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  • 1. Agrell, Per J.
    et al.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    A Coherent Methodology for Productivity Analysis Employing Integrated Partial Efficiency1996In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 46-47, p. 401-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An activity decomposition methodology with theoretical foundation in the principles of activity control and stated focus of interest in the enterprise value-chain is presented. Characteristics of inputs and outputs are discussed, where a set of non-transformable inputs are defined and motivated. An integrated partial efficiency measure is formulated, compensating for some weaknesses of the Debreu-Farrell technical efficiency concept. Providing a coherent basis for productivity analysis, the IPE approach poses an alternative to e.g. DEA especially in the case of multi-level systems and sparse data. The method is easily communicable in terms of measurement and analysis, and may be extended to complement economic performance assessments and benchmarks.

  • 2. Agrell, Per, J.
    et al.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    An MCDM Framework for Dynamic Systems1996In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 45, no 1-3, p. 279-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multi-criteria formulation for continuous and discrete-time dynamic systems is presented. The fundamental problem in the design of dynamic systems is the trade-off between response speed (e.g., the time to reach final value and the raise time) and response smoothness (e.g., the overshoot, the undershoot, and the transient dampening). Separate optimisation of criteria is impossible, thus the problem is inherently multiobjective. In a general dynamic system, this is accomplished by adjusting a number of technical parameters in accordance with some ad hoc practice. Previous multi-criteria approaches have been modelled as weighted sums of criteria, with shortcomings in terms of sensitivity analysis and preference articulation. The proposed framework enables the decision maker to design a most preferred system, with full knowledge of local trade-off ratios in terms of chosen criteria. Combining analytical techniques with simulation, the formulation makes the optimisation process transparent to the decision maker, working entirely in decision space. The framework is demonstrated on a dynamic production-inventory model.

  • 3. Berger, Anders
    et al.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Affärssystem och Lean produktion: det bästa av två världar2006In: Ny verktygslåda för Lean: för snabbt och flexibelt flöde / [ed] John Bicheno, Göteborg: Revere AB , 2006, p. 118-119Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Bäckstrand, Jenny
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Johansson, Eva
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Andersson, Rikard
    Husqvarna AB.
    Carlsson, Björn
    Parker Hannifin AB.
    Kornebäck, Fredrik
    Siemens Turbomachinery AB.
    Ohlson, Nils-Erik
    Siemens Turbomachinery AB.
    Kärnborg, Beatrice
    Combitech AB.
    Malmstedt, Andréas
    Ericsson AB.
    Hjertén, Alexander
    Ericsson AB.
    Spaak, Björn
    Fagerhult AB.
    A method for customer-driven purchasing2013In: Operations Management at the Heart of the Recovery, International Annual EurOMA Conference, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Bäckstrand, Jenny
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Samordning av grad av samverkan och grad av kundorderstyrning2009In: Bättre produktivitet, ISSN 1402-1145, no 1, p. 12-16Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Bäckstrand, Jenny
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Samordning av grad av samverkan och grad av kundorderstyrning2008In: PLANs Forsknings- och tillämpningskonferens: logistikutveckling - teori möter praktik : artiklar från konferensen på Chalmers tekniska högskola 27-28 augusti 2008, Stockholm: PLAN - Logistikföreningen , 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Olika aspekter på samverkan har rönt stor uppmärksamhet under de senaste årtiondena men har endast i begränsad omfattning integrerats med centrala produktions- och logistikstrategiska beslutskategorier. Ett område som till stor del varit frånvarande i forskningen om kund/leverantörssamverkan är kopplingen till olika grader av kundorderstyrning. Sedan länge har graden av kundorderstyrning ansetts som ytterst central i utformningen av strategier för produktions- och logistiksystem men har trots detta sällan inkluderats i olika modeller för val av grad av samverkan mellan företag. Denna brist på samordning av två så viktiga kunskapsdomäner innebär att avgörande pusselbitar troligen saknas i kunskapen om hur konkurrenskraftig industriell verksamhet bedrivs i samverkan. Dessa två perspektiv har stor påverkan på utformning av både produkter och logistiksystem. Om man dessutom beaktar den snabba förändringstakten på dagens marknader och den dynamik som då skapas så finns det mycket starka motiv för att säkerställa att rätt grad av samverkan med andra parter i försörjningsnätverket etableras för att kunna hantera de osäkerheter som finns om marknadens behov.

  • 7.
    Bäckstrand, Jenny
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Time-phasing and decoupling points as analytical tools for purchasing2013In: 2013 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, IEEE, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Customization and customer-driven manufacturing are both explicitly based on end-customer relations and customer requirements. The impact of these aspects on internal operations is relatively well known and can be investigated using time phasing and decoupling points. These tools are however rarely used for analyzing purchased material. Based on the time phased product structure, items are categorized according to three criteria: driver, uniqueness, and make/buy. Purchased items can thus be identified using the last criteria and then driver and uniqueness are used as a point of departure for categorizing purchased material. The approach hence provides a platform for development of supplier relations based on the customer requirements which is the core theme of the method for customer-driven purchasing.

  • 8.
    Bäckstrand, Jenny
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Carlsson, Björn
    Kundorderstyrning och kundanpassning - ett kund- och leverantörsperspektiv2012In: Plans Forsknings- och tillämpningskonferens 2012: Logistik i praktisk tillämpning / [ed] Peter Berling, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under forskningsprojektet KOPeration visade sig grad av kundanpassning vara en viktig egenskap att beakta vid utformningen av lämplig grad av samverkan i leverantörsrelationen. Projektet omfattar sex svenska tillverkande företag från olika branscher och är inriktat på kundorderstyrning och leverantörsrelationer.

    Projektet var inledningsvis inriktat på att undersöka i vilken utsträckning som kundorder är verksamhetsdrivande och hur det påverkar leverantörsrelationer. Under projektet visade det sig dock att ytterligare en komplicerande faktor i leverantörsrelationer identifierats, nämligen brist på överensstämmelse mellan det tillverkande företagets perspektiv och leverantörens perspektiv på grad av kundanpassning av en viss produkt. Inom ett företag finns en logisk sekvens av kundanpassningsgrad från standardartiklar, via kundunika artiklar till kundorderunika artiklar. Denna logiska sekvens gäller dock bara inom ett företag. En artikel som av leverantören uppfattas som kundunik kan ingå i standardsortimentet hos kunden, eller tvärt om, vilket kräver en mer nyanserad analys.

    Denna brist på överensstämmelse mellan kundens och leverantörens syn på kundanpassningsgrad är viktig att identifiera eftersom spekulationsrisken i försörjningskedjan då kan fördelas på ett bättre sätt. Det innebär en låg risk att tillverka och lagerhålla standardartiklar på spekulation (mot prognos, innan en kundorder har mottagits), medan tillverkning och lagerhållning av kundunika, eller till och med kundorderunika, produkter innebär en hög risk om det utförs på spekulation. Mycket talar därför för att den aktör som upplever den lägsta graden av kundanpassning bör lagerhålla produkter när det finns olika uppfattning av grad av unikhet.

    I detta papper definieras teorigapet gällande brist på överenstämmelse av kundens och leverantörens perspektiv på grad av kundanpassning. Därefter belyses det praktiska problemet, dvs. vikten av att identifiera situationer med ett ”ologiskt” flöde av kundanpassningsgrad. Potentiella fördelar med att vara medveten om dessa ”ologiska” flöden exemplifieras med hjälp av en fallstudie hos Parker Hannifin i Trollhättan.

  • 9.
    Engström, Annika
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Identifying scenarios for ambidextrous learning in a decoupling thinking context2017In: / [ed] Hermann Lödding, Ralph Riedel, Klaus-Dieter Thoben, Gregor von Cieminski, Dimitris Kiritsis, Springer, 2017, p. 320-327Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The human perspective and the flow perspective of businesses represent two areas of competence that study similar systems but with different frame of references. The human perspective involves ambidextrous learning that concerns how knowledge is developed and used for different purposes by individuals or groups of individuals. The development of knowledge for new situations is referred to as ‘exploration’, while ‘exploitation’ refers to execution in known and stable contexts. Furthermore, decoupling thinking is important from a flow perspective and concerns how a value-delivery package is created. This type of thinking decouples the flow perspective into segments with different characteristics that are significant for process management. The examples presented in this paper are distinctive drivers of flow in terms of speculation or commitment, and the level of customisation. By combining these two perspectives, a set of 15 scenarios is identified for further research on ambidextrous learning in a decoupling thinking context.

  • 10. Grubbström, Robert, W.
    et al.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Inventory Trigger Control Policies Developed in Terms of Control Theory1996In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 45, no 1-3, p. 397-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we model standard inventory ordering rules in terms of control systems theory. A differential equation is designed describing the development of a system in which an input signal reaching a predefined level triggers an output. The reorder point of inventory control systems may be interpreted as such a level triggering a replenishment. Systems using this kind of control are frequent in a variety of applications. Apart from inventory, domestic heat and pressure control are but two examples.

  • 11.
    Hedvall, Lisa
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Hilletofth, Per
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Strategies for capacity dimensioning in manufacturing companies2017In: Proceedings of the 24th International Annual EurOMA Conference, International Annual EurOMA Conference, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Hedvall, Lisa
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Sollander, Kristina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Hilletofth, Per
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Dimensionering av kapacitet i 14 företag2017In: Bättre Produktivitet, ISSN 1402-1145, no 6, p. 16-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Hedvall, Lisa
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Sollander, Kristina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Hilletofth, Per
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Kapacitetsdimensionering: 14 företags investeringsstrategier och planeringsstrategier2016In: Proceedings of the Plan Research Conference, Växjö, 19-20 oktober, 2016., Plan , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Metodstödet för kapacitetsdimensionering är i dagsläget svagt, trots att det är en viktig utmaning i de flesta typer av verksamheter. Hur en kapacitetsnivå ska fastställas kommer in i flera sammanhang såsom tillverka-/köpabeslut, maskin-investering, planering och styrning samt bemanning. Denna studie är utformad för att skapa en bättre förståelse för hur industriella verksamheter arbetar med kapacitetsdimensionering i dagsläget, samt vilka faktorer och utmaningar som påverkar och är centrala i beslutsprocessen. Det har visat sig att kapacitetsdimensioneringen har interna såväl som externa påverkansfaktorer och utmaningar. I denna studie identifieras budget, investeringskostnader, konkurrensförmåga, ledningsbeslut samt grad av komplexitet och integration i försörjningskedjan som centrala påverkansfaktorer. Vidare identifieras prognoser, kommunikation, suboptimering samt bristande systemsupport i beslutsfattandet som utmaningar i beslutsprocessen.

  • 14.
    Hedvall, Lisa
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Hilletofth, Per
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Introducing buffer management in a manufacturing planning and control framework2017In: Advances in Production Management Systems. The Path to Intelligent, Collaborative and Sustainable Manufacturing: IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference, APMS 2017, Hamburg, Germany, September 3-7, 2017, Proceedings, Part II / [ed] Lödding, Hermann; Riedel, Ralph; Thoben, K.-D.; Von Cieminski, Gregor; Kiritsis, Dimitris, Springer-Verlag New York, 2017, Vol. 514, p. 366-373Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Buffer management is not of a great concern when there is a perfect match between demand and supply. Demand represents the requirement for resources, and supply represents the collective capability of the resources to fulfill the requirements. A perfect match would then represent that supply can fulfill demand without any buffers involved, such as materials prepared in advance or capacity not being fully loaded. Such a perfect match is usually not possible to achieve since demand is frequently difficult to predict and the agility of the supply is limited. As a consequence, supply cannot perfectly match demand which may result in insufficient delivery performance. Different types of buffers may be employed to improve performance but they should only be used when the contribution of a buffer is greater than the cost of it. Hence, management of buffers is an important part of manufacturing planning and control (MPC) in order to mitigate such imbalances in pursuit of a competitive supply. The purpose here is therefore to define a framework for MPC that reflects the significance of buffers. To actually establish competitive supply is a complex challenge and four management perspectives are identified to support the balancing of supply with demand. Buffer management is here defined based on the intersection of these four management perspectives related to the transformation flow: the resources employed in the flow, the risk involved in the flow, the decision making related to the flow, and finally the planning and control to balance the flow.

  • 15.
    Hertz, Susanne
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Logistics and Supply Chain Management.
    Hultman, JensLund University.Wikner, JoakimJönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management: Special Issue: Selected papers from the 21st NOFOMA Conference 20092010Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Käkelä, Nikolas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Defining solution spaces for customizations2018In: Advances in Production Management Systems. Production Management for Data-Driven, Intelligent, Collaborative, and Sustainable Manufacturing. APMS 2018 / [ed] Ilkyeong Moon, Gyu M. Lee, Jinwoo Park, Dimitris Kiritsis, Gregor von Cieminski, Cham: Springer, 2018, Vol. 535, p. 95-100Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Customization in different flavors have been identified as an important differentiator if low-cost competitiveness is not viable. To provide a customer unique solution is however not the same as providing a solution that is designed and individualized for a particular delivery to a customer. These two cases are illustrations of how customer requirements may be fulfilled differently depending on the match between stated requirements and the solution offered. The range of solutions that can be offered is represented by a solution space consisting of either predefined or postdefined solutions. Predefined refers to solutions that are defined before commitment to a customer and postdefined refers to solutions that are defined after commitment to a customer. Both cases are constrained by a boundary of possible solutions but the postdefined solutions provide opportunities for bounded innovation beyond what the predefined solutions can provide. Combining the properties of the different solution spaces provides not only an operational definition of customization but also supports in identifying strategic opportunities for extending the solutions and types of customizations a business provides. 

  • 17.
    Naim, Mohamed M.
    et al.
    Cardiff Business School, Cardiff University, United Kingdom.
    Spiegler, Virginia L.
    Kent Business School, University of Kent, United Kingdom.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden .
    Towill, Denis R.
    Cardiff Business School, Cardiff University, United Kingdom.
    Identifying the causes of the bullwhip effect by exploiting control block diagram manipulation with analogical reasoning2017In: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860, Vol. 263, no 1, p. 240-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Senior managers when solving problems commonly use analogical reasoning, allowing a current ‘target problem’ situation to be compared to a valid previous experienced ‘source problem’ from which a potential set of ‘candidate solutions’ may be identified. We use a single-echelon of the often-quoted Forrester (1961) production-distribution system as a case ‘target model’ of a complex production and inventory control system that exhibits bullwhip. Initial analogical reasoning based on ‘surface similarity’ would presuppose a classic control engineering ‘source model’ consisting of a phase-lag feedback system for which it is difficult to derive the transfer function. Simulation alone would have to be relied on to mitigate the bullwhip effect. By using z-transform block diagram manipulation, the model for a single-echelon, consisting of 17 difference equations with five feedback loops is shown to have exact analogy to Burns and Sivazlian's (1978) second order system that has no feedback. Therefore, this more appropriate ‘source model’ is based on a deeper understanding of the ‘behavioral similarities’ which indicates that the bullwhip effect is not in the case of the ‘target model’ due to feedback control but due to a first-order derivative, ‘phase advance’, term in the feed forward numerator path. Hence a more appropriate ‘candidate solution’ can be found via the use of a ‘recovery’ filter. An interdisciplinary framework for exploiting control engineering block diagram manipulation, utilizing analogical reasoning, in a practical setting is presented, as is an example in a contemporary supply chain situation. 

  • 18. Naim, Mohammed M.
    et al.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Grubbström, Robert W.
    A Net Present Value Assessment of Make-To-Order and Make-To-Stock Manufacturing Systems2007In: Omega: The International Journal of Management Science, ISSN 0305-0483, E-ISSN 1873-5274, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 524-532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper shows the impact of using the net present value (NPV) on parameter selection in the ordering policy of a production planning and control system. Using a well understood and documented model, the net present value is used as an objective function to determine the discounted future variance costs resulting from the model's dynamics. The NPV of the variance (NPVv) is defined and applied to the model under make-to-order and make-to-stock conditions. We show that the cost structure of the manufacturing system defines the NPVv and hence aids in identifying the most appropriate control strategy to apply.

  • 19.
    Naim, Mohammed
    et al.
    Cardiff University.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Linköping University.
    Towill, Denis
    Cardiff University.
    Marques, Virginia
    Cardiff University.
    Mitigating the bullwhip effect by exploiting archetypes of complex production and inventory control systems2012In: Proceedings of the 17th International Working Seminar on Production Economics, 2012, p. 373-382Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of Forrester’s (1958) original intentions of presenting a production-distribution system model was to highlight that “feedback theory explains how decisions, delays, and predictions can produce either good control or dramatically unstable operation”. Using system simplification techniques on Laplace block diagrams, the model for a single echelon, consisting of 17 difference equations with five feedback loops is shown to actually contain no linear system state feedback in the ordering rule. Here we replicate the simplification study using the z-transform, allowing us to identify the resultant transfer function as directly mimicking Burns and Sivazlian’s (1978) model used to show the impact of the ‘false order’ wherein the order placed by an echelon is a combination of ‘real’ plus ‘safety’ orders to account for delays leading to inventory depletions. Hence Forrester’s original model, rather than showing the impact of feedback on decision making, is in fact a pre-existing case of the ‘false order’ effect. Therefore the so called ‘Forrester effect’, in which orders are amplified from sink to source, is not in this case due to linear feedback control but due to a first-order derivative term in the feedforward numerator path. In hardware control engineering terms this generates the well-known “phase advance”, or predictive, component. This paper indicates the value of the system simplification approach in system design. Without the simplification approach opportunities for drawing analogue with a system archetype with known solutions, such as the use of a ‘recovery’ filter, would have been missed. The approach is consistent with the “Power of Analogy” paradigm.

  • 20. Olhager, Jan
    et al.
    Persson, FredrikSelldin, ErikWikner, JoakimJönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Produktionslogistik 2002: modeller för effektiv produktionslogistik : artiklar från PLAN's forsknings- och tillämpningskonferens 20022002Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 21. Olhager, Jan
    et al.
    Rudberg, Martin
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Long-Term Capacity Management: Linking the Perspectives from Manufacturing Strategy and Sales and Operations Planning2001In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 69, no 2, p. 215-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient long-term capacity management is vital to any manufacturing firm. It has implications on competitive performance in terms of cost, delivery speed, dependability and flexibility. In a manufacturing strategy, capacity is a structural decision category, dealing with dynamic capacity expansion and reduction relative to the long-term changes in demand levels. Sales and operations planning (S&OP) is the long-term planning of production levels relative to sales within the framework of a manufacturing planning and control system. Within the S&OP, resource planning is used for determining the appropriate capacity levels in order to support the production plan. Manufacturing strategy and sales and operations planning provide two perspectives on long-term capacity management, raising and treating different issues. In this paper, we compare and link them in a framework for long-term capacity management.

  • 22. Olhager, Jan
    et al.
    Selldin, Erik
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Decoupling the Value Chain2006In: International Journal of Value Chain Management, ISSN 1741-5357, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 19-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All value chains are not designed the same way. A major determinant is the type of product that is to be supplied through the chain or network, calling for different types of value chains. An interesting model for this selection is the one developed by Fisher, arguing that products can be characterised as being either functional or innovative, and that supply chains are either physically efficient or market-responsive. Certain combinations of products and supply chains are assumed to provide matches whereas other combinations lead to mismatches. This paper combines this approach with the concept of a customer order decoupling point. We distinguish between a product supply decoupling point and a demand mediation decoupling point. A decoupling point divides the value chain into two distinct parts; one upstream with certain characteristics and one downstream with distinctly different characteristics. In this paper we specifically explore how the Fisher model can be used to characterise the role and features of upstream versus downstream value chain operations relative to the product supply decoupling point and the demand mediation decoupling point.

  • 23. Olhager, Jan
    et al.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    A framework for integrated material and capacity based master scheduling1998In: Beyond Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II): advanced models and methods for production planning / [ed] Andreas Drexl, Alf Kimms, Berlin: Springer-Verlag New York, 1998, p. 3-20Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Master scheduling is gaining recognition as the major planning process for manufacturing firms, where the appropriate trade-offs can be made among e.g. customer service, manufacturing efficiency and inventory investment, involving both market and manufacturing insights. Master scheduling has traditionally been treated as a material-based planning tool, e.g. in the MRP II (manufacturing resource planning) approach to master scheduling. Capacity issues are then treated in a secondary way, as a capacity check of material plans. However, in, for example, process type industries the main focus is rather on capacity. Taking into account the positions of bottlenecks, order penetration points, and material profiles, the integration of material and capacity plans becomes necessary in many manufacturing environments. This paper presents a framework for the structuring of material and capacity integration taking the factors above into consideration. A matrix is presented where three material based characteristics meet four capacity based characteristics, and the resulting twelve situations depict possible manufacturing settings. In this context, issues such as material and capacity integration, planning and scheduling approaches and multi-level master scheduling are discussed.

  • 24. Olhager, Jan
    et al.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Perspektiv på modeller och metoder för produktionslogistik2000In: Bättre produktivitet, ISSN 1402-1145, no 5, p. 12-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Det finns många olika modeller och metoder tillgängliga för produktionslogistik och material- och produktionsstyrning (MPS). Antalet verktyg växer hela tiden liksom verktygens komplexitetsgrad. För det specifika producerande foretaget är det inte trivialt att hitta, välja eller utforma den mest lämpliga uppsättningen verktyg. På senare tid har dock forståelsen för kopplingen mellan verktyg och lämpliga produktionsmiljöer och för hur verktygen skall användas ökat. Syftet rned denna artikel är att ge några perspektiv på olika verktyg såsom modeller och metoder liksom trender inom området.

  • 25. Olhager, Jan
    et al.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Production Planning and Control Tools2000In: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 210-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are numerous tools available to be used for production planning and control purposes. The number of tools is ever increasing, and so are the levels of sophistication as well as complexity. For the specific manufacturing firm, the task of selecting the most appropriate set of tools is not trivial. However, in recent years, the understanding of the relationship between tools and manufacturing environments for which they are suitable has increased. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of production planning and control tools available today, as well as new trends, issues and ideas.

  • 26. Rudberg, Martin
    et al.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Mass Customization in Terms of the Customer Order Decoupling Point2004In: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 445-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years the customer order decoupling point (CODP) has gained increased acceptance as an important concept when organizing value-adding activities in production and logistics. The CODP, which is defined as the point in the value-adding material flow that separates decisions made under uncertainty from decisions made under certainty concerning customer demand, is however normally only used for production- and distribution- related activities. Here we adjust the typical CODP typology and show how the engineering resources can be integrated with the production process so as to take the features of mass customization environments into account. This paper also examines existing mass customization frameworks and offers a more thorough and nuanced typology for classifying various levels of mass customization. Finally, the adjusted CODP typology is used as a foundation for developing a reliable order promise process for mass customizers.

  • 27. Rudberg, Martin
    et al.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    The customer order decoupling point: definition and application areas2002In: Produktionslogistik 2002: modeller för effektiv produktionslogistik : artiklar från PLAN's forsknings- och tillämpningskonferens 2002 / [ed] Jan Olhager, Linköping: Institutionen för produktionsekonomi, Linköpings universitet , 2002, p. 99-110Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Operations management, as any type of management, is basically concerned with making decisions. Many of these decisions are related to customer demand and an important concept for understanding the underlying complexity is the customer order decoupling point (CODP). The CODP separates decisions made under certainty from those made under uncertainty about customer demand. Here, a brief background to the concept is presented and the CODP is defined. The paper also shows how the CODP can be used in a number of situations and applications; in the formulation of a manufacturing strategy, in the design of supply chains, and the use in a business processes context. In particular we investigate the application to settings where production and engineering activities are interlaced.

  • 28.
    Sollander, Kristina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Engström, Annika
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    A framework for task-based ambidexterity in manufacturing SMEs2018In: Advances in Production Management Systems. Production Management for Data-Driven, Intelligent, Collaborative, and Sustainable Manufacturing. APMS 2018. / [ed] Moon I., Lee G., Park J., Kiritsis D., von Cieminski G., Cham: Springer, 2018, Vol. 535, p. 518-525Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To be competitive, it is important for companies to create a breeding ground for innovation without jeopardizing productivity. The challenge posed by industrial companies and the innovation research community is how to promote innovation while achieving efficient execution. The ability to balance execution and innovation is referred to as organizational ambidexterity (OA), which includes several dimensions, concepts and approaches where a central task can be identified. The purpose of this paper is to investigate what consequences result from different dimensions of a task in relation to the types of its actions, and their effects on OA. The focus of the task is firstly investigated, followed by the development of nine scenarios via combining the designers’ and the performers’ perspectives of the task. A brief analysis of the scenarios indicates that there is no single optimal scenario; rather, the scenarios represent different states that are appropriate for certain conditions, and dynamic adaptation should be encouraged in relation to the changing conditions. This type of dynamics is particularly expected to prevail in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) because the roles that are responsible for tasks in these organizations are less specialized. Therefore, SMEs must define tasks that include both explorative and exploitative parts, either simultaneously or sequentially, to stimulate employees to work ambidextrously and thereby develop the concept of task-based ambidexterity.

  • 29.
    Spiegler, Virginia
    et al.
    Cardiff University.
    Naim, Mohammed
    Cardiff University.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Linköping University.
    A control engineering approach to the assessment of supply chain resilience2012In: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588X, Vol. 50, no 21, p. 6162-6187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is no consensus on the supply chain management definition of resilience. To aid in evaluating thedynamic behaviour of such systems we need to establish clearly elucidated performance criteria thatencapsulate the attributes of resilience. A literature review establishes the latter as readiness, responsivenessand recovery. We also identify robustness as a necessary condition that would complement resilience. We findthat the Integral of the Time Absolute Error (ITAE) is an appropriate control engineering measure ofresilience when it is applied to inventory levels and shipment rates. We use the ITAE to evaluate an often usedbenchmark model of make-to-stock supply chains consisting of three decision parameters. We use both linearand nonlinear forms of the model in our evaluation. Our findings suggest that optimum solutions for resiliencedo not yield a system that is robust to uncertainties in lead-time. Hence supply chains will experience drasticchanges in their resilience performance when lead-time changes.

  • 30.
    Tiedemann, Fredrik
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Johansson, Eva
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Strategic lead-time implications on return on assets2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Time, or elements of time, are frequently considered a core competitive advantage and affecting the financial situation of a company. However, the connection between lead-time and financial measures is not always obvious. Therefore, in this paper the conceptual relations between the strategic lead-times and the financial measure return on assets (ROA) are empirically investigated. The results from this research will help increase the understanding of lead-time as a critical resource and reduce the literature gap between strategic lead-times and financial measures. Furthermore, the result could be used by practitioners in evaluating supply chain design and prioritize alternatives based on profitability.

  • 31.
    Tiedemann, Fredrik
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Johansson, Eva
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Strategiska ledtiders inverkan på räntabilitet2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tid och ledtid betraktas ofta som en konkurrensfördel samt påverkar ett företags ekonomiska situation. Sambandet mellan ledtid och finansiella nyckeltal är dock inte alltid självklart. I denna studie undersöktes därför empiriskt relationen mellan strategiska ledtider och det finansiella nyckeltalet ROA. Resultaten från denna studie bidrar till att öka förståelsen för ledtid som en kritisk egenskap samt minska det teoretiska gapet gällande sambandet mellan ledtid och finansiella nyckeltal. Resultaten kan vidare användas av företag vid utvärdering och prioritering av olika alternativ i försörjningskedjan.

  • 32.
    Tiedemann, Fredrik
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Some Common and Fundamental Characteristics of Four Supply Chain Strategies – Customization, Leagility, Postponement and Segmentation2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Balancing efficiency and responsiveness has been identified as an overall challenge for decision makers in supply chain management. The literature offers several strategies for managing this balance challenge. From a decision-making perspective this is a significant contribution but in combination the strategies also result in complexity related to the different alternatives offered. This study does, however, show that the strategies share a common foundation in terms of content related to decoupling thinking, which is based on flow discontinuities. Using the strategies’ individual strengths, a process is outlined that takes advantage of these strengths through a four-phase ongoing process.

  • 33. Towill, Denis, R.
    et al.
    Naim, Mohammed, M.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Industrial Dynamics Simulation Models in the Design of Supply Chains1992In: International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, ISSN 0960-0035, E-ISSN 1758-664X, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 3-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reviews the dynamic operation of supply chains and reaches some simple conclusions for reducing demand amplification, which consequently attenuates swings in both production rates and stock levels. The results are based on one particular supply chain, for which the use of systems simplification techniques has generated valuable insight into supply chain design. Although different strategies are compared for reducing demand amplification as witnessed by one particular supply chain model, the conclusions are nevertheless thought to have wide application and, indeed, implication. Comments in depth on the significance of the simulation results for the demand chain as a whole, and for the role of an individual business within the chain. In the first instance, supply chain integration, and in particular free exchange of information, is a prerequisite for progress. In the second case, shows that reduction in lead times throughout the supply chain via JIT is similarly beneficial. Clearly pinpoints the limitation to supply chain improvement which can be obtained as a result of using JIT alone. This can be an expensive and ongoing process of improvement with many spin-off benefits. Nevertheless, shows that the improvement possible by JIT operation of an individual business can be negated by the failure to design and manage the supply chain dynamics as a total system. The message for an individual business is thus quite specific. Not only must lead times be reduced via JIT, but also the business must seek to be part of the right supply chain, if it is to remain competitive and stable.

  • 34.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    A service decoupling point framework for logistics, manufacturing, and service operations2012In: International Journal of Services Sciences, ISSN 1753-1446, Vol. 4, no 3/4, p. 330-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Competing through goods only has turned out to be increasingly difficult unless efficiency and low-cost manufacturing are at the core of the business. Extending the offering by introducing customisation in combination with services has improved the effectiveness capability. Still, much remains to understand how these servitised businesses can be managed in an integrated fashion. Service operations management and manufacturing operations management have evolved along separate paths but are beginning to align, and by focusing on value adding processes some fundamental principles can be identified. Using a value driven and process-based approach the value offering is defined as provided by initial capabilities and adapting capabilities of the provider. From a supply chain perspective this is shown to be identical to the established approach of balancing efficiency and responsiveness (also referred to as leagility) based on the customer order decoupling point. As a consequence focus on efficiency is at the core of goods-based supply and focus on responsiveness is at the core of service-based supply.

  • 35.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Affärssystem och lean production: det bästa av två världar2006In: Intelligent logistik, ISSN 1653-9451, no 5, p. 10-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    De integrerade affärssystemens förmåga att hantera stora mängder data och dela information till både kunder och leverantörer över stora geografiska avstånd, ger dem en given plats om man vill få ut mesta möjliga av lean produktion.

  • 36.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Linköping University, Department of Management & Engineering, Linköping, Sweden.
    An ontology for flow thinking based on decoupling points - unravelling a control logic for lean thinking2018In: Production & Manufacturing Research, ISSN 2169-3277, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 433-469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous flow is the guiding star for lean thinking and considered the ideal state for value streams. Despite this objective, it is seldom possible to obtain a state of continuous flow in a wider context. Decision makers face dynamic environments, and variable internal preconditions require a flow-thinking approach that provides support in response to these challenges. In the present study, the underlying logic of flow thinking is first identified as the key management layer, and thereafter the effectiveness of flow is targeted. The vision of continuous flow is challenged by different exogenous requirements that result in flow discontinuities. Flow thinking is then used to identify 10 decision categories based on these discontinuities, each related to a type of decoupling point and classified as time-based (exogenous) or conversion-based (endogenous). The flow-thinking approach is finally applied in three different contexts: a time-phased product structure, a modularized approach for planning and control, and a mixed-model value stream.

  • 37.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Analysis of Smoothing Techniques: Application to Production-Inventory Systems2006In: Kybernetes, ISSN 0368-492X, E-ISSN 1758-7883, Vol. 35, no 9, p. 1323-1347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – To provide an overview of how a number of frequently used smoothing-based forecasting techniques can be modelled for use in dynamic analysis of production-inventory systems.

    Design/methodology/approach – The smoothing techniques are modelled using transfer functions and state space representation. Basic control theory is used for analysing the dynamic properties.

    Findings – A set of expressions are derived for the smoothing techniques and dynamic properties are identified.

    Practical implications – Dynamic properties are important in many applications. It is shown that the different smoothing techniques can have very different influences on the dynamic behaviour and therefore should be considered as a factor when smoothing parameters are decided on.

    Originality/value – Dynamic behaviour of production-inventory systems can be analysed using control theory based on, e.g. transfer functions or state space models. In this paper a set of models for five common smoothing techniques are analysed and their respective dynamic properties are highlighted.

  • 38.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Continuous-Time Dynamic Modelling of Variable Lead Times2003In: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588X, Vol. 41, no 12, p. 2787-2798Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic modelling of production-inventory systems usually involves lead time models since this is one of the most important aspects of these systems. Many different models are possible and this paper presents an overview and some ideas for how the models may be interpreted. Three different approaches to continuous-time dynamic modelling of variable lead times based on Control Theory are discussed. Two of the models can easily be incorporated into linear models based on the Laplace transform. The models are shown to be three instances of a generic delay model, which by careful selection of two parameters can be adapted to a wide variety of systems. Also the relation between waiting line theory concepts and the generic delay model is analysed, establishing an interpretation of the models as generating the concept of expected dynamic behaviour.

  • 39.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Dynamic Analysis of a Production-Inventory Model2005In: Kybernetes, ISSN 0368-492X, E-ISSN 1758-7883, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 803-823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – A production-inventory system based on a model proposed by Axsäter is examined with the purpose of understanding the dynamic properties of the model.

    Design/methodology/approach – The information flow concept is discussed and a dynamic analysis using a system simplification approach is carried out to achieve an understanding of the dynamic behaviour of the system. Finally, the information flow is examined and analysed from a hierarchical perspective.

    Findings – The model is extended to include an order decision rule and a production unit and it is shown that the extended model has the capability to represent the dynamics of a number of different system management principles. The three different model instances of base stock, kanban and material requirements planning character are analysed.

    Originality/value – Dynamic modelling of production-inventory and supply chain models are usually analysed at an aggregate level not involving any complex relations of materials or capacities. In this paper, this line of research is merged with an approach based on multiple information channels using matrix representation and it is shown how a system simplification approach can be used for this purpose.

  • 40.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Dynamic Analysis of the Forrester Supply Chain1990Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The basic production distribution system presented by Forrester in his book "Industrial Dynamics" is analysed. Although many subsequent authors have quoted the original simulation results, especially when referring to supply chain behaviour, a complete analysis of the model has yet to be published. This dissertation fills this gap. As the starting point the Dynamo program representing the system is transformed to a block diagram representation commonly used in control theory. A general model for one echelon of the system is then devised and analysed. Simulations are used to cross check the analysis and to compare the behaviour of sub-systems based on varying degrees of simplification. This general model is then put into the context of the full system and further analysis and simulation is performed to gain a deeper understanding for the dynamics than is obtained from the Forrester results alone. Five different approaches are then used to improve the system.

    - Tuning the policy parameters.

    - Reduction of delays in the system.

    - Removal of the distributor echelon.

    - Improvement of the decision rules.

    - Improvement via better use of information in the system.

    Finally two or more of these alternative approaches are combined to find a new design that behaves better than the original Forrester model.

  • 41.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Dynamic Modelling and Analysis of Information Flows in Production-Inventory and Supply Chain Systems1994Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    System dynamics is the fundamental concept of this academic dissertation. The focus is on analysis and modelling of properties representative for production-inventory and supply chain systems. The modelling approach is based on Industrial Dynamics but employs a hybrid approach of Control Theory and simulation in the analysis. Simplification based on a structural approach is performed on block diagrams of complex systems as a prerequisite of analysis.

    In general, there are three main activities of interest when modelling manufacturing systems from a system dynamics point of view. Thus forecasting, lead times and inventory replenishment rules are each analysed and the properties of the suggested models discussed. Analogies between delays and density functions are identified introducing the concept of expected dynamic behaviour. Inventory replenishment rules based on inventory position enables a decomposition of production-inventory systems, thus simplifying the inclusion of trigger decision rule models. A production-inventory system and the Forrester supply chain are analysed based on a system simplification approach. It is shown that the amplification of demand fluctuations of the original Forrester model is not due to the much quoted feedback effect. Instead it is shown that no net feedback exists within the echelons due to cancellations of feedback information. Hence, the amplification is due to the design of the feedforward of orders through the supply chain.

    A difficult problem is the performance evaluation of dynamic systems. It is known that the net present value of a system can easily be obtained if a Laplace or z-transform model of the system and its cash flows exists. This theory is expanded also to cover general state space models and an application to a simple production-inventory model is given. In most cases, however, the models do not capture all aspects of economic relevance. Instead, as a complement to the cash flow based analysis, a multiple criteria approach for evaluating complex systems is suggested.

  • 42.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Financial measures and their relations to decoupling points and decoupling zones2015In: Advances in production management systems: Innovative production management towards sustainable growth / [ed] S. Umeda, M. Nakano, H. Mizuyama, N. Hibino, D. Kiritsis, G. von Cieminski, 2015, Vol. 459, p. 186-193Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Financial management is concerned with the financial evaluation of activities performed in the supply chain. Each activity has implications on the financial situation but the actual cause-effect relation involved in this context is not always obvious. From a return on investment (ROI) perspective the financial measures revenue, cost, and assets, i.e. investment, are identified. Strategic lead-times have been highlighted in the literature as key components for flow design. Strategic lead-times are thereafter further analyzed and the relations between financial measures and strategic lead-times are outlined. Based on these relations, it is possible to establish a relation between financial measures, and decoupling points and decoupling zones. Subsequently this is shown to also provide a reference to supply chain management strategies as they are defined in the literature.

  • 43.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production. Linköpings universitet.
    Grad av kundorderstyrning2012In: Bonnier ledarskapshandböcker: Inköp & Logistik / [ed] Gösta Hultén, Stockholm: Bonnier Ledarskap , 2012, p. 5.1 / 1-5.1 / 25Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Val av grad av kundorderstyrning är ett av de mest kritiska besluten för att skapa konkurrensfördelar i en industriell verksamhet. Som beslutsstöd för den utmaningen presente­ras här en flödesbaserad analysmodell baserad på fyra beslutskategorier för kundorderstyrning: flödesdrivning, flödesdifferentiering, flödesavgränsning samt flödestran­sparens. Modellen definierar de komponenter som bör ingå i ett flödesbaserat ramverk för kundorderstyrning i termer av innehåll. Den ger även en kortfattad beskrivning av hur ramverket kan användas i termer av arbetsprocess. Ramver­kets flexibilitet illustreras med kritiska beslut om grad av leagility, kundanpassning, utkontraktering, senareläggning, dynamikstyrning, returflöden och tjänstefiering.

  • 44.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Hantering av osäkerhet i försörjningskedjor med utgångspunkt i frikopplingspunkter2005In: Produktionslogistik 2005: kvalitet och effektivitet i hela försörjningskedjan : artiklar från PLANs forsknings- och tillämpningskonferens i Borås den 18-19 augusti 2005 / [ed] Daniel Ekwall, Borås: Högskolan i Borås , 2005, p. 221-236Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utformning av strategier för försörjningskedjor har rönt allt större uppmärksamhet de senaste åren. Släktskapet med produktionsstrategier är till vissa delar påtagligt och en viktig faktor i båda fallen är att skapa ett robust system som kan hantera olika typer av osäkerhet. Osäkerheten utgörs av många olika faktorer med externt såväl som internt ursprung. Genom att renodla bilden av materialflödet i systemet kan man karakterisera osäkerheten som antingen osäkerhet i förbrukning eller osäkerhet i försörjning. För att hantera dessa osäkerheter har man traditionellt etablerat olika typer av buffertar för attfrikoppla olika delsystem från varandra och därmed minskat risken för att hela systemet exponeras för risken. Ur ett strategiperspektiv försöker man idag också hantera osäkerheten genom att vara responsiv och använda flexibel kapacitet för att möta osäkerhet. Detta innebär bl.a. att man istället skapar buffertar i termer av extrakapacitet som möjliggör att man kan möta variationer i t.ex. efterfrågan utan att leveransledtiderna varierar. Ytterligare verktyg utgörs av flödesaggregering och informationsdelning vilket totalt sett ger fyra strategiska verktyg för utformning av logistiksystem. Användningen av dessa verktyg underlättas av ett antal riktlinjer för hur de fyra verktygen kan användas. Den centrala riktlinjen är att konfigurera konkurrenskraftiga logistik¬system med utgångspunkt i att möta osäkerhet i både förbrukning och försörjning görs genom att skapa en konkurrenskraftig balans mellan effektivitet och responsivitet.

  • 45.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Kundorderstyrning och frikopplingszoner2012In: Plans forsknings- och tillämpningskonferens 2012: Logistik i praktisk tillämpning / [ed] Peter Berling, 2012, p. 129-144Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med kundorderstyrning avses att kundens önskemål på något sätt påverkar, d.v.s. styr, hur denförsörjande enheten agerar. Den här kopplingen till kunder innebär att företag som befinner sig närakunderna kan utveckla konkurrensfördelar som företag på längre avstånd från kunderna har svårt attmöta. Olika grad av kundorderstyrning innebär på så sätt en viktig möjlighet för t.ex. svenska företagatt stärka sin position på hemmamarknaden i förhållande till konkurrenter med produktion i andraländer. Det teoretiska stödet för att beskriva försörjningssystem ur ett kundorderstyrningsperspektiv ärdock relativt begränsat. En viktig komponent är kundorderpunkten men det är ett lite trubbigt verktygsom framförallt är användbart i renodlade fall med en tydlig uppdelning i prognosdrivna ochkundorderdrivna aktiviteter. Här ges en mer omfattande teoretisk plattform för kundorderstyrning sombaseras på en generisk bas av frikopplingspunkter och frikopplingszoner vilka sedan appliceras itermer av processdrivare (kundorderpunkt och kundorderzon) och slutligen tillämpas och tolkas medexempel från MRPII respektive lean produktion.

  • 46.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Kundorderstyrning och frikopplingszoner2012In: Bättre produktivitet, ISSN 1402-1145, no 7, p. 10-18Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Med kundorderstyrning avses att kundens önskemål på någotsätt påverkar, d v s styr, hur den försörjande enheten agerar.Den här kopplingen till kunder innebär att företag som befinnersig nära kunderna kan utveckla konkurrensfördelar somföretag på längre avstånd från kunderna har svårt att möta.Olika grad av kundorderstyrning innebär på så sätt en viktigmöjlighet för t ex svenska företag att stärka sin position påhemmamarknaden i förhållande till konkurrenter med produktioni andra länder. Det teoretiska stödet för att beskrivaförsörjningssystem ur ett kundorderstyrningsperspektiv ärdock relativt begränsat. En viktig komponent är kundorderpunktenmen det är ett lite trubbigt verktyg som framförallt äranvändbart i renodlade fall med en tydlig uppdelning i prognosdrivnaoch kundorderdrivna aktiviteter. Här ges en meromfattande teoretisk plattform för kundorderstyrning sombaseras på en generisk bas av frikopplingspunkter och frikopplingszonervilka sedan appliceras i termer av processdrivare(kundorderpunkt och kundorderzon) och slutligen tillämpasoch tolkas med exempel från MRPII respektive lean produktion

  • 47.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Ledtidsbaserat ramverk för kundorderstyrning2011In: PLANs Forsknings- och tillämpningskonferens: logistik i praktisk tillämpning / [ed] Fredrik Persson och Martin Rudberg, Stockholm: Plan , 2011, p. 21-38Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Grad av kundorderstyrning är ett av de mest kritiska besluten för att skapa konkurrensfördelar i en industriell verksamhet. Som beslutsstöd för den utmaningen presenteras här en ledtidsbaserad analysmodell. Modellen definierar beslutsdomäner och omfattar kritiska beslut om grad av senare-läggning, tjänstefiering, kundanpassning, utkontraktering, och transparens.

  • 48.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Bäckstrand, Jenny
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Aligning operations strategy and purchasing strategy2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possible advantages gained by outsourcing non-core competences and utilizing theglobalization of the market will be diminished if inter-firm relationships are notdesigned and managed properly. Hence, extended support for purchasing decisionsbased on market requirements in terms of order winners and delivery lead times isneeded. We provide a framework that combines the strategic implications from a wellknownpurchasing framework (Kraljic, 1983) with a decoupling based framework thatemphasizes the balance between efficiency and responsiveness, and the level ofcontrollability in the supply chain.

  • 49.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Bäckstrand, Jenny
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Decoupling points and product uniqueness impact on supplier relations2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Bäckstrand, Jenny
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Grad av kundorderstyrning2009In: PLANs forsknings- och tillämpningskonferens 2009: effektiva och lönsamma försörjningskedjor : artiklar från konferensen på Växjö universitet 19-20 augusti 2009, Stockholm: PLAN , 2009, p. 161-172Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Grad av kundorderstyrning är ett begrepp som används i många sammanhang men kanske inte alltid vilar på en så tydlig definition om vad som avses. Den vanligaste utgångspunkten är nog att utgå ifrån när en produkt blir knuten till en kundorder. Det här innebär att delar av materialflödet uppströms är prognosdrivna och de senare delarna, vars ledtid ligger inom leveransledtiden, är kundorderdrivna. Dessa två flöden sitter ihop i en lagerpunkt som fungerar som en buffert mellan flödena och den benämns ofta kundorderpunkt. Om man dessutom beaktar att man kan ha en stigande grad av säkerhet om kundordern längs flödet så kan flödet delas in i tre segment: spekulation, förväntan och åtagande, där den senare ligger efter kundorderpunkten. En annan aspekt är hur varianter skapas längs flödet. Detta är nära förknippat med utformningen av produktstrukturen och kan associeras med var i strukturen som dessa varianter skapas, d.v.s. variantspridningspunkten. Produktstrukturer kan inom ramen för detta ha olika uppbyggnad som t.ex. en specialprodukt som görs helt kundunik, eller en standardprodukt som ser likadan ut för alla kunder. Däremellan återfinns modulariserade strukturer som har inslag av standardmoduler,baserat på vilka man kan sätta samman kundunika lösningar. Sammanfattningsvis finns det tre olika grader av säkerhet om kundorder och några olika modeller för att hantera variantspridning. Detta innebär ett antal möjliga kombinationer, men enbart en delmängd av dessa är att betrakta som konkurrenskraftiga strategier. Syftet med den här artikeln är att belysa hur grad av kundorderstyrning kan definieras som ett koncept baserat på positionering av kundorderpunkt respektive positionering av variantspridningspunkt.

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