales and returns on investment of mobileoperators in the MENA region. ©2010 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 27.
    Frölich, M.
    et al.
    Swiss Inst. Intl. Econ./Appl. E.R., University of St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Heshmati, Almas
    MTT Agrifood Research, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lechner, M.
    Swiss Inst. Intl. Econ./Appl. E.R., University of St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    A microeconometric evaluation of rehabilitation of long-term sickness in Sweden2004In: Journal of applied econometrics (Chichester, England), ISSN 0883-7252, E-ISSN 1099-1255, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 375-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the effects of various types of rehabilitation programmes on labour market outcomes are estimated. A main feature of this study is that it jointly evaluates multiple treatments by nonparametric matching estimators. The study is based on a large sample of persons in western Sweden who are long-term sick and could participate in rehabilitation programmes. Our results suggest that workplace training is superior to the other rehabilitation programmes with respect to labour market outcomes, but compared to non-participation no positive effects are found. ©2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 28.
    Färe, R.
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-3612, United States.
    Førsund, F. R.
    Department of Economics, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Grosskopf, S.
    Department of Economics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-3612, United States.
    Hayes, K.
    Dedman College, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275, United States.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Statistics, Stockholm School of Economics, 11383 Stockholm, Sweden.
    A note on decomposing the Malmquist productivity index by means of subvector homotheticity2001In: Economic Theory, ISSN 0938-2259, E-ISSN 1432-0479, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 239-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a decomposition of the Malmquist productivity index into component indexes. The motivation is to derive an analogue of the decomposition of the Törnqvist index into productivity and quality change provided by Fixler and Zieschang (1992) to the Malmquist index. Since we employ no second order approximations, this decomposition requires additional structure, namely a generalized version of Shephard’s (1970) inverse homotheticity, which we dub subvector homotheticity. We show that subvector homotheticity is necessary and sufficient for our decomposition.

  • 29.
    Färe, R.
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, United States.
    Grosskopf, S.
    Department of Economics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, United States.
    Forsund, F. R.
    Department of Economics, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Hayes, K.
    Department of Economics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX, United States.
    Heshmati, Almas
    TEPP, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Measurement of productivity and quality in non-marketable services. With application to schools2006In: Quality Assurance in Education, ISSN 0968-4883, E-ISSN 1758-7662, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 21-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This paper seeks to model and compute productivity, including a measure of quality, of a service which does not have marketable outputs - namely public education at the micro level. This application is a case study for Sweden public schools. Design/methodology/approach - A Malmquist productivity index is employed which allows for multiple outputs or outcomes such as test results and promotions without requiring price data with which to aggregate these outputs. It also allows one to account for inputs such as teachers and facilities as well as proxies for quality of the inputs (e.g. experience of teachers) and outputs. This model generalizes the basic data envelopment analysis (DEA) models - used successfully to measure performance in many educational applications - to the intertemporal case. A way of computing quality and quantity components of overall productivity is employed. Findings - The case study is an application to the Swedish primary and secondary school system over the 1992 to 1995 period. It was found that quality "matters", i.e. productivity growth changes when one accounts for quantity. Research limitations/implications - The data available implied that the specification is restricted to an intermediate production model, i.e. the output data only account for the intermediate outcomes of education like grades and promotions, but not the longer term outcomes related to success in the job market or higher education, which one proposed as a task for future research. Originality/value - The indices which are computed at the micro level are of value for policy purposes (does investment in quality matter?) and in an evaluation context. ©Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 30.
    Gholami, R.
    et al.
    Operation and Information Management Group, Aston Business School, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Lee, S. -YT.
    College of Information and Communications, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    TEPP College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.
    The causal relationship between information and communication technology and foreign direct investment2006In: The World Economy, ISSN 0378-5920, E-ISSN 1467-9701, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 43-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the simultaneous causal relationship between investments in information and communication technology (ICT) and flows of foreign direct investment (FDI), with reference to its implications on economic growth. For the empirical analysis we use data from 23 major countries with heterogeneous economic development for the period 1976-99. Our causality test results suggest that there is a causal relationship from ICT to FDI in developed countries, which means that a higher level of ICT investment leads to an increase inflow of FDI. ICT may contribute to economic growth indirectly by attracting more FDI. Contrarily, we could not find significant causality from ICT to FDI in developing countries. Instead, we have partial evidence of opposite causality relationship: the inflow of FDI causes further increases in ICT investment and production capacity. ©United Nations University 2006.

  • 31.
    Han, Junghee
    et al.
    Science Management Hongik University, Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economics, Sogang University, Korea.
    Determinants of Financial Rewards from Industry-University Collaboration in South Korea2016In: International Journal of Innovation Management, ISSN 1363-9196, E-ISSN 1757-5877, Vol. 20, no 7, p. 235-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The external circumstances for universities have been changing rapidly. In order to be competitive, survive and flourish, universities have turned to external sources to generate revenues. The literature refers to this phenomenon as academic capitalism, defined as the involvement of colleges and their faculty in market-like behaviours, which has become a key feature of higher education finances in most countries. As a result, technology transfer, technological commercialisation, and patents via industry–university collaboration represent a source of financial rewards. This paper explores the determinants of financial rewards of universities sourced from academic engagement through industry–university collaboration in South Korea. We have found that technology transfer per employees working at technology licensing offices, participation of engineering faculty, patent approvals, and the number of firms with incubators within universities significantly contributes to university revenues. The following determinants of financial performance are unexpectedly not contributors to revenue: technological commercialisation using technology transfer, distinguished faculty and incentive rules for inventors. In the light of these findings, it appears that an entrepreneurial university program is likely to play a strong role in university finances in Korea.

  • 32.
    Han, Junghee
    et al.
    Chonnam National University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Sogang University.
    Determinants of Financial Rewards from Industry-University Collaboration in South Korea2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The external circumstances for universities have been changing rapidly. In order to be competitive, survive, and flourish, universities have shown a growing enthusiasm to generate financial revenues externally. The literature refers to this phenomenon as academic capitalism, defined as the involvement of colleges and faculties in market-like behaviors, which has become a key feature of higher education finances in most countries. As a result, technology transfer, technology commercialization, and patents awarded via industry-university collaboration represent a source of financial rewards. This paper explores the determinants of financial rewards of universities sources from industry-university collaboration in South Korea. We find that among the determinants of financial performances, technology transfer per employee working at technology licensing offices, participation of engineering faculty, patent approvals, the volume of research funds, the number of employees, and firms in incubators within universities turn out to be significant contributors to externally sourced university revenues. Technology commercialization using technology transfer and incentive rules for developers are not statistically significant. In the light of these findings, it appears that an industry-university cooperation foundation program is likely to play a strong role in private university finances in Korea.

  • 33.
    Han, Junghee
    et al.
    Chonnam National University, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Innovation and SMEs patent propensity in Korea2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the patent propensity as an outcome of innovative activities of regional SMEs. To achieve the aims, we apply robust regression analysis to estimate the models to test 5 research hypotheses using 263 firm level data located at Gwangju region in Korea. Our empirical results show that a firm's industry characteristics, such as machinery and automotive parts industry, is negatively related with propensity to patent innovation. Also, unlike expectations, the InnoBiz firms designated as innovative SMEs by the government are not performing differently than general firms. Only the CEO's academic credentials are positively related with propensity to patent. From the findings, we can conclude that patenting propensity is not directly related with a firm's characteristics but mainly to CEO's managerial strategy. Also, we cannot find evidence for policy effectiveness from public support given to InnoBiz firms as part of the state policy to nurture photonic industry to boost regional economic development. Given the lack of strong policy effects, a new industry policy should be considered to actively promote SMEs innovativeness.

  • 34.
    Haouas, I.
    et al.
    MSE - Université Paris Panthéon-Sorbonne, Paris, France.
    Yagoubi, M.
    Techno-Economics and Policy Program, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shinlimdong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    MTT Economic Research, Helsinki, Finland.
    The impacts of trade liberalization on employment and wages in Tunisian industries2005In: Journal of International Development, ISSN 0954-1748, E-ISSN 1099-1328, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 527-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates short and long-run effects of trade liberalization on employment and wages. Employment and wage equations are estimated using data (1971-96) for importable and exportable industrial sectors in Tunisia. Causality tests show that causality is unidirectional. Wages strongly causes employment. There is significant difference in the direction of effects in the short and long-run. Empirical results only support the short-run theoretical predictions for the exportable sectors. A possible reason for the divergence of theory and practice is that the theoretical model is premised on the basis of a fixed supply of labour. Employment at exportable sectors could therefore only rise if employment at importable fell. However, as we have seen, the supply of labour increased dramatically in Tunisia as women entered the labour market. This allowed employment at importable sectors to be maintained as the exportable sector expanded. Copyright ©2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 35. Haouas, Ilham
    et al.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Can the UAE avoid the Oil Curse by Economic Diversification?2016In: International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, ISSN 1450-2887, Vol. 144, p. 7-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes an in-depth look into the UAE economy as a model but also as a reminder of the struggles ahead. The findings support the fact that the UAE is facing an oil curse. Declining levels of total factor productivity, GDP volatility, negative returns on investment, and a labor force that is too reliant on government supply of jobs are among the many reasons that support the thesis. The UAE has made good progress in recent years to diversify its economy. However, the drivers of economic growth in the UAE are vulnerable to external shocks outside of the Emirate’s control. It is now critical that the UAE take steps to mitigate economic disruptions that might result from these shocks. In this case study the UAE economic performance is examined, and a data-driven roadmap for sustainable growth is suggested. The analysis shows that greater efforts are needed to stimulate the diversification of the production base by encouraging increased domestic, especially private, investment. Well-targeted policies should be adopted to accelerate reform and facilitate the involvement of the private sector in the economy.

  • 36.
    Haouas, Ilham
    et al.
    Université Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne - TEAM.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Sogang University.
    Can the UAE Avoid the Oil Curse by Economic Diversification?2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research conclude that the GCC economies have failed to address the oil curse. They are far behind other countries, especially those in the G7, which possess huge reserves of oil wealth but have undertaken economic diversification to correct the ill-effects of an oil curse. This paper takes an in-depth look into the UAE economy as a model but also as a reminder of the struggles ahead. The findings support the fact that the UAE is facing an oil curse. Declining levels of total factor productivity, GDP volatility, negative returns on investment, and a labor force that is too reliant on government's supply of jobs are among the many reasons that support the thesis. The UAE has made good progress in recent years to diversify its economy. However, the drivers of economic growth in the UAE are vulnerable to external shocks outside of the Emirate's control. It is now critical that the UAE take steps to mitigate economic disruptions that might result from these shocks. In this case study the UAE economic performance is examined, and a data-driven roadmap for sustainable growth is suggested. The analysis shows that greater efforts are needed to stimulate the diversification of the production base by encouraging increased domestic, especially private, investment. Well-targeted policies should be adopted to accelerate reform and facilitate the involvement of the private sector in the economy.

  • 37.
    Haouas, Ilham
    et al.
    Department of Economics and Finance, College of Business Administration, Abu Dhabi University, UAE.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Korea and Soran University, Kurdistan Region.
    Economies of Scale in the Tunisian Industries2013In: International Journal of Economics and Finance, ISSN 1916-9728, E-ISSN 1916-971X, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 48-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To date, empirical investigations of trade liberalization, under the conditions of increasing returns to scale (IRS) and imperfect competition (IC), have either assumed or imposed the market and productive structures necessary for such a model. However, of the recent IRS/IC models used to simulate the effects of trade liberalization, none have empirically tested for the presence of increasing return to scale prior to the analysis. With Tunisian data (1971-2004) and rigorous test procedures, we investigate evidence of IRS at the industry level. Using an econometric approach based on the estimation of the translog cost function and its associated cost share equations, we identify the sectors characterized by increasing returns to scale. Analysis of the results shows that specification of the model is sensitive to inclusion of time trend representing technology. For most sectors, the model accounting for technology did not fit the data well.Estimation results without time trend interactions are different and most sectors show signs of increasing returns to scale.

  • 38.
    Haouas, Ilham
    et al.
    Abu Dhabi University, United Arab Emirates.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    The impact of Arab Spring on hiring and separation rates in the Tunisian labour market2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the hiring and separation rates in Tunisia before and after the Arab Spring of 2011. Several models are specified to study employment decisions based on quarterly administrative firm level data over the period of 2007 to 2012. The data provides information about important firm characteristics such as industry sector, number of hiring and separation, total employment effects and composition of labour force by gender, managerial level and age cohorts. Six models are estimated to investigate hiring, separation, hiring rate, separation rate, mobility, and net-employment. The results indicate presence of continued risk factors in Tunisia’s labour market resulting from the global financial crisis in 2008 and the Arab Spring in 2011. Hiring was little changed during this time period, and the results suggest that factors that impact separation decisions remained present in Tunisia’s labour market. In addition, the paper looks at various social issues such as youth unemployment and infer on how more efficient policy actions that will further engage the private sector could result in more sustainable positive net-employment and increased labour mobility.

  • 39. Haouas, Ilham
    et al.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Shabaz, Muhammad
    Labour demand, employment variance and efficiency in the Tunisian manufacturing industries2017In: International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, ISSN 1450-2887, Vol. 159, p. 100-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper specifies a flexible model of labour demand in Tunisian manufacturing industries. The model is further extended to incorporate a risk function part which allows identifying the determinants of both level and variations in employment. The risk function is important when designing public policies. It allows for the identification of industries suitable for targeting policies. The paper looks at the efficiency of the manufacturing industry in their choice of level of employment necessary to produce a given level of output. The results show that labour demand responds mostly to wages, followed by capital stock changes, and level of output.

  • 40. Herrman, Peter
    et al.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Tausch, Arno
    Bajalan, Chemen S.J.
    Efficiency and Effectiveness of Social Spending2009In: Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 13-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this qualitative sociological and quantitative economic policy paper, we start out from the assumption of a very recent European Commission Background paper on the ”Efficiency and effectiveness of social spending“, which says the effectiveness of social spending can be defined by the degree to which the realized allocation approaches the socially desired outcome. The conclusions listed in the Commission paper are found far reaching and not supported by the empirical data. We perform such an analysis, starting from advances in recent literature. A more encompassing sociological perspective on the issue and factor analytical calculations is presented, which supports our general argument about the efficiency of the Scandinavian model. The social quality approach provides an alternative perspective on welfare system analysis, focusing on public policies rather than social policies. The empirical evidence, suggests that in terms of the efficiency of the European social model, the geography of comparative performance include: the direct action against social exclusion, health and family social expenditures, the neo-liberal approach, and the unemployment benefit centred approach. Applying rigorous comparative social science methodology, we also arrive at the conclusion that in terms of the initial ECOFIN definition of efficiency, the data presented in this article suggest that apart from Finland and the Netherlands, three new EU-27 member countries, especially the Czech Republic and Slovenia, provide interesting answers to the question about the efficiency of state expenditures in reducing poverty rates.

  • 41.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    A review of the circular economy and its implementation2018In: International Journal of Green Economics, ISSN 1744-9928, E-ISSN 1744-9936Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Korea University.
    A Review of the Regional Development Strategy for Kurdistan Region2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    An empirical survey of the ramification of a green economy2018In: International Journal of Green Economics, ISSN 1744-9928, E-ISSN 1744-9936Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Sogang University.
    An Empirical Survey of the Ramifications of a Green Economy2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The unprecedented deterioration of our global environment has increased the necessity of relying upon Green Economic policies as critical and effective environmental management tools. The current situation has stimulated extensive research and debate among global interest groups. This has fostered an ever-growing volume of literature that provides a picture of the best measures affecting the establishment of the Green Economy – including its development and outcomes. This paper provides a survey of the green economy in self-contained form and accessible to the non-specialist readers. First, it reviews the recent developments in green economy: its theoretical foundation, political background and developmental strategies towards genuine, sustainable development. Second, the circular economy, networks, organizations, policies, infrastructure and measurable expected effects are discussed. Third, the theoretical and empirical results and findings regarding the green economy and its practice do lead to a number of conclusions regarding measurement of improvements, achievement of outcomes and identification of causal effects. Finally, summaries of current and possible future Green Development tendencies with a focus upon directions, policy, organizations, capacity, areas and interventions are provided and extensions that can serve as optimal directions for future research and policy are suggested.

  • 45.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Analysis of Determinants of Households Consumption Expenditure and Poverty in India2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Food and Resources, Economics College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University.
    Analysis of power plants' performance in the Korean electricity industry2010Book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Techno-Economics and Policy Program, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1 Shillim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, South Korea.
    Conditional and unconditional inequality and growth relationships2006In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 13, no 14, p. 925-931Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study tests the conditional and unconditional relationship between income inequality and growth in the post-Second World War period using WIDER inequality database. Regression results suggest that income inequality is declining over time. Inequality is also declining in growth of income. There is a significant regional heterogeneity in the levels and development of inequality over time. The Kuznets hypothesis represents a global U-shape relationship between inequality and growth.

  • 48.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Demand, Customer Base-Line And Demand Response In The Electricity Market: A Survey2014In: Journal of economic surveys (Print), ISSN 0950-0804, E-ISSN 1467-6419, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 862-888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing use of demand-side management, as a tool to reliably meet electricity demands at peak time, has stimulated interest among researchers, consumers and producer organiza-tions, managers, regulators and policymakers. This research reviews the growing literature on models which are used to study demand, customer base-line (CBL) and demand response in the electricity market. After characterizing the general demand models, the CBL, based on which the demand response models are studied, is reviewed. Given the experience gained from the review and existing conditions, the study combines an appropriate model for each case for a possible application to the electricity market; moreover, it discusses the implications of the results. In the literature, these aspects are studied independently. The main contribution of this survey is attributed to the treatment of the three issues as sequentially interdependent. The review is expected to enhance the understanding of the demand, CBL and demand response in the electricity market and their relationships. The objective is conducted through a combination of demand and supply side managements in order to reduce demand through different demand response programs during peak times. This enables electricity suppliers to save costly electricity generation and at the same time reduce energy vulnerability.

  • 49.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul.
    Economic Fundamentals of Power Plant Performance2012Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stability of the electricity industry is crucial for economic growth of all nations. Sustainable economic growth cannot be accomplished without secured energy supply. The book underlines how management of the electricity industry should be conducted and the efficient form of electricity market structure. The book also studies the electricity industry in Korea which has been a strongly supportive and vital factor in the economic development of Korea for the last few decades.

    The book focuses on the three market players of the electricity market and they are the suppliers, consumers and the government-related organizations. It includes detailed information on generation and finances at the generator level and analyzes the efficiency differences among generators, plants and business units by using different performance measurement methods. It identifies and analyzes different production factors' effectiveness and relationships in generation. The comprehensive analysis helps to provide explanations in the differences in the performance of the studied units. The book also discusses the implications of the findings for future resource allocation and how we can further enhance the efficiency of the industry.

    The book will appeal to those interested in energy and energy policies, as well as researchers and practitioners in the economic development and electricity and utilities industry.

  • 50.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Economic Integration, Currency Union, and Sustainable and Inclusive Growth in East Africa2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This edited volume is an outcome of a project funded by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA). The project involves development of Doctoral Programs in Economics and Management, Research Capacity Building and Training and Career Development Initiative at the University of Rwanda, College of Business and Economics (UR-CBE). The project is implemented jointly by J€onk€oping University, J€onk€oping International Business School (JIBS) and the College of Business and Economics at the University of Rwanda. The Doctoral Programs aim at building local teaching and supervision capacities, while the Career Development Initiative aims at assisting faculty and staff of UR-CBE to develop their research and academic writing skills. The chapters in this volume were selected from among papers presented at the conference ‘Recent Trends in Economic Development, Finance and Management Research in Eastern Africa’, in Kigali, Rwanda, on 4–6 May 2015. The conference was organized jointly by JIBS and CBE. The submissions focused on recent trends in economic development in the developing economies of East Africa. This was the first conference in what is planned to be a yearly event. Theoretical, methodological and empirical research and policy or practice-oriented papers were invited, provided they were based on sound conceptual foundations with well-thought methods. Applied and practice-oriented manuscripts could focus on Eastern Africa as a whole or a group of countries or individual economies in the region. Priority was given to studies on Eastern Africa, but submissions from the rest of Africa were also welcome. Papers from regions other than Africa were also welcome, provided they discussed the implications of the research findings in the African context.

12345 1 - 50 of 249
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf