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  • 1.
    Ghasemi, Rohollah
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    The influence of microstructure on mechanical and tribological properties of lamellar and compacted irons in engine applications2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lamellar graphite iron (LGI) is commonly used in diesel engine applications such as piston rings–cylinder liner where an excellent combination of physical and tribological properties is essential to avoid scuffing and bore polishing issues. The excellent tribological behaviour of LGI alloys is related to the graphite lamellas, which act as solid lubricant agents by feeding onto the tribosurfaces under sliding conditions. However, increasingly tighter emissions and fuel economy legislations and the higher demands on enhanced power and durability have encouraged both engine designers and manufacturers to introduce pearlitic compacted graphite irons (CGI) as an alternative material replacing LGI, although the poor machinability of pearlitic CGI alloys compared to the LGI remains a challenge.

    The focus of this study is placed on investigating how the microstructure of LGI and CGI alloys affects their mechanical and tribological properties. This was initially undertaken by investigating representative, worn lamellar cast iron piston rings taken from a two-stroke large-bore heavy-duty diesel engine. As known that it is tribologically essential to keep the graphite open under sliding conditions, in particular under starved lubrication regimes or unlubricated conditions to avoid scuffing issues; however, this study revealed the closure of a majority of graphite lamellas; profoundly for those lamellas that were parallel to sliding direction; due to the severe matrix deformation caused by abrasion. Both microindentation and microscratch testing, which were used to crudely simulate the abrasion under starved lubricated condition in combustion chamber, suggested a novel mechanism of activating the graphite lamellas to serve as lubricating agents in which the matrix deformation adjacent to the graphite initially resulted in fracturing and then extrusion of the graphite lamellas.

    Additionally, in order to investigate the relation between matrix constituents, mechanical properties and machinability of cast iron materials, solution-strengthened CGI alloys were produced with different levels of silicon and section thicknesses. The results showed significant improvements in mechanical properties and machinability while deteriorating the ductility. Moreover, multiple regression analysis, based on chemical composition and microstructural characteristics was used to model the local mechanical properties of high Si ferritic CGI alloys, followed by implementing the derived models into a casting process simulation which enables the local mechanical properties of castings with complex geometries. Very good agreement was observed between the measured and predicted microstructure and mechanical properties.

  • 2.
    Ghasemi, Rohollah
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Tribological and Mechanical Behaviour of Lamellar and Compacted Graphite Irons in Engine Applications2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been much discussion about the beneficial uses of lamellar graphite iron in piston rings–cylinder liner systems, where a good combinations of both thermal and tribological properties are essential. The excellent tribological performance of lamellar iron under such sliding conditions is principally associated with lubrication behaviour of the graphite particles which are distributed as lamellas throughout the matrix. During sliding, graphite particles are extruded and smeared onto the counterfaces, act as solid lubricating agents and form a thin graphite film between the sliding surfaces. Although this process especially, during the running-in period significantly changes the sliding wear response of the components, the exact mechanism behind of this phenomenon has rarely been discussed in previous studies.

    It is tribologically beneficial to keep the graphite open, particularly in applications where the scuffing issues do matter. In this thesis, the main causes involved in closing the graphite lamellas are discussed, with a focus on matrix plastic deformation that occurs during sliding. In first step, the relationship between graphite lamellae orientation and plastic deformation was investigated. To do so, two piston rings, belonging to the same two-stroke marine engine operated for different periods of time, were selected and compared to the unworn sample. The worn piston rings displayed a substantial decrease in both frequency and area fraction of the graphite lamellas. Most of the lamellas were closed as a result of plastic deformation of matrix. This happening was caused mainly by the interaction between abrasive particles and metallic matrix. Additionally, it was found that graphite lamellas parallel or near-parallel to the sliding direction exhibited maximum closing tendency under sliding condition.

    In next step, to have a better understanding of the graphite film formation mechanism and matrix deformation role in closing the graphite lamellas, microindentation and microscratch testing were performed on typical lamellar iron. The qualitative results showed a similar mechanism involving in graphite contribution to lubricate the sliding surfaces. Moreover, microindentations made nearby the graphite lamellas demonstrated that the deformation of the matrix causes the formation of cracks in the centre of the graphite lamellas, compressing and then extruding the graphite from its natural position, irrespective of the lamellas′ size. Furthermore, it was found that subsurface graphite orientation had a large influence on the extrusion behaviour, in that, for graphite lamellas oriented towards the indenter, the effect was observed more pronounced.

    Furthermore, an improved fully ferritic solution strengthened compacted graphite iron was produced for future wear studies. The effects of different Si levels and section thicknesses on tensile properties and hardness were investigated as well. The influence of Si content and section thickness on mechanical properties was revealed by improving the materials strength and slightly enhancing the hardness through increasing Si content. Besides, Si addition up to 4.5 wt% significantly affected the strength and elongation to failure of cast samples.

  • 3.
    Ghasemi, Rohollah
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Elmquist, Lennart
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    A study on graphite extrusion phenomenon under the sliding wear response of cast iron using microindentation and microscratch techniques2014In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 320, no 1-2, p. 120-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the graphite flakes extrusion mechanism during microindenting and microscratching of cast iron. Observations on the graphite response under abrasive conditions revealed that the matrix deformation which is occurred during a sliding wear condition could have a significant influence on its lubricating performance. Simple microindentation and microscratch tests were conducted to explore the lamellar graphite contribution to tribofilm formation under abrasive wear conditions. The results obtained showed that induced plastic deformation which developed adjacent to the graphite compressed the lamellas and in turn resulting in extrusion of the graphite from its natural position. Further investigations on both indentation and scratch tests indicated that, surprisingly, the graphite began to be fractured and extruded from the centre of graphite lamellas, irrespective of the lamella size. Additionally, a mechanism was proposed to explain the self-lubricating and the extrusion behaviour of the lamellar graphite as a result of indentation.

  • 4.
    Ghasemi, Rohollah
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Elmquist, Lennart
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting. Scania CV AB, Materials Technology, SE-151 87 Södertälje, Sweden.
    Cast iron and the self-lubricating behaviour of graphite under abrasive wear conditions2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cast iron is assessed as a self-lubricating material under sliding conditions. This is due to the graphite particles distributed in the matrix, which come out from their pocket, and form a tribofilm between the mating surfaces, and by which improve the tribological characteristics. In this study, the directionality and the interaction between the graphite and matrix material was investigated by microindentation and microscratch techniques. The results showed that the graphite is fractured and pushed out from the middle of graphite lamellas as a result of indentation. It was also observed that the graphite orientation below the surface intensely influenced the pushing out behaviour. For the graphite oriented toward the indenter position, the effect was more pronounced. Moreover, it was found that a scratch test can be used to investigate and explain the graphite pushing out tendency. The result was used to explain the directionality and closing tendency of the graphite lamellas during sliding.

  • 5.
    Ghasemi, Rohollah
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Elmquist, Lennart
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    The relationship between flake graphite orientation, smearing effect, and closing tendency under abrasive wear conditions2014In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 317, no 1–2, p. 153-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Plastic deformation of the matrix during the wear process results in closing the graphite flakes. In this study, the relationship between the deformation of the matrix and the closing tendency of flake graphite was investigated, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Two representative piston rings, which belonged to the same two-stroke marine engine but were operated for different periods of time, were studied. Initial microstructural observations indicated a uniform distribution of graphite flakes on unworn surfaces, whereas worn surfaces demonstrated a tendency towards a preferred orientation. Approximately 40% of the open flakes of the unworn surfaces were closed during sliding, which may result in the deterioration of the self-lubricating capability of cast iron. Moreover, flakes within the orientation range of 0 to 30° relative to the sliding direction showed a maximum closing tendency when subjected to sliding. The closing tendency gradually decreased as the angle increased, approaching a minimum between 30 and 70°. A slight increase in the closing tendency was observed for flakes with orientations between 70 and 90°. A similar trend was observed on both rings. Furthermore, SEM and EDS analysis indicated substantial deformation of the matrix in the area around the flakes. An insignificant corrosion attack was observed on both worn piston ring surfaces.

  • 6.
    Ghasemi, Rohollah
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Elmquist, Lennart
    SinterCast AB, Sweden.
    Ghassemali, Ehsan
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Jarfors, Anders E. W.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Effect of interaction between lamellar graphite and cat-fines on tribological behaviour of cast iron under abrasion2015In: Proceeding of ITC, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Ghasemi, Rohollah
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Elmquist, Lennart
    Swerea SWECAST, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Ghassemali, Ehsan
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Salomonsson, Kent
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Jarfors, Anders E.W.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Abrasion resistance of lamellar graphite iron: Interaction between microstructure and abrasive particles2018In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 120, p. 465-475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on abrasion resistance of Lamellar Graphite Iron (LGI) using microscratch test under constant and progressive load conditions. The interactions between a semi-spherical abrasive particle, cast iron matrix and graphite lamellas were physically simulated using a sphero-conical indenter. The produced scratches were analysed using LOM and SEM to scrutinise the effect of normal load on resulting scratch depth, width, frictional force, friction coefficient and deformation mechanism of matrix during scratching. Results showed a significant matrix deformation, and change both in frictional force and friction coefficient by increase of scratch load. Furthermore, it was shown how abrasive particles might produce deep scratches with severe matrix deformation which could result in graphite lamella's coverage and thereby deteriorate LGI's abrasion resistance.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-01-04 00:00
  • 8.
    Ghasemi, Rohollah
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Elmquist, Lennart
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Svensson, Henrik
    Swerea SWECAST AB, Materials and Process Development P.O. Box 2033, SE-550 02 Jönköping, Sweden.
    König, Mathias
    Scania CV AB, Materials Technology, SE-151 87 Södertälje, Sweden.
    E. W. Jarfors, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Mechanical properties of solid solution strengthened CGI2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of high-performing components is crucial in applications such as heavy vehicleautomotive powertrains. In these applications, strength, weight and thermal conductivity isessential properties. Key materials that may fulfil these requirements include cast irons of differentgrades where in terms of manufacturability and in particular, machinability pearlitic grades aredifficult due to hardness variation, where a fully ferritic matrix would provide an advantage. Toachieve maximum strength a fully ferritic and solid solution strengthened compacted graphite iron(CGI) would provide an interesting alternative to the automotive industry. In the current study, theeffect of Si level on mechanical properties in a fully ferritic material was investigated. The influenceof section thickness on tensile properties and hardness was investigated. The resulting materialwas fully ferritic with limited pearlite content. Section thickness influence on nodularity and hencethe mechanical properties were also investigated.

  • 9.
    Ghasemi, Rohollah
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Elmquist, Lennart
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Svensson, Henrik
    Swerea SWECAST AB, Materials and Process Development, Jönköping, Sweden.
    König, Mathias
    Scania CV AB, Materials Technology, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Jarfors, Anders E. W.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Mechanical properties of solid solution-strengthened CGI2016In: International Journal of Cast Metals Research, ISSN 1364-0461, E-ISSN 1743-1336, Vol. 29, no 1-2, p. 98-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the increased usage of pearlitic compacted graphite iron (CGI) in heavy vehicle engines, poor machinability of this material remains as one of the main technical challenges as compared to conventional lamellar iron. To minimise the machining cost, it is believed that solution-strengthened CGI material with a ferritic matrix could bring an advantage. The present study focuses on the effect of solution strengthening of silicon and section thickness on tensile, microstructure and hardness properties of high-Si CGI materials. To do so, plates with thicknesses from 7 to 75 mm were cast with three different target silicon levels 3.7, 4.0 and 4.5 wt%. For all Si levels, the microstructure was ferritic with a very limited pearlite content. The highest nodularity was observed in 7 and 15 mm plate sections, respectively, however, it decreased as the plate thickness increased. Moreover, increasing Si content to 4.5 wt% resulted in substantial improvement up to 65 and 50% in proof stress and tensile strength, respectively, as compared to pearlitic CGI. However, adding up Si content to such a high level remarkably deteriorated elongation to failure. For each Si level, results showed that the Young’s modulus and tensile strength are fairly independent of the plate thickness (30–75 mm), however, a significant increase was observed for thin section plates, particularly 7 mm plate due to the higher nodularity in these sections.

  • 10.
    Ghasemi, Rohollah
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Jarfors, Anders E.W.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Scratch behaviour of silicon solid solution strengthened ferritic compacted graphite iron (CGI)2018In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, p. 318-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study focuses on scratch behaviour of a conventional pearlitic and a number of solid solution strengthened ferritic Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI) alloys. This was done by employing a single-pass microscratch test using a sphero-conical diamond indenter under different constant normal load conditions. Matrix solution hardening was made by alloying with different contents of Si; (3.66, 4.09 and 4.59 wt%. Si) which are named as low-Si, medium-Si and high-Si ferritic CGI alloys, respectively. A good correlation between the tensile and scratch test results was observed explaining the influence of CGI’s matrix characteristics on scratch behaviour both for pearlitic and fully ferritic solution strengthened ones. Both the scratch depth and scratch width showed strong tendency to increase with increasing the normal load, however the pearlitic one showed more profound deformation compared to the solution strengthened CGI alloys. Among the investigated alloys, the maximum and minimum scratch resistance were observed for high-Si ferritic CGI and pearlitic alloys, respectively. It was confirmed by the scratched surfaces analysed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) as well. In addition, the indenter’s depth of penetration value (scratch depth) was found as a suitable measure to ascertain the scratch resistance of CGI alloys. 

  • 11.
    Ghasemi, Rohollah
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Johansson, Jakob
    Division of Production and Materials Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Ståhl, Jan-Eric
    Division of Production and Materials Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Jarfors, Anders E.W.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Load effect on scratch micro-mechanisms of solution strengthened Compacted Graphite Irons2019In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 133, p. 182-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the scratch load effect, from 100 to 2000 mN, on micro-mechanisms involved during scratching. A pearlitic and three ferritic Compacted Graphite Irons (CGI) solution strengthened through addition of 3.66, 4.09, and 4.59 Si wt% were investigated. Good correlation was observed between hardness measurements, tensile testing, and scratch results explaining the influence of matrix characteristics on scratch behaviour for investigated alloys. A significant matrix deformation, change in frictional force and scratch coefficient of friction was observed by increase in scratch load. In all cases, microscratch depth and width increased significantly with load increasing, however pearlitic CGI showed most profound deformation, while the maximum and minimum scratch resistances were observed for high-Si ferritic and pearlitic CGI alloys, respectively.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-01-08 00:00
  • 12.
    Ghasemi, Rohollah
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Olofsson, Jakob
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Jarfors, Anders E. W.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Svensson, Ingvar L.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Modelling and simulation of local mechanical properties of high silicon solution-strengthened ferritic CGI materialsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Ghasemi, Rohollah
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Olofsson, Jakob
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Jarfors, Anders E. W.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Svensson, Ingvar L.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Modelling and simulation of local mechanical properties of high silicon solution-strengthened ferritic compacted graphite iron2017In: International Journal of Cast Metals Research, ISSN 1364-0461, E-ISSN 1743-1336, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 125-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the modelling and simulation of local mechanical properties of compacted graphite iron cast at different section thicknesses and three different levels of silicon, ranging from about 3.6% up to 4.6%. The relationship between tensile properties and microstructure is investigated using microstructural analysis and statistical evaluation. Models are generated using response surface methodology, which reveal that silicon level and nodularity mainly affect tensile strength and 0.2% offset yield strength, while Young′s modulus is primarily affected by nodularity. Increase in Si content improves both the yield and tensile strength, while reduces elongation to failure. Furthermore, mechanical properties enhance substantially in thinner section due to the high nodularity. The obtained models have been implemented into a casting process simulation, which enables prediction of local mechanical properties of castings with complex geometries. Very good agreement is observed between the measured and predicted microstructures and mechanical properties, particularly for thinner sections.

  • 14.
    Malakizadi, Amir
    et al.
    Chalmers Institute of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ghasemi, Rohollah
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Behring, Carsten
    Chalmers Institute of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Jakob
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Jarfors, Anders E. W.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Nyborg, Lars
    Chalmers Institute of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Machinability of solid solution-strengthened compacted graphite iron: Influence of the microstructure, mechanical properties and cutting conditions on tool wear responseManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Malakizadi, Amir
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ghasemi, Rohollah
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Behring, Carsten
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Jakob
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Jarfors, Anders E.W.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Nyborg, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Krajnik, Peter
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effects of workpiece microstructure, mechanical properties and machining conditions on tool wear when milling compacted graphite iron2018In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 410-411, p. 190-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the tool performance when machining compacted graphite iron (CGI) alloys. A comparison was made between solid solution strengthened CGI including various amounts of silicon (Si-CGI) and the pearlitic-ferritic CGI as a reference material. The emphasis was on examining the influence of microstructure and mechanical properties of the material on tool wear in face milling process. Machining experiments were performed on the engine-like test pieces comprised of solid solution strengthened CGI with three different silicon contents and the reference CGI alloy. The results showed up-to 50% lower flank wear when machining Si-CGI alloys, although with comparable hardness and tensile properties. In-depth analysis of the worn tool surfaces showed that the abrasion and adhesion were the dominant wear mechanisms for all investigated alloys. However, the better tool performance when machining Si-CGI alloys was mainly due to a lower amount of abrasive carbo-nitride particles and the suppression of pearlite formation in the investigated solid solution strengthened alloys.

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