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  • 1.
    Ahlstrand, Inger
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Björk, Mathilda
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Thyberg, Ingrid
    AIR/Rheumatology Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Börsbo, Björn
    Rehabilitation Medicine, IKE, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. School of Occupational Therapy, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Pain and Daily Activities in Rheumatoid Arthritis2012In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 34, no 15, p. 1245-1253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe experiences of pain and its relationship to daily activities in people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Method. Seven semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted with 33 men and women of different ages with RA. Data were analysed with content analysis. Results. Pain affected everyday life and may be a barrier to perform valued activities. Regarding the impact of pain on participation and independence, personal factors and the social environment were found to be important. It could be a struggle to find the right activity balance, since it was easy to be overactive, triggering subsequent elevation of pain levels. However, the participants also described activities as a mediator of pain and a distraction from it.Conclusion. The relationship between pain and daily activities in RA was complex. Pain as an impairment was expressed to be related to activity limitations and participation restrictions, as well as to contextual factors. These findings highlight the clinical importance of paying attention to the complexity of pain and its relation to daily activities and participation.

  • 2.
    Ahlstrand, Inger
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. ADULT.
    Björk, Mathilda
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. ADULT.
    Thyberg, Ingrid
    Linköping University.
    Börsbo, Björn
    Linköping university.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Smärta och dagliga aktiviteter vid Reumatoid artrit ur ett patientperspektiv2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Smärta vid Reumatoid artrit (RA) ärett välkänt symtom som orsakar lidande ochaktivitetsbegränsning. Traditionellt mäts smärtainom reumatologin som smärtintensitet på enVisuell Analog Skala (VAS). Kunskapen kring hurpatienter med RA upplever smärta och dess konsekvenser är begränsad. Patientens egenbeskrivning behövs som underlag för behandlingsplanering och för att utveckla nya metoderför att beskriva problematiken.Syfte: Syftet med studien är att beskriva smärtavid RA ur ett patientperspektiv med fokus på hursmärtan påverkar dagliga aktiviteter.Metod: Patienter med diagnostiserad RA i syd-östra Sverige identifierades via Svenska Reumatologiregistret. Urvalet baserades på minst 5 årssjukdomsduration och minst 40 mm smärtintensitet på VAS vid de två senaste besöken på reumatologklinik. Sammanlagt 33 patienter, 7 män och26 kvinnor, deltog i sju fokusgrupper. Gruppernaformades utifrån kön och ålder. Intervjuguideninnehöll frågor som: Hur beskriver patienter medRA sin smärta? Vad påverkar smärtan? Vilkakonsekvenser har smärtan för aktivitetsutförande,aktivitetsbalans och undvikande av aktivitet? Enkvalitativ innehållsanalys görs.Resultat/förväntat resultat: Analyser hittills visar patienternas frustration över att inteklara det man vill eller behöver göra, beroendeav andra, minskade möjligheter till delaktigheti sociala sammanhang. Och närståendes betydelse. Analyserna visar att smärtan är relaterad till Göteborg6-8 april 201134trötthet, stress och sinnesstämning och att arbeteeller andra aktiviteter medverkar till att glömmabort smärtan och uppehålla förmåga. Analysenslutförs under hösten.Konklusion: Denna studie förväntas genererany angelägen kunskap om och förståelse försmärta.

  • 3.
    Ahlstrand, Inger
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Björk, Mathilda
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Thyberg, Ingrid
    Linköping University.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Pain and difficulties performing valued life activities in women and men with rheumatoid arthritis2015In: Clinical Rheumatology, ISSN 0770-3198, E-ISSN 1434-9949, Vol. 34, no 8, p. 1353-1362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to examine the difficulties with performing valued life activities in relation to pain intensity in women and men with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In total, 737 persons with RA (73 % women) from three rheumatology units in Sweden responded to a questionnaire measuring performance of 33 valued life activities and self-rated pain. The relationships between performance of valued life activities (VLAs) and pain (measured by visual analogue scale (VAS)) were analysed based on gender. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted with the total VLA score as dependent variable. Women reported more pain and difficulties in performing valued life activities than men. Across genders, 85 % reported at least one valued life activity affected by RA. Significantly more women than men encountered difficulties in performing some activities such as cooking, gardening and meeting new people. Women reported higher pain intensity (35 mm) than men (31 mm). Almost all 33 difficulty ratings for valued life activities were higher among persons with high pain (>40 mm) than persons with lower pain. Difficulty ratings for valued life activities correlated positively with pain in persons with lower pain, but not among those with high pain. The results highlight the importance of addressing pain, especially among women with RA, as they reported pain to impact on their valued life activities. Interestingly, this was evident also in women with lower levels of pain.

  • 4.
    Ahlstrand, Inger
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Thyberg, Ingrid
    Linköping University.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Dahlström, Ö
    Linköping University.
    Björk, Mathilda
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Pain and activity limitations in women and men with contemporary treated early RA compared to 10 years ago: the Swedish TIRA project2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0300-9742, E-ISSN 1502-7732, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 259-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To study differences regarding pain and activity limitations during the 3 years following diagnosis in women and men with contemporary treated early RA compared with their counterparts who were diagnosed 10 years earlier.

    METHOD: This study was based on patients recruited to the Early Intervention in RA (TIRA) project. In the first cohort (TIRA-1) 320 patients were included in time for diagnosis during 1996-1998 and 463 patients were included in the second cohort (TIRA-2) during 2006-2009. Disease activity, pain intensity (Visual Analogue Scale, VAS), bodily pain (BP) in the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), activity limitations (Health Assessment Questionnaire, HAQ), and medication were reported at inclusion and at follow-up after 1, 2, and 3 years.

    RESULTS: Disease activity, pain, and activity limitations were pronounced at inclusion across both genders and in both cohorts, with some improvement observed during the first year after diagnosis. Disease activity did not differ between cohorts at inclusion but was significantly lower at the follow-ups in the TIRA-2 cohort, in which the patients were prescribed traditional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and biological agents more frequently. In TIRA-2, patients reported significantly lower pain and activity limitations at all follow-ups, with men reporting lower pain than women. Women reported significantly higher activity limitations at all time points in TIRA-2.

    CONCLUSIONS: Pain and activity limitations were still pronounced in the contemporary treated early RA cohort compared with their counterparts diagnosed 10 years earlier and both of these factors need to be addressed in clinical settings.

  • 5.
    Ahlstrand, Inger
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. ADULT.
    Thyberg, Ingrid
    Linköping University.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University.
    Björk, Mathilda
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Less pain and activity limitations in today's early RA patients compared with patients diagnosed 10 years earlier (the swedish TIRA-project)2014In: EULAR 2014: Scientific Abstracts, 2014, p. 141-142Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Over the last decades the RA-treatment strategies have changed considerably. Routines for early RA diagnosis and instituted disease modifying anti rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) have been established. In the early 2000s biologic agents also became available for treatment purposes. Despite these altered and improved strategies RA patients continue to report pain and activity limitations; women more so than men.

    Objectives: To study differences regarding pain and activity limitations during the first three years after diagnosis of RA in today's patients compared with patients diagnosed 10 years earlier from a gender perspective.

    Methods: This study was based on patients recruited to the project “early interventions in RA” (TIRA). In the first cohort (TIRA-1) 320 patients were included during 1996-1998. In the second cohort (TIRA-2) 463 patients were included during 2006-2008. Disease activity score 28 joint count (DAS-28) and medication were registered. Pain intensity (VAS), bodily pain (BP) in Short Form36 (SF-36) and activity limitation (Health Assessment Questionnaire, HAQ) were reported at inclusion and at follow-ups after one, two and three years.

    Results: Disease activity did not differ between cohorts at inclusion, but was significant lower at the follow ups in the TIRA-2 cohort compared with the TIRA-1 cohort. Patients in TIRA2 were prescribed traditional DMARD:s and biologic agents more frequent than in TIRA-1. The TIRA-2 patients reported significantly higher pain intensity and activity limitations at inclusion but lower pain intensity and activity limitations at all follow-ups than TIRA-1 patients. There were no significant differences between cohorts regarding bodily pain at inclusion, but thereafter the TIRA-2 patients showed significant lower bodily pain than the TIRA-1 patients. Men reported lower activity limitation than women in TIRA-1; otherwise there were no gender differences in TIRA-1. In TIRA-2, there were no significant gender differences regarding pain at inclusion. However, men reported lower pain than women at all follow-ups. Women, in turn, reported significantly higher activity limitations at all time points in TIRA-2. Pain and activity limitations were significantly reduced from inclusion to the one year follow-up but remained stable thereafter.

    Conclusions: Both women and men in today's early RA patient cohort report lower pain and less activity limitations at the follow ups after diagnosis of RA compared to 10 years earlier. However, both activity limitations and bodily pain are still pronounced.

  • 6.
    Ahlstrand, Inger
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Thyberg, Ingrid
    Department of Rheumatology and Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Björk, Mathilda
    Department of Rheumatology and Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Self-efficacy and pain acceptance as mediators of the relationship between pain and performance of valued life activities in women and men with rheumatoid arthritis2017In: Clinical Rehabilitation, ISSN 0269-2155, E-ISSN 1477-0873, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 824-834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To study whether personal factors (self-efficacy and pain acceptance) mediate the relationship between pain and performance of valued life activities in persons with rheumatoid arthritis.

    METHODS: Persons with rheumatoid arthritis for at least four years (n = 737; 73% women) answered a questionnaire measuring self-efficacy, pain acceptance, performance of valued life activities, and self-rated pain. Relationships among these constructs were explored using univariate and multivariate analyses. Structural equation modelling was then used to examine the mediational role of personal factors on the relationship between pain and performance of valued life activities.

    RESULTS: A direct negative association between pain and performance of valued life activities was identified (Beta = .34, P < .001). This suggests that people with rheumatoid arthritis who had higher levels of pain has increased difficulties in performing valued life activities. Self-efficacy and activity engagement component of pain acceptance mediated the relationship between pain and performance of valued life activities, however the pain willingness component of pain acceptance did not influence participation in valued life activities.

    CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the importance of considering personal factors, such as pain acceptance and self-efficacy, in facilitating participation in valued life activities.

  • 7.
    Ahlstrand, Inger
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Rehabilitation Center and Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Thyberg, Ingrid
    Department of Rheumatology and Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Björk, Mathilda
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Self-efficacy and painacceptance in relation to pain and performance of valued life activities inwomen and men with RAArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 8. Albertsson, P
    et al.
    Björnstig, J
    Bylund, PO
    Björnstig, U
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Injury events among bus and coach occupants: non-crash injuries as important as crash injuries2005In: IATSS research, ISSN 0386-1112, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 79-87Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Albertsson, P
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Björnstig, U
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    The balance between accessibility and safety in buses: a complicated ethical question.2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10. Albertsson, P
    et al.
    Björnstig, U
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    The Haddon matrix, a tool for investigating severe bus and coach crashes2004In: International Journal of Disaster Medicine, ISSN 1503-1438, E-ISSN 1755-4713, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 109-119Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11. Albertsson, P
    et al.
    Björnstig, U
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Kirk, A
    Mayrhofer, E
    Case study: 128 Injured in rollover coach crashes in Sweden: injury outcome, mechanisms and possible effects of seat belts2004In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 87-109Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12. Albertsson, P
    et al.
    Björnstig, U
    Petzäll, J
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Näsman, Y
    Utrymningsförsök av passagerare ur buss vid brand och brandtillbud samt antalet bränder och brandtillbud i bussar i Sverige2006In: Akuttjournalen: Tidsskrift for avansert akuttmedisin, ISSN 0805-6129, E-ISSN 1500-7480, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 85-91Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13. Albertsson, P
    et al.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    A literature review on bus and coach incidents in Europe2004In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 225-233Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Albrecht, Matthew A.
    et al.
    School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Foster, Jonathan K.
    School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Joosten, Annette
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Tang, Julia
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Leung, Denise
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Ordqvist, Anna
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Visual search strategies during facial recognition in children with ASD2014In: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, ISSN 1750-9467, E-ISSN 1878-0237, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 559-569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Facial recognition is a complex skill necessary for successful human interpersonal and social interactions. Given that the most prevalent disorder of social interaction is autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a number of studies have investigated and found impaired facial recognition abilities in people with ASD. Further, this impairment may be critically involved in mediating the deficits in interpersonal and social interactions in people with ASD. We sought to address the question of whether face processing is impaired in children with ASD in the current study. While there were a number of differences in visual search behaviours between the 19 children with ASD and the 15 controls, this did not manifest in deficits in facial recognition accuracy. In addition, there were notable differences with respect to eye fixation behaviours and recognition accuracy in this study compared to the findings in a previous similar study conducted in adults with ASD. These differences suggest a performance enhancing developmental trajectory in facial processing in controls that may not be present in individuals with ASD.

  • 15.
    Albrecht, Matthew A.
    et al.
    School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Stuart, Geoffrey W.
    Olga Tennison Autism Research Centre, School of Psychological Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Ordqvist, Anna
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH), Rehabilitation Medicine, Linköping University and Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, UHL, County Council, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Leung, Denise
    Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Foster, Jonathan K.
    School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Brief Report: Visual Acuity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders2014In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 44, no 9, p. 2369-2374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, there has been heightened interest in suggestions of enhanced visual acuity in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) which was sparked by evidence that was later accepted to be methodologically flawed. However, a recent study that claimed children with ASD have enhanced visual acuity (Brosnan et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 42:2491–2497, 2012) repeated a critical methodological flaw by using an inappropriate viewing distance for a computerised acuity test, placing the findings in doubt. We examined visual acuity in 31 children with ASD and 33 controls using the 2 m 2000 Series Revised Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study chart placed at twice the conventional distance to better evaluate possible enhanced acuity. Children with ASD did not demonstrate superior acuity. The current findings strengthen the argument that reports of enhanced acuity in ASD are due to methodological flaws and challenges the reported association between visual acuity and systemising type behaviours.

  • 16.
    Almberg, Maria
    et al.
    Mobility Centre Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Selander, Helena
    Mobility Centre Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Experiences of facilitators or barriers in driving education from learner and novice drivers with ADHD or ASD and their driving instructors2017In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 59-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Little is known about whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) experience any specific facilitators or barriers to driving education.

    Objective: To explore the facilitators or barriers to driving education experienced by individuals with ASD or ADHD who obtained a learner’s permit, from the perspective of the learner drivers and their driving instructors.

    Methods: Data were collected from 33 participants with ASD or ADHD, and nine of their driving instructors.

    Results: Participants with ASD required twice as many driving lessons and more on-road tests than those with ADHD. Participants with ADHD repeated the written tests more than those with ASD. Driving license theory was more challenging for individuals with ADHD, whilst individuals with ASD found translating theory into practice and adjusting to “unfamiliar” driving situations to be the greatest challenges.

    Conclusion: Obtaining a driving license was associated with stressful training experience.

  • 17. Anund, A.
    et al.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Forsman, Å.
    Gustafsson, S.
    Matstoms, Y.
    Sörensen, G.
    Turbell, T.
    Wenäll, J.
    Child safety in cars: Literature review2003Report (Other academic)
  • 18. Anund, A.
    et al.
    Kronqvist, L.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Är kraven på utmärkning av skolskjutsfordon utmärkta?2005Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, VTI.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, VTI.
    Thornthwaite, Sian
    STC Ltd., Derby, UK.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Is European school transportation safe?: The need for a "door-to-door" perspective2011In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 75-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose To identify and establish the number and aetiology behind children being killed or injured during school transport from a door-to-door perspective by using experience from Sweden and the UK. Methods Available crash data were analysed. Results In total, 361 children in Sweden during 1994–2001,i.e. 24% of the 1,515 identified children aged 6 - 16 who were injured or killed were identified in 256 school transport events. The predominant reason for being killed or injured when travelling on school transportation was when children were outside the bus (74%), either when passing the bus to cross the street, running in front of the bus (21%) or behind the bus (30%). Contrary to the general belief that children older than 12 are mature enough to handle traffic, more than 50% of the fatal injuries in Sweden affected children aged 13 –16. Similar results were found in the UK. The afternoon school journeys, pedestrians after alighting from the bus, and those in situations that deviated from their normal routine were found to be particularly vulnerable. Conclusions The travel chain perspective/or door to door perspective offers a promising approach for understanding school transport risks and for identifying effective countermeasures; including around bus stops and on the way to/from the bus stop. Data collection needs to be revised to reflect this approach.

  • 20. Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Dukic, Tanja
    Börsbo, Björn
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Piloting Smart Safe School bus: Exploration of security gains from implementation of a driver support system, additional technical equipment and intelligent bus stops2010In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 157-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Road crash statistics reveal that school children are frequent victims and the most risky situation is when the child is outside the bus. The aim of this pilot study was to explore possible changes in speed, implementation of routines, hazard detection and child security gains from a driver support system integrated with intelligent bus stops and additional technical equipment.

    Methods

    In total, 130 children with transmitters were using two specially equipped busses and bus stops. Speed of oncoming and overtaking cars, implementation of routines, the possibilities to discover potential hazards and experienced stress in the children were analysed by speed measurements, diary notes, questionnaires and focus group interviews.

    Results

    This pilot study exploration showed that the speeds of other road users were reduced at one of two bus stops. The driver support system was frequently used in all its parts and was considered useful by the bus drivers. It also raised the level of routines and allowed the drivers to survey the children. Children reported feeling more secure with the system running and experienced less stress as a consequence of it.

    Conclusion

    This pilot study shows that the evaluated systems may have the ability to reduce speed of other road users, raise the level of routines and make children feel more secure. Further studies are needed that apply a holistic approach on school transportation safety and security.

  • 21. Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Renner, Linda
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Waara, Nina
    Smartare Säkrare Skolbuss: Ett pilotförsök i Kristianstad2009Report (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Arno, P
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Strypstein, E
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Middleton, H
    Fimm, B
    Panou, M
    AGILE, AGed people Integration, mobility, safety and quality of Life Enhancement through driving.2003Report (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 23. Arno, P.
    et al.
    Strypstein, E.
    Naniopoulos, A.
    Bekiaris, E.
    Nalbantis, D.
    Panou, M.
    Gemou, M.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Gregersen, N.P.
    Hellsten, H.
    Pardo, J.
    Dols, J.
    Rothermel, S.
    Breker, S.
    Ruspa, C.
    Pilot Evaluation2003Report (Other academic)
  • 24. Bekiaris, E.
    et al.
    Panou, M.
    Gemou, M.
    Nalbantis, D.
    Arno, P.
    Tavares, G.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Foerst, K.
    Ruspa, C.
    New driver training curricula, best practice, design guidelines and recommendations to authorities.2003Report (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Bergström, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ahlstrand, Inger
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Thyberg, Ingrid
    Department of Rheumatology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Börsbo, Björn
    Division of Community Medicine, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Björk, Mathilda
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Sweden.
    ‘Like the worst toothache you’ve had’ – How people with rheumatoid arthritis describe and manage pain2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 468-476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease often associated with disability. Despite new treatments, pain and activity limitations are still present.

    Objectives: To describe how persons with RA experience and manage pain in their daily life.

    Methods: Seven semi-structured focus groups (FGs) were conducted and analyzed using content analysis.

    Results: The analysis revealed four categories: 1) Pain expresses itself in different ways referred to pain as overwhelming, aching or as a feeling of stiffness. 2) Mitigating pain referred to the use of heat, cold, medications and activities as distractions from the pain. 3) Adapting to pain referred to strategies employed as coping mechanisms for the pain, e.g. planning and adjustment of daily activities, and use of assistive devices. 4) Pain in a social context referred to the participants’ social environment as being both supportive and uncomprehending, the latter causing patients to hide their pain.

    Conclusions: Pain in RA is experienced in different ways. This emphasizes the multi-professional team to address this spectrum of experiences and to find pain management directed to the individual experience that also include the person’s social environment.

  • 26.
    Blane, A.
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Lee, H. C.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Lee, M.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Parsons, R.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    The cognitive and socio-demographic influences on driving performance and driving cessation in post-stroke drivers2016In: Advances in Transportation Studies, ISSN 1824-5463, no 38, p. 75-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Driving is a complex activity requiring highly integrated cognitive and perceptual functions that can be negatively affected following a stroke. The decision to continue or cease with driving after a stroke may not be exclusively dependent on deficits in cognitive and motor abilities. Instead, it is possible that social supports, alternative means of transportation, education level, income, self-regulation ability and the awareness of personal health problems may also influence the decision.

    Aim: The aim of this research was to explore the influence of personal and socioeconomic factors, in addition to existing cognitive impairment, on the decision of post-stroke adults to return to driving.

    Method: A case control design was employed to compare driving performance of 48 individuals who had experienced a stroke and 22 volunteer healthy control participants. Half of the post-stroke cohort (N=24) had continued driving and the other half had ceased driving. Socio-demographic and driving-related cognitive performance data were collected to characterise the comparison groups before driving performance was assessed in a driving simulator.

    Results: Overall, the post-stroke groups did not perform as well as the control participants in the cognitive and driving assessments. The perceived ability to drive after a stroke was not significantly correlated with participants'€™ actual driving ability. Post-stroke adults were more likely to continue driving if they reported having a tertiary level education and a greater income.

    Conclusion: The decision to return to driving after a stroke is a complicated, multifactorial process. This study confirms previous research, which found that cognition and driving performance are impaired poststroke. The findings also suggest that post-stroke drivers'€™ decision to return to driving was not linked to their ability to drive, but more to socio-demographic and environmental factors. Further screening tools and assessments to identify those at risk when returning to the road post-stroke are required. 

  • 27.
    Blane, Alison
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe C.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Willstrand, Tania D.
    Human Factors, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Göteborg, Sweden.
    Investigating cognitive ability and self-reported driving performance of post-stroke adults in a driving simulator2018In: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, ISSN 1074-9357, E-ISSN 1945-5119, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 44-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Safe driving is a complex activity that requires calibration. This means the driver can accurately assess the level of task demand required for task completion and can accurately evaluate their driving capability. There is much debate on the calibration ability of post-stroke drivers.

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was to assess the cognition, self-rated performance, and estimation of task demand in a driving simulator with post-stroke drivers and controls.

    Methods

    A between-groups study design was employed, which included a post-stroke driver group and a group of similarly aged older control drivers. Both groups were observed driving in two simulator-based driving scenarios and asked to complete the NASA Task Load Index (TLX) to assess their perceived task demand and self-rate their driving performance. Participants also completed a battery of psychometric tasks to assess attention and executive function, which was used to determine whether post-stroke cognitive impairment impacted on calibration.

    Results

    There was no difference in the amount of perceived task demand required to complete the driving task. Despite impairments in cognition, the post-stroke drivers were not more likely to over-estimate their driving abilities than controls. On average, the post-stroke drivers self-rated themselves more poorly than the controls and this rating was related to cognitive ability.

    Conclusion

    This study suggests that post-stroke drivers may be aware of their deficits and adjust their driving behavior. Furthermore, using self-performance measures alongside a driving simulator and cognitive assessments may provide complementary fitness-to-drive assessments, as well as rehabilitation tools during post-stroke recovery.

  • 28.
    Blane, Alison
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe C.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Willstrand, Tania Dukic
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Human Factors, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Assessing Cognitive Ability and Simulator-Based Driving Performance in Poststroke Adults2017In: Behavioural Neurology, ISSN 0953-4180, E-ISSN 1875-8584, article id 1378308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving is an important activity of daily living, which is increasingly relied upon as the population ages. It has been well-established that cognitive processes decline following a stroke and these processes may influence driving performance. There is much debate on the use of off-road neurological assessments and driving simulators as tools to predict driving performance; however, the majority of research uses unlicensed poststroke drivers, making the comparability of poststroke adults to that of a control group difficult. It stands to reason that in order to determine whether simulators and cognitive assessments can accurately assess driving performance, the baseline should be set by licenced drivers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess differences in cognitive ability and driving simulator performance in licensed community-dwelling poststroke drivers and controls. Two groups of licensed drivers (37 poststroke and 43 controls) were assessed using several cognitive tasks and using a driving simulator. The poststroke adults exhibited poorer cognitive ability; however, there were no differences in simulator performance between groups except that the poststroke drivers demonstrated less variability in driver headway. The application of these results as a prescreening toolbox for poststroke drivers is discussed.

  • 29.
    Blane, Alison
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Dukic Willstrand, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Human Factors, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Cognitive ability as a predictor of task demand and self-rated driving performance in post-stroke drivers – Implications for self-regulation2018In: Journal of Transport and Health, ISSN 2214-1405, E-ISSN 2214-1405, Vol. 9, p. 169-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving is a highly complex task requiring multiple cognitive processes that can be adversely affected post-stroke. It is unclear how much ability post-stroke adults have to self-evaluate their driving performance. Furthermore, the impact of cognitive decline on this evaluation has not been previously investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceived level of task demand involved in driving tasks, and to examine differences between perceived and observed driving performance in post-stroke drivers in comparison to a control group. A further aim of the research was to investigate the influence of cognition on self-rated driving performance. A total of 78 participants (35 post-stroke and 43 controls) were assessed using a series of cognitive tasks and were observed whilst driving. Participants were asked to rate their own driving performance and the task demand involved while driving using the NASA Task Load Index. Between group analyses were conducted to determine differences in the level of self-rated performance and task demand. Further analyses were conducted to investigate whether cognition accounted for differences in task demand or self-rated performance. Overall, the results suggested that the post-stroke drivers exhibited deficits in cognition, but they did not report increased levels of task demand when driving. Post-stroke adults also rated themselves more conservatively than the controls for on-road performance, which was associated with their reduced propensity for risk. The study suggests that cognitive deficits may influence post-stroke drivers to amend their driving behaviour, in order to bring the task demand within a manageable level. Understanding the mechanisms involved in self-rated performance and estimations of task demand can help promote accurate self-regulation practices in post-stroke drivers. Furthermore, measuring calibration may assist practitioners with assessing fitness-to-drive, as well as with tailoring driving rehabilitation.

  • 30.
    Borgestig, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Improving computer usage for students with physical disabilities through a collaborative approach: a pilot study2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 463-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an assistive technology (AT) intervention to improve the use of available computers as assistive technology in educational tasks for students with physical disabilities during an ongoing school year. Methods: Fifteen students (aged 12–18) with physical disabilities, included in mainstream classrooms in Sweden, and their teachers took part in the intervention. Pre-, post-, and follow-up data were collected with Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS), a computer usage diary, and with the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (PIADS). Teachers' opinions of goal setting were collected at follow-up. Results: The intervention improved the goal-related computer usage in educational tasks and teachers reported they would use goal setting again when appropriate. At baseline, students reported a positive impact from computer usage with no differences over time regarding the PIADS subscales independence, adaptability, or self-esteem. Discussion: The AT intervention showed a positive effect on computer usage as AT in mainstream schools. Some additional support to teachers is recommended as not all students improved in all goal-related computer usage. A clinical implication is that students' computer usage can be improved and collaboratively established computer-based strategies can be carried out by teachers in mainstream schools.

  • 31.
    Borgestig, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Sandqvist, Jan
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ahlsten, Gunnar
    Folke Bernadotte Regional Habilitation Centre and Department of Women´s and Children´s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Gaze-based assistive technology in daily activities in children with severe physical impairments–An intervention study2017In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 129-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To establish the impact of a gaze-based assistive technology (AT) intervention on activity repertoire, autonomous use, and goal attainment in children with severe physical impairments, and to examine parents’ satisfaction with the gaze-based AT and with services related to the gaze-based AT intervention.

    Methods: Non-experimental multiple case study with before, after, and follow-up design. Ten children with severe physical impairments without speaking ability (aged 1–15 years) participated in gaze-based AT intervention for 9–10 months, during which period the gaze-based AT was implemented in daily activities.

    Results: Repertoire of computer activities increased for seven children. All children had sustained usage of gaze-based AT in daily activities at follow-up, all had attained goals, and parents’ satisfaction with the AT and with services was high.

    Discussion: The gaze-based AT intervention was effective in guiding parents and teachers to continue supporting the children to perform activities with the AT after the intervention program. 

  • 32.
    Borgestig, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Sandqvist, Jan
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Parsons, Richard
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Eye gaze performance for children with severe physical impairments using gaze-based assistive technology - A longitudinal study2016In: Assistive technology, ISSN 1040-0435, E-ISSN 1949-3614, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 93-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based AT) has the potential to provide children affected by severe physical impairments with opportunities for communication and activities. This study aimed to examine changes in eye gaze performance over time (time on task and accuracy) in children with severe physical impairments, without speaking ability, using gaze-based AT. A longitudinal study with a before and after design was conducted on 10 children (aged 1-15 years) with severe physical impairments, who were beginners to gaze-based AT at baseline. Thereafter, all children used the gaze-based AT in daily activities over the course of the study. Compass computer software was used to measure time on task and accuracy with eye selection of targets on screen, and tests were performed with the children at baseline, after 5 months, 9-11 months, and after 15-20 months. Findings showed that the children improved in time on task after 5 months and became more accurate in selecting targets after 15-20 months. This study indicates that these children with severe physical impairments, who were unable to speak, could improve in eye gaze performance. However, the children needed time to practice on a long-term basis to acquire skills needed to develop fast and accurate eye gaze performance.

  • 33. Breker, S
    et al.
    Henriksson, P
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Bekiaris, E
    Panou, M
    Eekhout, G
    Sirén, A
    Hakamies-Blomqvist, L
    Middleton, H
    Leue, E
    Problems of elderly in relation to the driving task and relevant critical scenarios2003Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34.
    Bruce, C. R.
    et al.
    Occupational Therapy, School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Unsworth, Carolyn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Occupational Therapy, School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Dillon, M. P.
    Prosthetics and Orthotics, School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Tay, R.
    School of Business IT & Logistcs, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Bird, P.
    The Gosforth Clinic, Maroochydore QLD, Australia.
    Carey, L. M.
    Occupational Therapy, School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Hazard perception skills of young drivers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can be improved with computer based driver training: An exploratory randomised controlled trial2017In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 109, p. 70-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Young drivers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk of road traffic injuries than their peers. Increased risk correlates with poor hazard perception skill. Few studies have investigated hazard perception training using computer technology with this group of drivers.

    Objectives

    *Determine the presence and magnitude of the between-group and within- subject change in hazard perception skills in young drivers with ADHD who receive Drive Smart training. *Determine whether training-facilitated change in hazard perception is maintained over time.

    Methods

    This was a feasibility study, randomised control trial conducted in Australia. The design included a delayed treatment for the control group. Twenty-five drivers with a diagnosis of ADHD were randomised to the Immediate Intervention or Delayed Intervention group.The Immediate Intervention group received a training session using a computer application entitled Drive Smart. The Delayed Intervention group watched a documentary video initially (control condition), followed by the Drive Smart computer training session. The participant’s hazard perception skill was measured using the Hazard Perception Test (HPT).

    Findings

    After adjusting for baseline scores, there was a significant betweengroup difference in post-intervention HPT change scores in favour of the Immediate Intervention group. The magnitude of the effect was large. There was no significant within-group delayed intervention effect. A significant maintenance effect was found at 6-week follow-up for the Immediate Intervention group.

    Conclusions

    The hazard perception skills of participants improved following training with large effect size and some maintenance of gain. A multimodal approach to training is indicated to facilitate maintenance. A full-scale trial is feasible.

  • 35.
    Bruce, C.
    et al.
    La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Unsworth, Carolyn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Dillon, M.
    La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Tay, R.
    RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Bird, P.
    The Gosforth Clinic, Maroochydore, Australia.
    Carey, L.
    La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Hazard Perception Skills Of Young Drivers With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Can Be Improved With Computer-Based Training: A Feasibility Trial2017In: Australian and New Zealand journal of psychiatry (Print), ISSN 0004-8674, E-ISSN 1440-1614, Vol. 51, no Suppl. 1, p. 122-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Young drivers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk of road traffic injuries than their peers. Increased risk correlates with poor hazard perception skill. Few studies have investigated hazard perception training using computer applications such as DriveSmart with this group of drivers.

    Objectives: To: determine the magnitude of the between-group and within-subject change in hazard perception skills among young drivers with ADHD-exposed/delayed exposure to DriveSmart training and determine whether training-facilitated change in hazard perception is maintained over time.

    Methods: Australian feasibility study. Twenty-five drivers with a diagnosis of ADHD were randomized to the intervention or control group. Participants in the intervention group received a computer training session using DriveSmart, while the control group watched a documentary video. The design included a delayed treatment for the control group. The participants’ hazard perception skill was measured on the University of Queensland Hazard Perception Test (HPT) post training and at 6-week follow-up.

    Findings: After adjusting for baseline scores, there was a significant between-group difference (p = 0.023, partial η2 = 0.212) and a significant within-subject difference post intervention in the experimental group. There was no significant difference between post intervention and 6-week follow-up scores in the experimental group.

    Conclusions: The hazard perception skills of participants improved following training and were largely sustained. We found a large effect size consistent with one prior study. A full-scale trial is feasible.

  • 36.
    Bylund, P-O
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Wretstrand, A
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Lövgren, A
    Petzäll, J
    Injuries in STS travel2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 37. Bylund, PO
    et al.
    Wretstrand, A
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Petzäll, J
    Lövgren, A
    Injuries in special transportation services for elderly and disabled: a multi methodology approach to estimate incidence and societal costs.2007In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 180-188Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Chee, Derserri Yan-Ting
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia , Australia.
    Lee, Hoe Chung-yeung
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia , Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Barnett, Tania
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia , Australia.
    Falkmer, Olov
    Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University & Pain.
    Siljehav, Jessica
    Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University & Pain.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Viewpoints on driving of individuals with and without autism spectrum disorder2015In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 26-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Understanding the viewpoints of drivers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is crucial in the development of mobility support and driver training that is responsive to their needs. Methods: Fifty young adults with ASD and fifty seven typically developed adults participated in the study to form a contrasting group. Q-methodology was used to understand viewpoints on driving as a main mode of transportation. Data were analysed using a PQ by-person varimax rotation factor analysis. Results: Although some ASD participants perceived themselves as confident and independent drivers, others preferred other modes of transportation such as public transport and walking. Anxiety was also found to be a barrier to driving. The contrast group revealed consistent viewpoints on their driving ability. They preferred driving as their main mode of transportation and believed that they were competent, safe and independent drivers. Conclusion: These results are important in the planning of transport policies and driver training for individuals with ASD. Driver training manuals can be developed to address anxiety issues, hazard perception and navigation problems in the ASD population. Their use of public transport could be further facilitated through more inclusive transport policies.

  • 39.
    Chee, Derserri Yan-Ting
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia , Australia.
    Lee, Hoe Chung-Yeung
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia , Australia.
    Patomella, Ann-Helen
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Driving Behaviour Profile of Drivers with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)2017In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 47, no 9, p. 2658-2670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The symptomatology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can make driving risky, but little is known about the on-road driving behaviour of individuals with ASD. This study assessed and compared the on-road driving performance of drivers with and without ASD, and explored how the symptomatology of ASD hinders or facilitates on-road driving performance. Sixteen drivers with ASD and 21 typically-developed drivers participated in the study. Drivers with ASD underperformed in vehicle manoeuvring, especially at left-turns, right-turns and pedestrian crossings. However, drivers with ASD outperformed the TD group in aspects related to rule-following such as using the indicator at roundabouts and checking for cross-traffic when approaching intersections. Drivers with ASD in the current study presented with a range of capabilities and weaknesses during driving.

  • 40.
    Chee, Derserri Yan-Ting
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia , Australia.
    Lee, Hoe Chung-Yeung
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia , Australia.
    Patomella, Ann-Helen
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Curtin University, Australia, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Investigating the driving performance of drivers with and without autism spectrum disorders under complex driving conditions2017In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the driving performance of drivers with autism spectrum disorders under complex driving conditions. Method: Seventeen drivers with autism spectrum disorders and 18 typically developed drivers participated in a driving simulator trial. Prior to the assessment, participants completed the Driving Behaviour Questionnaire and measurements of cognitive and visual-motor ability. The driving simulation involved driving in an urban area with dense traffic and unpredictable events. Results: In comparison with the typically developed group, drivers with autism spectrum disorders reported significantly more lapses in driving, committed more mistakes on the driving simulator, and were slower to react in challenging situations, such as driving through intersections with abrupt changes in traffic lights. However, they were also less likely to tailgate other vehicles, as measured by time-to-collision between vehicles, on the driving simulator. Conclusions: The performances of licensed drivers with autism spectrum disorders appeared to be safer in respect to car-following distance but were poorer in their response to challenging traffic situations. Driver education for individuals with autism spectrum disorders should focus on quick identification of hazards, prompt execution of responses, and effective allocation of attention to reduce lapses in driving. 

  • 41.
    Chen, Janice D.
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth 6845, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Parsons, Richard
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth 6845, Australia.
    Buzzard, Jennifer
    Ramsey Health, Hollywood Hospital, Perth 6009, Australia.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth 6845, Australia.
    Impact of experience when using the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment to assess postural risk in children using information and communication technologies2014In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 398-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) is an observation-based screening tool that has been used to assess postural risks of children in school settings. Studies using eye-tracking technology suggest that visual search strategies are influenced by experience in the task performed. This study investigated if experience in postural risk assessments contributed to differences in outcome scores on the RULA and the visual search strategies utilized. While wearing an eye-tracker, 16 student occupational therapists and 16 experienced occupational therapists used the RULA to assess 11 video scenarios of a child using different mobile information and communication technologies (ICT) in the home environment. No significant differences in RULA outcome scores, and no conclusive differences in visual search strategies between groups were found. RULA can be used as a screening tool for postural risks following a short training session regardless of the assessor's experience in postural risk assessments. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  • 42.
    Cordier, Reinie
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Brown, Nicole
    Discipline of Occupational Therapy, James Cook University, Townsville City, QLD, Australia.
    Chen, Yu-Wei
    Discipline of Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah
    Discipline of Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjorn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Piloting the use of experience sampling method to investigate the everyday social experiences of children with Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism.2016In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 103-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: This pilot study explored the nature and quality of social experiences of children with Asperger Syndrome/High Functioning Autism (AS/HFA) through experience sampling method (ESM) while participating in everyday activities.

    METHODS: ESM was used to identify the contexts and content of daily life experiences. Six children with AS/HFA (aged 8-12) wore an iPod Touch on seven consecutive days, while being signalled to complete a short survey.

    RESULTS: Participants were in the company of others 88.3% of their waking time, spent 69.0% of their time with family and 3.8% with friends, but only conversed with others 26.8% of the time. Participants had more positive experiences and emotions when they were with friends compared with other company. Participating in leisure activities was associated with enjoyment, interest in the occasion, and having positive emotions.

    CONCLUSIONS: ESM was found to be helpful in identifying the nature and quality of social experiences of children with AS/HFA from their perspective.

  • 43.
    Cordier, Reinie
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Wilson, Nathan J.
    School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Western Sydney, Richmond, NSW, Australia.
    Stancliffe, Roger J.
    Intellectual Disability, University of Sydney, Lidcombe, NSW, Australia .
    MacCallum, Judith
    School of Education, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia .
    Vaz, Sharmila
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Buchanan, Angus
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Formal intergenerational mentoring at Australian Men's Sheds: a targeted survey about mentees, mentors, programmes and quality2016In: Health & Social Care in the Community, ISSN 0966-0410, E-ISSN 1365-2524, Vol. 24, no 6, p. e131-e143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intergenerational mentoring enables a purposeful exchange of skills and knowledge to enhance individual and social outcomes for sub-groups at risk of health and social disparities. Male intergenerational mentoring may be an approach to help address these disparities in young men. Over 1000 Men's Sheds operate in Australia with 39% providing some form of mentoring mainly to youth. Yet, little is known about the variables intrinsic to creating and running quality programmes. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of formal intergenerational mentoring programmes, review their quality against the Australian Youth Mentoring Network (AYMN) quality benchmarks, and identify the factors that predict quality in these programmes. All known Australian Men's Sheds were invited to participate in an online cross-sectional survey. Forty sheds with formal mentor programmes completed the survey for a total of 387 mentees (mean = 9.7 mentees/programme), the majority being male. The majority of mentor programme facilitators were unpaid male volunteers aged 61 years and older, and programmes were unfunded. Promoting social and emotional well-being of the mentees was the primary focus in more than half of the programmes, and working on a shared construction project was the most common activity. Respondents rated the three most important factors that influenced programme effectiveness as being: (i) meaningful activities; (ii) mentors’ approach; and (iii) a safe environment. Univariate analyses revealed that mentoring programmes that had a system in place for screening mentors, trained mentors and evaluated the programme were most likely to rate highly against the AYMN quality benchmarks. 

  • 44.
    Cowan, Georgia
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Perth, Australia.
    Earl, Robyn
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University.
    Girdler, Sonya
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Perth, Australia.
    Morris, Susan L.
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Perth, Australia.
    Fixation patterns of individuals with and without Autism Spectrum disorder: Do they differ in shared zones and in zebra crossings?2018In: Journal of Transport and Health, ISSN 2214-1405, E-ISSN 2214-1405, Vol. 8, p. 112-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shared zones are a contemporary traffic zone that promotes equality between multiple road users and efficiently utilizes available space, while simultaneously maintaining safety and function. As this is a relatively new traffic zone, it is important to understand how pedestrians navigate a shared zone and any potential challenges this may pose to individuals with impairments. The aim of this study was to utilize eye-tracking technology to determine fixations and fixation duration on traffic relevant objects, non-traffic relevant objects, and eye contact, in 40 individuals with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in a shared zone and a zebra crossing. It was assumed that individuals with ASD would make less eye contact in the shared zone compared to the group of typically developing adults. A total of 3287 fixations across the shared zone and zebra crossing were analysed for areas of interest that were traffic relevant, non-traffic relevant, and eye contact, and for fixation duration. Individuals with ASD did not display any difference in terms of eye contact in the shared zone and the zebra crossing when compared to the controls. All pedestrians were more likely to look at traffic relevant objects at the zebra crossing compared to the shared zone. Individuals with ASD had an overall shorter fixation duration compared to the control group, indicating people with ASD either process information quickly, or they do not process it for long enough, although these findings require further investigation. While shared zones have many benefits for traffic movement and environmental quality, it appeared that pedestrians displayed safer road crossing behaviours at a zebra crossing than in a shared zone, indicating that more education and environmental adaptations are required to make shared zones safe for all pedestrians. 

  • 45. Dahlman, J
    et al.
    Nählinder, S
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Perceived motion sickness from military combat vehicle transportation and how it affects shooting precision2007In: Human Performance in Extreme Environments, ISSN 1529-5168, Vol. in printArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 46. Dahlman, J
    et al.
    Sjörs, A
    Ledin, T
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Could sound be used as a strategy for reducing symptoms of perceived motion sickness?2008In: Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, ISSN 1743-0003, E-ISSN 1743-0003, Vol. 5, no 35Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    et al.
    Swedish Defense Research AgencyFollow.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Forsman, Fredrik
    Chalmers University of TechnologyFollow.
    Perceived Motion Sickness and Effects on Performance Following Naval Transportation2012In: Human Performance in Extreme Environments, ISSN 1529-5168, E-ISSN 2327-2937, Vol. 10, no 1, p. -3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study focused on the relationship between previous experiences of, and rated susceptibility to, motion sickness and its correlation to subjective measurements and actual performance. Performance was measured in terms of shooting precision among 23 participants from the Swedish amphibious corps after transportation in a small amphibious boat, while sealed off with no reference to the outside world. Self-rating questionnaires were collected regarding perceived performance and presence of motion sickness. The physiological status perceived by each participant was related to factors that generally indicate early stages of motion sickness, which also were correlated to deficits in performance. It was further shown that participants who believed that their performance could be affected by motion sickness also performed less well.

  • 48. Dahlman, Joakim
    et al.
    Forsman, F
    Sjörs, A
    Lützhöft, M
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Eye tracking during high speed navigation at sea: Field trial in search of navigational gaze behaviour.2008In: 6th annual meeting of the Society for Human Performance in Extreme Environments, September 21-22, 2008, New York, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 49. Dahlman, Joakim
    et al.
    Sjörs, Anna
    Lindström, Johan
    Ledin, Torbjörn
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Performance and autonomic responses during motion sickness2009In: Human Factors, ISSN 0018-7208, E-ISSN 1547-8181, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 56-66Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50. Davies, Jessica
    et al.
    Hoe, Lee
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    An Investigation into the Impact of Parkinson's Disease upon Decision Making Ability and Driving Performance2011In: Diagnostics and Rehabilitation of Parkinson's Disease. / [ed] Juliana Dushanova, INTECH, 2011, p. 309-338Chapter in book (Refereed)
12345 1 - 50 of 206
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