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  • 1.
    Berglund, Martina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Karltun, Anette
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Towards Understanding and Managing the Learning Process in Mail Sorting2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 115-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This paper was based on case study research at the Swedish Mail Service Division and it addresses learning time to sort mail at new districts and means to support the learning process on an individual as well as organizational level.

    Participants: The study population consisted of 46 postmen and one team leader in the Swedish Mail Service Division.

    Methods: Data were collected through measurements of time for mail sorting, interviews and a focus group.

    Results: The study showed that learning to sort mail was a much more complex process and took more time than expected by management. Means to support the learning process included clarification of the relationship between sorting and the topology of the district, a good work environment, increased support from colleagues and management, and a thorough introduction for new postmen.

    Conclusions: The identified means to support the learning process require an integration of human, technological and organizational aspects. The study further showed that increased operations flexibility cannot be reinforced without a systems perspective and thorough knowledge about real work activities and that ergonomists can aid businesses to acquire this knowledge.

  • 2.
    Burnett, Susan
    et al.
    Imperial College London, UK.
    Mendel, Peter
    Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, CA, USA.
    Nunes, Francisco
    Lisbon University Institute, Portugal.
    Wiig, Siri
    University of Stavanger, Norway.
    van den Bovenkamp, Hester
    Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Karltun, Anette
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Robert, Glenn
    King’s College London, UK.
    Anderson, Janet
    King’s College London, UK.
    Vincent, Charles
    Oxford University, UK.
    Fulop, Naomi
    University College London, UK.
    Using institutional theory to analyse hospital responses to external demands for finance and quality in five European countries2016In: Journal of Health Services Research and Policy, ISSN 1355-8196, E-ISSN 1758-1060, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 109-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Given the impact of the global economic crisis, delivering better health care with limited finance grows more challenging. Through the lens of institutional theory, this paper explores pressures experienced by hospital leaders to improve quality and constrain spending, focusing on how they respond to these often competing demands.

    Methods: An in-depth, multilevel analysis of health care quality policies and practices in five European countries including longitudinal case studies in a purposive sample of ten hospitals.

    Results: How hospitals responded to the financial and quality challenges was dependent upon three factors: the coherence of demands from external institutions; managerial competence to align external demands with an overall quality improvement strategy, and managerial stability. Hospital leaders used diverse strategies and practices to manage conflicting external pressures.

    Conclusions: The development of hospital leaders’ skills in translating external requirements into implementation plans with internal support is a complex, but crucial, task, if quality is to remain a priority during times of austerity. Increasing quality improvement skills within a hospital, developing a culture where quality improvement becomes embedded and linking cost reduction measures to improving care are all required.

  • 3.
    Erlandsson, Anette
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    A Top-Down Rationalisation in Mail Delivery – Short-term Outcomes2002Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Post Office is undergoing large-scale restructuring, including outsourcing of the mail service division to an independent market driven organisation. As a consequence of exposure to competition, the local delivery offices were rationalised by introducing a new working concept called “Best Method”. It was a top-down change process that included downsizing the personnel, more standardisation of working and formalisation of delivery time. The changes have influencedthe postmen’s working conditions in several ways and they perceive a greater workload. This paper aims to identify the factors that contribute to the increased workload and work intensification due to the rationalisation inherent in the new working concept. The findings emerge from an evaluative investigation conducted during autumn 2001 at fifteen local delivery offices in different parts ofSweden. It was carried out by an independent research team in industrial ergonomics through participant observation, 60 in-depth interviews anda questionnaire answered by 524 postal personnel, mainly postmen. Several factors contributing to the increased workload and work intensification have been identified, such as a faster work pace and greater physical workload, less flexibility forthe individual, insufficient participation, shortcomings and contradictions in the new working concept, deficient strategic planning and systems thinking, and a somewhat indistinct organisational philosophy. Further research activities are now taking place and an intervention study is in the planning stage.

  • 4.
    Erlandsson, Anette
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Perceived Participation - a Key Factor for Successful Implementation of a New Working Concept2002Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Post Office is undergoing large-scale restructuring including outsourcing of the mail service division to an independent market driven organisation. As a consequence of exposure to competition, the local delivery offices were rationalised by introducing a new working concept called “Best Method”. The implementation process varied substantially in terms of success at the local delivery offices. The aim of this paper is to identify factors crucial to the success of the process. The findings emerge from a study performed during autumn 2001 at fifteen local delivery offices in different parts of Sweden. It was carried out by participant observation, 60 in-depth interviews and a questionnaire answered by 524 postal personnel. A number of factors related to a successful implementation process have been identified as vital, such as participation, local and central managerial support and local adaptation of a managerial tool. In order to arrive at a more participative approach, an infrastructure is suggested that will improve information flow and communication both horizontally and vertically in the organisation. This calls for further research activities, which are planned in a second phase.

  • 5.
    Erlandsson Karltun, Anette
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Lidingörapporten I: en utvärdering i närtid av Brevbärarnas Arbetssituation2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utvärderingen har utförts på uppdrag av Servicenätet Leverans, Posten av en forskargrupp vid Avdelningen för Industriell arbetsvetenskap, inom forskningsområdet Kvalitet, Människa, Teknik vid Linköpings universitet. Det övergripande syftet har varit att medverka till utveckling, implementering samt utvärdering av åtgärder avsedda att förbättra brevbärarnas arbetssituation (BAS) enligt Postens målsättning. 

    Syftet har närmare bestämt varit att ge en samlad bild av de olika BAS-åtgärderna i tre avseenden:

    1. dels att utvärdera effekten av förbättringsåtgärder för främjande av brevbärarnas arbetssituation,
    2. dels att utvärdera hur själva införandeprocessen har fungerat samt,
    3. att dra lärdomar inför implementering av förbättringsåtgärderna vid övriga postutdelningskontor i landet.

    Arbetet med att ta fram konkreta lösningar påbörjades i fyra delprojekt inom BAS II våren 2003 och avrapporterades under tidig höst 2003. Samtidigt startade förberedelser för att utvärdera helhetseffekten från samtliga åtgärdsförslag enligt BAS II på ett ”pilotkontor”, där valet föll på ett utdelningskontor på Lidingö. 

    En projektgrupp med representanter för personalen på utdelningskontoret på Lidingö, medlemmar från BAS-projekten samt forskargruppen planerade tillsammans hur de olika förbättringsåtgärderna skulle införas och utvärderas.

     De övergripande förbättringsåtgärderna har huvudsakligen gällt:

    • Införande av en Manual för organisation av inomhusarbetet
    • Införande av ny märkning av kamfacken
    • Införande av ny arbetsbelysning vid kamfacken
    • Utbildning i arbetsteknik

    Dessutom har en test av en motordriven konstruktion för höj- och sänkbarhet av kamfacken utförts och utvärderats.

    Implementeringen och utvärderingen har genomförts på Lidingökontoret under perioden oktober 2003 till och med maj 2004. Efter deltagande observation av forskargruppen på utdelningskontoret har 35 brevbärare deltagit genom att dels besvara fem delenkäter och dels medverka i fyra gruppintervjuer. Intervjuer har även genomförts med de två teamledarna, dirigenten samt postcenterschefen. Utvärderingen av förändringsarbetet handlar såväl om de upplevda resultaten som om hur själva förändringsarbetet eller införandeprocessen har fungerat och lärdomar som kan dras av detta.

    Resultaten visar att effekterna av samtliga förbättringsåtgärder enligt BAS-projekten generellt har upplevts mycket positivt av såväl brevbärare som kontorsledningen. Förbättringen av belysning och märkning är de åtgärder som upplevts ge en omedelbar och påtaglig förbättring och därför har varit lättare att utvärdera på kort sikt.

    Arbetet med Manualen kräver däremot organisatoriska förändringar av arbetsprocesserna på utdelningskontoret. Detta kräver ett längre tidsperspektiv för utvärdering av resultaten. Detsamma gäller utbildningen i arbetsteknik som kräver en förändring i arbetssätt och därmed en beteendeförändring. Det tar tid att lära in nya sätt att arbeta och en sådan utbildningsinsats kräver också en utvärdering på längre sikt för att förbättringar skall gå att urskilja.

    När det gäller upplevelsen av själva införandeprocessen upplevde brevbärarna generellt att den haft vissa brister även om åsikterna varierade. Det har i viss mån påverkat deras positiva upplevelser av förbättringsåtgärderna i negativ riktning.

    I ett pilotprojekts natur ligger att man vill dra lärdomar inför framtiden, i det här fallet lärdomar som andra postutdeningskontor kan dra nytta av vid införandet av BAS-åtgärderna men också lärdomar för personer som har ledningsansvar i projekt- och förändringsarbete. Medarbetarna på Lidingökontoret har generöst delat med sig av sina erfarenheter och dessa ligger till grund för de råd som ges i det avslutande avsnittet inför det fortsatta implementeringsarbetet av BAS-åtgärderna på övriga postutdeningskontor i landet.

  • 6.
    Karltun, Anette
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    A novel approach to understand nested layers in quality improvement2014In: Proceedings of Human Factors in Organizational Design and Management – xi Nordic Ergonomics Society Annual Conference – 46, Copenhagen, August 17-20 / [ed] O. Broberg, N. Fallentin, P. Hasle, P.L. Jensen, A. Kabel, M.E. Larsen, T.Weller, Nordic Ergonomics Society, 2014, p. 343-348Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on healthcare quality improvement (QI) increasingly point at the importance of understanding multilevel organizational issues, especially interaction between national, hospital and clinical level. In a EU-study involving ten hospitals in five countries one hospital stood out in successful multilevel QI work, which is elaborated in this paper. It is suggested that there is a potential in using linkages and dependencies in terms of organisational development and resource support (O) and method, process and IT support (T) affecting the individual caregiver (H), to understand the nestedness and interaction between operational system levels in QI.

  • 7.
    Karltun, Anette
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Arbetsintensifiering: bikonsekvenser av en ”working smarter” strategi inom Postens brevbärarverksamhet.2006In: Tid för utveckling? / [ed] Ekberg, K., Eklund, J, Ellström, P-E., Johansson, S, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2006Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tid, tidsanvändning och tidsbrist i arbetet är i fokus i debatten om lärande för de krav som det nya arbetslivet ställer. Vilka konsekvenser får sättet att organisera och rationalisera arbetet för lärande, hälsa, jämställdhet och arbetsförhållanden? Forskare från fyra discipliner granskar och jämför skeenden i fyra offentliga organisationer som genomför organisationsförändringar.

    Boken vänder sig till alla, såväl studerande som yrkesverksamma, som hanterar arbetslivs-, organisations- och ledarfrågor.

  • 8.
    Karltun, Anette
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Att följa hela Posten-projektet på nära håll2008In: Forskarroller i interaktivt utvecklingsarbete: Om samverkansprocesser för ergonomiska förbättringar / [ed] Gunnela Westlander, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2008, p. 111-153Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I forskargruppen ingick doktoranden Anette Erlandsson-Karltun. På henne låg en alldeles särskild operativ uppgift, nämligen att på nära håll följa, medverka i och dokumentera hela det förändringsarbete som Servicenätet Posten bedrev inom ramen för projektet ”Brevbärarnas arbetssituation” (BAS), och som utmynnade i förbättringar som slutligen vidtogs vid de totalt 602 utdelningskontoren i landet.

    Anette Erlandsson-Karltuns första uppgift blev att hösten 2001 genomföra en kartläggning av brevbärarnas arbetsmiljö och av införandet på kontoren av det s.k. ”Bästa Metod” konceptet.

    En liknande insats ägde rum från oktober 2003 – maj 2004. Det var en utvärdering av implementeringsprocessen vid ett pilotkontor vad gäller fyra förbättringsåtgärder: belysning, märkning och justering av kamfack, arbetsteknik och nyttjande av ny manual för organisering av innearbetet på utdelningskontoren.

    Ytterligare en utvärdering genomförde hon (tillsammans med Anna Roos) på ett större urval utdelningskontor under våren och sommaren 2005 efter att förbättringarna vidtagits vid samtliga landets kontor.

    Under perioderna mellan dessa tre omfattande undersökningar fungerade Anette Erlandsson-Karltun som kontaktperson och forskarstöd till projektmedarbetare och ledningspersoner inom Servicenätet Posten. I motsats till andra i forskargruppen som inriktade sig på specifika problem och insatser hade Anette Erlandsson-Karltun en bred och långsiktig uppgift, nämligen att följa - och bidra till - Postens satsning på detta projekt från start till mål.

  • 9.
    Karltun, Anette
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Developing HTO system’s thinking for organizational and technological change.2011In: Proceedings of 10th International Symposium on Human Factors in Organizational Design and Management, Grahamstown, South Africa, April 4-6, 2011, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A top-down change process for rationalization of post distribution did not achieve the calculated productivity gains. Ergonomist researchers at Linköping University were consulted and in order to train management and postmen to develop a HTO-thinking, a number of learning laboratories were arranged by the research team. Using a model of Porras & Robertson (1992), 25 postal participants judged how each of the suggested improvement measures separately, explicitly or implicitly affected the work setting according to the model and thereby the outcome of the production system including the wellbeing of 15 000 postmen in a highly complex and intertwined way.

  • 10.
    Karltun, Anette
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Evaluation of a health- and efficiency-promoting intervention – a methodological approach.2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is common for researchers to evaluate interventions by having the participants answer standardized questions before and after, and measuring the effect of the intervention as a statistical difference between the two. There is a risk that the results of such a calculation will be misleading due to the subject interpreting the response scales differently on each occasion. This risk has previously been observed by Golembiewski et al, who indicated that we are dealing with a psychometric problem set that is especially evident in interventions. The question is whether the individual’s own yardstick for assessing or valuing a certain circumstance/area is the same before and after the intervention, or whether the yardstick has changed due to the subject gaining new experience within the conceptual framework. Golembiewski  calls this phenomenon beta change. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate empirically the occurrence of beta change and its possible consequences for the interpretation of the results, with the aid of a model devised by Terborg et al. The material is taken from a health-promoting intervention project in the mail distribution division of the Swedish Post Office. 

  • 11.
    Karltun, Anette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics.
    Forskarstött förändringsarbete i själva verket – Att förbättra arbetssituationen för 15 000 brevbärare2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation illuminates researcher-supported work for change within the “Postal Service Network”, the division within Posten Sverige AB with responsibility for mail distribution to customers. The intervention has been concerned with improving the work situation of 15,000 postmen.

    The theoretical foundation consists in a form of systems thinking in which the con-cept of Man-Technology-Organisation (MTO) is employed to scrutinise the intervention process.

    The overall aim of this dissertation is to contribute to the development of know-ledge in the arena of researcher-supported work for change. It proceeds on the basis of the following objectives 1) to illustrate how systems thinking in the change process

    influences understanding of how the system’s Man-Technology-Organisation (MTO) components interact in practice, 2) to exemplify how this knowledge can be transformed in practice through the development and implementation of MTO-adapted solutions into collaboration between researchers and practitioners, 3) to exemplify empirically how forms for participation can contribute to a successful change process through the analy-sis and synthesis of both process and results.

    The research project has been conducted interactively. The interactive approach has made it possible to illuminate collaboration between researchers and practitioners in a down-to-earth and realistic manner during four project phases spread over a five-year period.

    The introductory project phase involved diagnosis of the problem. A number of proposals for action were presented by the research team, which led on to researcher-supported developmental work during a second project phase when a basis for various improvement measures was created. This involved development of both a technical and work-organisational nature to achieve efficient and healthy work processes for postmen in mail distribution. At a third project phase the entire package of measures was tested and evaluated through implementation in a pilot office. At the fourth and final phase of the project the improvements were implemented in all 602 postal distribution offices in Sweden, and the researchers performed an evaluation.

    The results show how adopting an MTO perspective on work for change increases opportunities to obtain clarity with regard to which factors influence efficiency in a pro-duction system as a whole. The cross-disciplinary research approach, in combination with researcher/practitioner collaboration, proved to be a prerequisite for creating un-derstanding of the interaction between the MTO components. Further, the dissertation shows how different forms of participation in practice can contribute to successful work for change with regard to both process and results. The extensive reporting of the inter-vention process and accounts of the shifting nature of the researcher’s role and of hin-dering and promoting factors in researcher-supported work for change constitute other important contributions to knowledge.

  • 12.
    Karltun, Anette
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Researcher-Supported Work for Change – Improving the Work Situation of 15,000 Postmen.2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper illustrates researcher-supported work for change within the Mail Service Division of the Swedish Post Office. The overall aim is to contribute to the development of knowledge in the arena of researcher-supported work for change. The interactive approach has made it possible to illuminate collaboration between researchers and practitioners in a down-to-earth and realistic manner during a five-year period. The results show how adopting a systems perspective on work for change increases opportunities to obtain clarity with regard to which factors influence efficiency in a production system as a whole and how to transform this knowledge into practical solutions.

  • 13.
    Karltun, Anette
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Utvärdering av interventionsarbete med hälsofrämjande åtgärder: en metodologisk ansats.2006In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 130-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är vanligt att forskare utvärderar hälsofrämjande interventioner genom attlåta deltagarna besvara samma standardfrågor vid före- och eftermätning och mäter interventionens effekt som en statistisk skillnad mellan mättillfällena. Det finns en risk att resultaten av en sådan beräkning blir missvisande av det skälet att undersöknings-personen tolkar svarsskalorna för respektive standardfråga olika av vid de olika mättillfällena (Westlander, 2004).

    Denna risk har tidigt uppmärksammats av Golembiewski et al (1976) som pekade på att vi här har att göra med en psykometrisk problematik som är särskilt tydlig i interventioner. Frågan gäller huruvida individens egen måttstock för att bedöma eller värdera ett visst förhållande/område är densamma efter som före interventionen eller om måttstocken har förändrats beroende på att undersökningspersonen fått nya erfarenheter inom begreppsområdet. Golembiewski (ibid) kallar detta fenomen för betaförändring och i denna uppsats används fortsättningsvis denna term.

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att empiriskt illustrera förekomsten av betaförändring och dess eventuella konsekvenser för tolkning av resultaten med ledning av en modell av Terborg et al (1980). Vi använder ett material hämtat från en studie av ett hälso-främjande interventionsarbete inom postutdelningsverksamheten, Posten Sverige AB.

  • 14.
    Karltun, Anette
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Berglund, Martina
    Linköpings universitet.
    Emphasizing the interactive systems view in a master’s programme in Ergonomics and HTO2015In: Proceedings 19th Triennial Congress of the IEA, International Ergonomics Association, International Ergonomics Association , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ergonomics spans over several disciplines and carries a strong potential in designing and improving systems performance. However, from an educational perspective, bringing forward the systems perspective may be challenging from different point of views e.g. what areas of Ergonomics should be taught and in what way and how should the systems perspective be realized in an educational setting. The aim of this paper is to highlight experiences and lessons learned when emphasizing and developing an interactive systems perspective within a master’s programme in Ergonomics and HTO (Human, Technology, Organization) at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden. The interactive systems perspective is conveyed through a separate HTO-course to emphasize the systems perspective and a developed interdisciplinary approach. It further pervades the programme from selection of students, pedagogical structure of the programme and the teachers’ multidisciplinary backgrounds. Although working with a full educational programme gives substantial room for room for manoeuvre, some experiences and ideas from this education may serve as inspiration in other ergonomics and human factors educational contexts.

    Practitioner Summary: Ergonomics is a multidisciplinary field, which contributes to developing a systems view to design products and systems. Bringing forward the systems view in an educational setting, however, may be challenging. This paper highlights experiences and lessons learned when emphasising and developing an interactive systems perspective within a master’s programme in Ergonomics and HTO (Human, Technology, Organization) at The Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden. The interactive systems perspective is developed through student and teachers with different academic backgrounds, linking between different courses in the programme, and an HTO-course, which emphasizes the systems perspective in Ergonomics.

  • 15.
    Karltun, Anette
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production. School of Technology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Berglund, Martina
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Supporting engineering innovation and design by a multidisciplinary master's program2013In: Proceedings of the 9th International CDIO Conference, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Cambridge, Massachusetts, June 9 –13, 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to reflect on lessons learned from a master's program with a multidisciplinary approach. The rapidly developing technology and specialization in society, business, industry and labor puts a demand on education to provide specialist skills in various technical fields. Paradoxically, the increasing complexity also demands skills from different disciplines, such as understanding human capabilities to handle technically complex systems and adapting technology to the design of organizational and individual working conditions in different workplaces and businesses. Therefore, knowledge and experience from engineers often need to be combined with skills and experience from the domain of behavioral and health scientists in order to obtain good usability and system performance. It is not, however, an easy task to combine experiences from different domains of expertise, as diverse traditions are deeply institutionalized by different approaches and research platforms and not easily adapted and integrated within engineering faculty. The master’s program reported on in this paper is an example of promoting a multidisciplinary approach contributing to an effective CDIO implementation. The design of the master’s program includes a combination of courses from a number of scientific disciplines with teachers who represent different theoretical areas, practical skills and in addition a careful mix of examination forms. Furthermore, the students' different backgrounds and learning traditions as engineers, behavioral and health scientists create a platform with excellent opportunities to learn from each other in order to develop new and innovative ways of thinking and approaching design and business development. It also offers opportunities to experience and reflect on the cultural contradictions between educational disciplines and practice.

  • 16.
    Karltun, Anette
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Interactive research promoting a systems perspective in improving the work situation of 15,000 postmen.2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper empirically illustrates how interactive research can serve as a platform for adopting systems thinking in workplace design within the Mail Service Division of the Swedish Post Office and thereby contributing to efficient and healthy work processes for postmen in mail distribution. The interactive approach has made it possible to illuminate collaboration between researchers and practitioners in a down-to-earth and realistic manner during a five-year period. The results show how an interactive approach can promote a systems perspective and the opportunities to obtain clarity with regard to which factors influence efficiency in a production system as a whole and how to transform this knowledge into practical solutions.

  • 17.
    Karltun, Anette
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Karltun, Johan
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Benefits of the Human-Technology-Organization Concept in Teaching Ergonomics – Students Perspective2018In: Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing / [ed] Sebastiano Bagnara, Riccardo Tartaglia, Sara Albolino, Thomas Alexander, Yushi Fujita, Springer, 2018, Vol. 821, p. 627-636Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The human-technology-organization (HTO) concept has been used for creating systems understanding of ergonomics in three engineering educations at the School of Engineering in Jönköping. Students from courses given in two undergraduate and one graduate program (n = 122) participated in the study, which involved a course evaluation questionnaire to assess the understanding of ergonomics as discipline and HTO as a means for creating systems understanding. The questionnaire included both ranking and personal comments to the questions. The results show that the students in general considered knowledge of ergonomics and HTO as beneficial for their future work and that the HTO concept did contribute to their understanding of workplace ergonomics. However, there was a significant difference between undergraduate and graduate students in all these aspects where undergraduates ranked all these aspects lower than graduates. This was also reflected in personal comments on the questions. Conclusions that can be drawn are that understanding systems is generally difficult and the HTO concept can assist in helping students to overcome these difficulties. However, the differences between the student groups must be explicitly considered as well as increasing students’ awareness of the relevance of ergonomics for engineers. 

  • 18.
    Karltun, Anette
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Karltun, Johan
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Interactive Oral Assessment Supporting Active Learning2014In: Proceedings of the 10th International CDIO Conference, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain, June 16-19, 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The CDIO standards stress the importance of using a variety of examination methods for effective learning assessment as well as active learning methods to help the students develop skills in applying knowledge to new settings. Oral assessment methods in a more traditional form where students answer questions in oral form instead of in written seems to be underrepresented in practice as well as in the literature although it has many benefits in supporting active learning and reaching learning outcomes. The oral examination method has been used during ten years within the field of Industrial Engineering and Management at the School of Engineering at Jönköping University in Sweden. The aim of this paper is to show how the oral assessment method has been successfully used in contributing to active learning in engineering education and lessons learned from this experience. The experience shows that by having students undertaking the assessment in groups, an active learning occasion is created by interaction between students as well as students and teacher. Through the design of the assessment the teacher has the opportunity to help the students to make connections between detailed knowledge and system understanding as well as among key concepts and to the application of knowledge to new settings. The assessment procedure also supports the teacher to discern the learning outcomes from each student. Further, the interaction between the teacher and the students during the assessment helps the teacher to capture what improvements need to be made in teaching and learning.

  • 19.
    Karltun, Anette
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Unit of Ergonomics, School of Technology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Karltun, Johan
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Berglund, Martina
    Eklund, Jörgen
    HTO – A complementary ergonomics approach2017In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 59, Part A, p. 182-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of human factors and ergonomics constitutes a strong potential in systems analysis, design and improvement. However, it is difficult to communicate its potential value. This paper addresses how the human-technology-organization (HTO) concept can be defined and supports the understanding, communication and development of the systems' character and potential of human factors and ergonomics. Empirical examples from the authors’ experiences of working with the HTO concept in R&D and teaching are illustrated, including its usefulness as: 1) a conceptual model; 2) an analysis framework; 3) a meta methodology; 4) a pedagogical tool; and 5) a design tool. The use of HTO provides guidance on how the system can be designed to better support health, individual and systems performance. It is further suggested that there is a strong potential for developing the theory, applications and methodological aspects of HTO.

  • 20.
    Karltun, Anette
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Karltun, Johan
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Berglund, Martina
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    HTO - a complementary ergonomics perspective2014In: Proceedings of Human Factors in Organizational Design and Management – xi Nordic Ergonomics Society Annual Conference – 46, Copenhagen, August 17-20 / [ed] O. Broberg, N. Fallentin, P. Hasle, P.L. Jensen, A. Kabel, M.E. Larsen, T. Weller, Nordic Ergonomics Society, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Karltun, Anette
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Karltun, Johan
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Rydell, Martin
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    New legislation on organizational and social work environment: A case study2017In: Conference Proceedings: 48th Annual Conference of the Association of Canadian Ergonomists, 12th International Symposium on Human Factors in Organizational Design and Management, Organizing for High Performance, July 31-August 3, 2017, Banff, Alberta, Canada, Association of Canadian Ergonomists , 2017, p. 109-114Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Karltun, Anette
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Lahger, Anna
    KTH, STH and The Jönköping Academy .
    Developing a sustainable infection control program in health care2012In: In proceedings of the 6th NOVO symposium on Sustainable Health Care: Continuous Improvement of Processes and Systems, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 25-26 November 2012, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The increasing threat of resistant bacteria has become a progressively more important issue and a major challenge to deal with in health care systems. In 1995 the Medical Society Reference Group for Antibiotics Questions (RAF) started a Strategic Program for rational use of antibiotics and reduced antibiotic resistance called Strama. In 2006 Strama received a commission from the government and a permanent financing and on July 2010 a national Strama council was formed as an advisory body to support the Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control in issues regarding 1) use of antibiotics and reduced antibiotic resistance and 2) efforts to promote cross-sectorial and locally established approach includings relevant authorities, county councils, municipalities and nonprofit organizations.

    In May 2011 a working group within Strama was formed in hospital A on behalf of The Director of Public Health and Healthcare in the county. The Urology Unit was chosen as a pilot department as urinary infections account for more than 30 percent of all hospital-acquired infections and contributes to the overuse of antibiotics. On behalf of The Director of Public Health and Healthcare in the county, the urology clinics at the three hospitals in the county during the past year merged into a common Urology Unit as a part of the process in gaining better control of infection spread when patients move between hospitals depending on the type of treatment that each hospital is specialized on. This merger involves in itself a number of major challenges.

     

    Materials and methods

    A process in the Strama work related to the Urology Unit at the County Council was followed during autumn 2011 and spring 2012 by interviewing project leaders, members of the Strama group, clinicians, attending meetings, studying documents and by observations.

     

    Results and conclusions

    The Strama group has been working at obtaining uniform working methods and procedures as it has been varying between physicians and clinics. They have also developed methods to inform about the latest treatment guidelines to assist clinicians to work properly.

    A problem is the difficulty for clinicians to obtain feedback on their treatment results, since the current IT systems do not enable a convenient way to access measurement data over time, which also affects the motivation of staff documenting the measurements. The Strama team therefore work together with the IT unit at the hospital to develop a so-called E-portal to provide quick feedback on clinical measurement data and prescribing patterns for antibiotics

    During the spring 2012 Strama-responsible physicians and Department Care Developers from all clinics were invited to learning seminars. The aim was that each clinic would initiate mapping and improvement work at the clinical level of three important Strama areas: antibiotics, hospital acquired infections, epidemiology and resistance.

    The work performed by the Strama-team is perceived as a great support at the surgical department where the urological patients are cared for after surgery. So the Strama work is now beginning to take off in the county but there are many challenges to be solved e.g. the implementation takes time due to cultural differences, between units and personnel, inefficient and incompatible information systems,  organizational boundaries and lack of time for improvement work for clinicians.

  • 23.
    Karltun Erlandsson, Anette
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    En utredning om brevbärarpersonalens arbetsförhållanden och införandet av Bästa Metod2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utredningen har utförts på uppdrag av Servicenätet Posten vid Avdelningen för Industriell Arbetsvetenskap, inom forskningsområdet Kvalitet, Människa, Teknik vid Linköpings universitet. Syftet har varit:

    • dels att utvärdera den totala arbetssituationen för brevbärare med i huvudsak utdelning i flerfamiljshus,
    • dels att utvärdera hur införandet av den så kallade ”Bästa Metod” har fungerat, främst vad gäller införandeprocess, acceptans, delaktighet och manual.

    Utredningsarbetet har utförts under hösten 2001. Efter deltagande observation av brevbärare i flerfamiljshus under arbete, gjordes 60 djupintervjuer med såväl brevbärare, SEKO-ombud som postcenterchefer på femton av Posten utvalda utdelningskontor spridda över hela Sverige. Intervjumaterialet låg till grund för en enkät som distribuerades till samtlig personal på de femton utdelningskontoren. 525 enkäter har besvarats (en svarsfrekvens på 90 procent). Ergonomiska studier och fysiska mätningar har utförts på brevbärare under arbete för att identifiera belastningsergonomiska risker och prioritera mellan olika förbättringsförslag.

    Resultaten visar att brevbärarnas arbetsförhållanden i dag är krävande, framförallt i fysiskt avseende, något som understryks av en mycket hög besvärsfrekvens från rörelseorganen. Bästa Metod framstår som en principiellt bra arbetsmetod med stor utvecklingspotential. De flesta brevbärare bedömer metoden som arbetsbesparande och produktivitetsförbättrande men uttrycker farhågor för den fysiska arbetsbelastningen och framtida besvärsrisker samt kvalitetsbrister. Om utvecklingspotentialen skall kunna tas till vara för både verksamhetens och brevbärarnas bästa, erfordras en optimering av arbetssättet.

    Resultaten visar också att det finns stora skillnader i hur väl Bästa Metod fungerar vid de femton utdelningskontor som ingått i studien. Ett antal faktorer som försvårat införandet och tillämpningen av Bästa Metod har identifierats. Brist på delaktighet och lokal anpassning framträder särskilt. Arbetsledningens agerande på såväl lokal som central nivå har visat sig vara en kritisk faktor för hur väl arbetet med Bästa Metod har förlöpt.

    Vi bedömer att åtgärder som fokuserar på att öka brevbärarnas delaktighet och lokalt anpassa Bästa Metod, skulle resultera i bättre arbetsförhållanden för brevbärarna, en ökad effektivitet, bättre produktivitet och kvalitetsvinster. En infrastruktur som befrämjar god informationsspridning och kommunikation både horisontellt och vertikalt i organisationen är då avgörande. 

    Med ett åtgärdsprogram och en plan för ständigt förbättringsarbete, skulle verksamheten med Bästa Metod och brevbärarnas arbetssituation på sikt kunna förbättras med åtgärder på såväl lokal som central nivå i organisationen. Utredningen har visat på ett antal önskvärda åtgärder och flera av dessa kan genomföras av Posten själva. De åtgärder som föreslås nedan genomförs av Posten i samarbete med Avdelningen för Industriell Arbetsvetenskap och de kan delas upp i två huvudkategorier:

    I  I rapporten preciserade förbättringsförslag som kan genomföras relativt omgående av Posten med stöd från Avdelningen för Industriell Arbetsvetenskap: 

    Kamfacken

    • Förbättrad märkning av kamfacken och införande av kompletterande karta (prototyp finns redan klar), för att underlätta kamning på ny slinga samt förbättrad belysning vid kamfacken.
    • Justeringar och optimeringar av kamfacken där så är möjligt.
    • Förbättring av avlastningsytor vid kamfacken.

    Skor

    • Införskaffande av lämpliga individuellt anpassade skor för både inomhus- och utomhusarbete.

    Utbildning

    • Utbildning i arbetsteknik av utvalda representanter från respektive utdelningskontor.

    Arbetsrutiner

    • Fördelning av arbetsmoment, utveckling av arbetsrutiner som exempelvis slingors sammansättning och anpassad användning av cyklar och motordrivna fordon.

    Utrustning

    • Utveckling av hjälpmedel och utrustning, som exempelvis centralpostfack.

    De ovanstående förändringarna testas på pilotkontor före breddinförande.

    II  Åtgärder som kräver ytterligare planering och utvärdering för att  kunna genomföras och som innebär medverkan av Avdelningen för Industriell Arbetsvetenskap 

    Lokala åtgärder genom utveckling av den lokala arbetsorganisationen mot välfungerande teambildningar på utdelningskontoren. 

    Under sommaren 2001 började man på utdelningskontoren införandet av en teambaserad arbetsorganisation genom att tillsätta teamledare som ansvarar för den löpande verksamheten. En ytterligare utveckling av denna organisations-form föreslås. Man skulle därmed öka delaktigheten bland personalen, vilket på sikt skulle leda till bättre och effektivare arbetsformer med större påverkansmöjligheter över det dagliga arbetet, större ansvarskänsla, större arbetstillfredsställelse och högre yrkesstolthet. Denna arbetsform skulle kunna vidga synen på vad som är ”det egna distriktet” och skulle vidare minska känsligheten för störningar. I samband med detta skulle en plan för ”Ständiga Förbättringar” introduceras, för att bygga in ett kontinuerligt kvalitetstänkande och ökad delaktighet i det dagliga arbetet. Sammantaget skulle man kunna uppnå bättre lokal anpassning, högre produktivitet och bättre kvalitet. 

    Centrala åtgärder

    Utredningen har visat att det funnits kommunikationsglapp mellan de olika nivåerna i organisationen och att brevbärarpersonalen upplever bristande delaktighet, toppstyrning och otillräcklig flexibilitet i fråga om lokala anpassningar. Detta synes ha påverkat arbetet med Bästa Metod negativt.

    En analys behöver göras över hur kommunikationsglapp och delaktighets-brister uppstår, med syfte att utveckla åtgärdsförslag för att förbättra infrastrukturen och kommunikationen mellan de olika organisationsnivåerna. Därigenom skapas förutsättningar att från centralt håll öka delaktigheten och på så sätt skapa en bättre verksamhet. Resultaten matchas sedan mot erfaren-heterna på lokal nivå för vidare åtgärder.

    Framgången med Bästa Metod varierar på de femton utdelningskontor som ingått i studien. Rapporten visar att olika lokala förhållanden och förut-sättningar påverkat utfallet med Bästa Metod. Detta är något som kan utredas närmare.

    Behovet av lokala anpassningar måste vägas mot behovet av en standardisering av arbetet enligt Bästa Metod. Hur denna avvägning kan göras är förknippad med användningen av manualen för Bästa Metod och dess fortsatta nytta. Vi menar att en manual bör tydliggöra vad som är kärnan i det nya systemet och därmed ska gälla överallt, men manualen bör också tydliggöra vad som kan anpassas lokalt, och ge ett stöd för hur detta kan ske. Manualen behöver vidareutvecklas och omarbetas för detta syfte.

    Utredningen visar att det i vissa avseenden finns en bristande överens-stämmelse mellan den bärande tanken bakom Bästa Metod och den ökade flexibilitet som krävs av brevbärarna i praktiken. Det gäller bland annat hur snabbt nyanställda eller ovana brevbärare kommer upp i arbetstakt när man kammar upp post på en ny slinga, hur introduktion av nyanställda sker, vilka kvalifikationer brevbärare bör ha och vilka effekter detta har på yrkes-stoltheten. Den höga medelåldern på brevbärarna i dag kommer att medföra många nyanställningar inom en 10-15-årsperiod. Dessa frågor är då viktiga att utreda inte minst ur produktivitets- och kvalitetshänseende.

  • 24. Roos, Anna
    et al.
    Erlandsson Karltun, Anette
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Breddimplementering av BAS-åtgärderna Märkning, Belysning, Manual, Arbetsteknikutbildning - en utvärdering på 30 postutdelningskontor2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna utvärdering har utförts av en forskargrupp vid Avdelningen för Industriell arbetsvetenskap vid Linköpings universitet på uppdrag av Servicenätet Leverans, Posten Sverige AB. Det övergripande syftet var att utvärdera de åtgärder som utvecklats av Servicenätet Posten i samarbete med forskargruppen inom det så kallade BAS-projektet (brevbärarnasarbetssituation) med start 2002. Efter en pilotstudie av införandet på Lidingökontoret (Erlandsson-Karltun, 2004) planerades en breddimplementering på samtliga 602 postutdelningskontor i Sverige. 

    Syftet med denna utvärdering har varit att utvärdera och ge en samlad bild av de olika förbättringsåtgärderna i BAS-projektet, nämligen manual, märkning, arbetsbelysning och arbetsteknikutbildning. 

    Närmare bestämt har utvärdering skett i med tre olika delsyften, nämligen:

    • att utvärdera erfarenheter av förbättringsåtgärderna i sig för främjande av brevbärarnas arbetssituation,
    • att utvärdera hur själva införandeprocessen fungerat, samt
    • att dra lärdomar inför implementering av förbättringsåtgärderna vid övriga utdelningskontor.

    Utvärderingen planerades och genomfördes under våren fram till och med hösten 2005 av forskargruppen i Linköping, medAnna Roosoch Anette Erlandsson-Karltun som operativt ansvariga samtJörgen Eklundsom projektansvarig. Servicenätet Leverans representerades av en projektgrupp med Stig Nero som operativt ansvarig, i samarbete med Per Lindeborg, och Inga-Lill Wiklander-Grahn.

    Två utdelningskontor från varje område valdes ut av respektive områdeschefer i samarbete med operativt projektansvarig inom Posten, sammanlagt trettio utdelningskontor. Urvalet skedde så att samtliga områdeschefer valde ut ett kontor där denne subjektivt bedömde att införandet av BAS-åtgärderna fungerat ”bra” respektive ett där det fungerat ”mindre bra”. Detta för att kunna dra nytta av olika erfarenheter.

    De metoder som användes var enkäter och intervjuer. 425 (75 %) enkätsvar kom in från brevbärarna på de 30 utdelningskontoren, vilket är betydligt lägre än i de föregående  undersökningarna. Dessutom intervjuades chefer, lagledare och brevbärare på de femton kontor som fick personligt besök av forskargruppen. Cheferna på de övriga femton kontoren intervjuades per telefon.

    Resultaten visar att erfarenheterna av BAS-åtgärderna i sig upplevdes mycket positivt av såväl brevbärare, lagledare och chefer. Införandeprocessen var mer problematisk, vilket i olika grad påverkat upplevelsen av förändringsåtgärderna som helhet beroende på hur väl införandet fungerat. Man hade inte lyckats dra nytta av de erfarenheter som kom fram vid utvärdering av pilotkontoret på Lidingö. Här finns många lärdomar att dra på såväl projektledningsnivå, områdesnivå, distriktsnivå som lokal nivå på utdelningskontoren. Som grund för de råd och synpunkter som ges i avsnitt 3.6 samt i det avslutande avsnittet, ligger de samlade erfarenheterna från medarbetarna på de trettio utdelningskontoren och forskargruppen.

  • 25.
    Salim, Roaa
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Mapulanga, Mwanza
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Saladi, Praveen
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Karltun, Anette
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Automation in the wood products industry: challenges and opportunities2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A stagnation of productivity increase has been observed in the Swedish wood product industry. The manufacturers believe that there is a need to invest further in automation in order to stay competitive. For this reason, the paper seeks to understand the role of automation in the Swedish wood product industry, and focuses on identifying the challenges and opportunities of automation. The following research question was addressed: What are the challenges and opportunities of automation in the wood product industry? In order to answer the research question, four case studies were conducted, each case representing a different business area. The research question was examined in terms of internal – and external challenges and opportunities. The internal challenges and opportunities examine the manufacturing, while the external challenges and opportunities examine the influence of the business environment. Findings indicate that lack of manufacturing strategies, and lack of awareness of automation technologies were some of the main challenges. Regarding the opportunities, increased profitability and competitiveness were emphasized. The identification of the challenges and opportunities of automation in the wood product industry can provide insights and be used as underlying decisions for automation investments.

  • 26.
    Williamsson, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dellve, Lotta
    Department of Sociology and Work Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karltun, Anette
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Nurses' use of visual management in hospitals: A longitudinal, quantitative study on its implications on systems performance and working conditions2019In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 75, no 4, p. 760-771Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this study was to examine potential benefits provided by daily visual management tool use and explore its association with systems performance and working conditions among hospital nurses.

    BACKGROUND: Visual management tools used in everyday work and improvement work in health care theoretically contribute to shared understanding of complex work systems and provide certain user benefits. Cognitive load, miscommunication within and between professional groups, and pressure to engage in care process redesign add to nurses' strained working conditions.

    DESIGN: Quantitative longitudinal.

    METHODS: Questionnaires were distributed at T0, (N = 948, 66% response rate), T1 (N = 900, 70% response rate), and T2 (N = 621, 72% response rate) to nurses at five hospitals. Three groups of users (daily users, start users, and non-daily users) were compared by means T1-T2 (significance tested with Wilcoxon signed rank test) and by mixed model repeated measures T0, T1, T2.

    RESULTS: Daily use associated to better overview of work, collaboration, social capital, and clinical engagement. Job resources were rated higher by daily users. Mental stress increased and development opportunities decreased over time among non-daily users. There were associations between use and perceptions of systems performance, though the differences between groups were small.

    CONCLUSION: This study specifically explores visual management tool use in the hospital setting, which contributes to research by broadening the understanding of cognitive, social, and emotional benefits provided by visual management tool use. Daily use was associated to positive working conditions, small but positive differences in systems performance, and indicated a buffering effect on nurses' mental stress.

  • 27.
    Williamsson, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Dellve, Lotta
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Karltun, Anette
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Visualizing improvements of care processes - supporting engagement and perceived systems performance in improvement work2014In: Proceedings of Human Factors in Organizational Design and Management – xi Nordic Ergonomics Society Annual Conference – 46, Copenhagen, August 17-20 / [ed] O. Broberg, N. Fallentin, P. Hasle, P.L. Jensen, A. Kabel, M.E. Larsen, T. Weller, Nordic Ergonomics Society, 2014, p. 203-210Conference paper (Refereed)
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