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  • 1.
    Björkman, Berit
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Mälardalens Universitet.
    Sigstedt, Bo
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Children's experience of going through an acute radiographic examination.2012In: Radiography, ISSN 1078-8174, E-ISSN 1532-2831, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 84-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children’s experience of radiographic examinations remains largely unexplored, although most radiog- raphers examine children on a daily basis. In order to provide the high quality care that meets the needs of patients it was considered important to undertake research focused upon the patients’ experience of radiographic practice.

    The aim of the study was to investigate children’s experiences undergoing a radiographic examination for a suspected fracture.

    Inclusion criteria were Swedish-speaking children between 3 and 15 years of age who were submitted for a radiographic examination with an acute condition of the upper or lower extremity. Patients were informed of the study and together with the escorting parent or relative asked for consent to participate.

    During the examination the child was videotaped and immediately after, the child was interviewed in a nearby facility. The interview contained open-ended questions and was conducted while watching the videotape together with the child and their parent or relative and the researcher.

    Qualitative content analysis was used in analyzing the collected data. The analysis resulted in two categories e “feeling uncomfortable” and “feeling confident”. The subcategories contained in these categories were “pain in relation to injury and examination”, “the waiting time is strenuous”, “worries for the future and consequences of the injury”, “confidence in parental presence”, “confidence in radio- graphic staff and examination procedure”, and finally “recognition entails familiarity”.

    The results revealed that for the younger children, the experience of undergoing an acute radiographic examination was associated with pain and anxiety, but for the older children, the anxiety was more connected to whether the injury had caused a fracture and any anticipated future consequences or complications.

  • 2.
    Björkman, Berit
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Nilsson, Stefan
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. The Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, University of Gothenburg.
    Children's and parents' perceptions of care during the peri-radiographic process when the child is seen for a suspected fracture2016In: Radiography, ISSN 1078-8174, E-ISSN 1532-2831, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 71-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Visiting a Radiology department may elicit both positive and negative feelings for children and parents alike. This study investigated children's and parents' perceptions of care during the peri-radiographic process and whether these perceptions correlated with the child's perceptions of pain and distress.

    Methods

    This study utilized a quantitative descriptive design. Its data was collected in five Radiology departments, two where examinations are performed exclusively on children and three that treat both children and adults. Data collection contained questionnaires from children (n = 110) and their parent (n = 110) as well as children's self-reports of pain and distress.

    Results

    The findings illustrated that the children and their parent were satisfied with the care provided throughout the peri-radiographic process, unrelated to the child's self-reported levels of pain and distress or examination setting (i.e. children's department or general department). The highest scores of satisfaction were ascribed to “the radiographer's kindness and ability to help in a sufficient way,” whereas “available time to ask questions and to meet the child's emotional needs” received the lowest scores.

    Conclusions

    Parents and children alike perceived the radiographers as skilled and sensitive throughout the examination, while radiographers' time allocated to interacting with the child was not perceived be sufficiently covered.

  • 3.
    Björkman, Berit
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Gimbler Berglund, Ingalill
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Biomedical Platform.
    Faresjö, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Biomedical Platform. Division of Medical Diagnostics, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Huus, Karina
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Peri-radiographic guidelines for children with autism spectrum disorder: a nationwide survey in Sweden2017In: Child Care Health and Development, ISSN 0305-1862, E-ISSN 1365-2214, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 31-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of guidelines and routines used nationwide when children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are taken care of and examined in a radiology department during a peri-radiographic process.

    METHOD: A nationwide survey was compiled and distributed to 94 radiology departments throughout Sweden, i.e. those performing more than 100 000 radiographic examinations annually. The survey was designed as a web questionnaire with seven questions on possible guidelines and/or routines for the departments when preparing and taking care of children with ASD in conjunction with a radiographic procedure. The data were scrutinized, using descriptive statistics.

    RESULTS: In total, 86 radiology departments responded to the survey (response rate 92%). Of those departments, 40 did not examine children with ASD. None of the departments included in the study had existing guidelines underpinning the routines when preparing and performing radiographic examinations for children diagnosed with ASD. A few departments (n = 8) would set aside more time for the procedure if it were known in advance that the child to be examined had been diagnosed with ASD. Also, some departments (n = 7) had radiographers who were more experienced in the care of children who would be appointed to perform examinations for children with ASD.

    CONCLUSION: It is suggested that guidelines should be developed in order to increase interaction in a supportive way and decrease anxiety during the peri-radiographic process with children with ASD.

  • 4.
    Björkman, Berit
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Gimbler Berglund, Ingalill
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Faresjö, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Biomedical Platform.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Huus, Karina
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Are radiographers prepared to meet children with special needs, when seen for an examination?2017In: Acta Radiologica, ISSN 0284-1851, E-ISSN 1600-0455, Vol. 58, no 1 Suppl., p. 16-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Anxiety is often experienced by children undergoing health care procedures, and children with autism spectrum disorders (ADS) experience more anxiety than typically developed children. A prerequisite for obtaining an optimum procedure is firstly based on the health care provider’s knowledge about children with ASD, but may also depend on the use of guidelines. Two previous national surveys showed, that none radiology or paediatric departments and a minority of anaesthesiology departments throughout Sweden use specific guidelines when seeing children with ASD. Following, the purpose was to develop guidelines to use when caring for and preparing children with ASD in those settings.

    Methods: A modified Delphi method was used, including19 experts identified from the two afore mentioned surveys. The questions considered in the process, proceeded from previous research and the results from the surveys. The experts’ responses regarding the importance of each item, were analysed and scrutinized between each round.

    Results: The Delphi process resulted in guidelines consisting of 15 items and a checklist with 16 aspects. The items cover the areas: planning and involving parents, features in the environment, use of time, communication, thehealth care professionals. The checklist covers the child’spattern of communication, anxiety, sensory stimuli, special interests and likes/dislikes.

    Conclusions: To obtain an optimum caring encounter when a child with ASD is seen in the preoperative and radiology setting, a meticulous planning is important and the environment should be adjusted for the needs of the child. To accomplish this, guidelines need to be in place and be followed.

  • 5.
    Björkman, Berit
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Golsäter, Marie
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Children's Anxiety, Pain, and Distress Related to the Perception of Care While Undergoing an Acute Radiographic Examination2014In: Journal of Radiology Nursing, ISSN 1546-0843, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 69-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visiting the hospital is likely a frightening experience for a child, and going through a radiographic examination has been reported as both distressing and painful. More knowledge from the children's perspective is needed on this subject, however, and thus, the aim of this study was to investigate children's anxiety, pain, and distress in conjunction with an acute radiographic procedure and whether these factors can be related to the perception of care. A mixed method design was used to analyze data from 110 participants between 5 and 15 years of age, who were examined in a Swedish radiology department. The quantitative findings showed anxiety, pain, and distress to be a concern during a radiographic examination. Significant correlations were obtained between anxiety and pain as well as between anxiety and distress. In addition, also the qualitative findings showed pain and the waiting time to be concerns. Regardless of the quantitative findings, however, children of all ages were satisfied with the care performed in the periradiographic process, perceiving the examination as supportive and geared to their needs. Robust assessment of anxiety, pain, and distress is imperative when interacting with children in acute examination situations to avoid both negative short-term and long-term consequences.

  • 6.
    Björkman, Berit
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Golsäter, Marie
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Simeonson, Rune J.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Will it Hurt? Verbal Interaction between Child and Radiographer during Radiographic Examination2013In: Journal of Pediatric Nursing, ISSN 0882-5963, Vol. 28, no 6, p. e10-e18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the nature of verbal interactions between child, parent and radiographer and theextent to which it varied as a function of the child's age. The participants were 20 female radiographersand 32 children (3–15 years) examined for acute injuries. The verbal interactions during theexamination were video recorded and analyzed using the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS).Results indicated that 80% of the verbal interaction was accounted for by the radiographer, 17% by thechild and 3% by the parent. The distribution of utterances varied with regard to children's age.

  • 7.
    Björkman, Berit
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Nilsson, Stefan
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Sigstedt, Bo
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Children’s pain and distress while undergoing an acute radiographic examination2012In: Radiography, ISSN 1078-8174, E-ISSN 1532-2831, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 191-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pain has been highlighted as a main concern for children in conjunction with an acute radiographic examination. The aim of this study was to further investigate children’s pain and distress while undergoing an acute radiographic examination.

    The study comprised 29 participants with an age range of 5–15 years who were injured and submitted to an acute radiographic examination of the upper or lower extremity when the question at issue was fracture. The Coloured Analogue Scale (CAS) and the Facial Affective Scale (FAS) were used as self-reporting scales to measure the children’s pain and distress. The Face, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability Behavioural scale (FLACC) was used as an observation tool to assess behaviours associated with pain in children.

    Descriptive statistics were used when analysing the scores, and the results showed that children experience pain and distress in conjunction with a radiographic examination after an injury. Spearman’s correlation was used to compare variables, and significant correlations were obtained between the self-reported pain and the observed pain behaviour. Fischer’s Exact test was used to compare groups, and when using the cut-off 3.0 on the self-reporting scale no significant correlation was found concerning the pain reported by children diagnosed with and without a fracture. No significant correlations were found concerning the self-reported distress and pain either, regardless of whether it was a first-time visit and whether a parent was near during the examination.

  • 8.
    Darcy, Laura
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Björk, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Knutsson, Susanne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    The process of striving for an ordinary, everyday life, in young children living with cancer, at six months and one year post diagnosis2014In: European Journal of Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1462-3889, E-ISSN 1532-2122, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 605-612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Health care focus is shifting from solely looking at surviving cancer to elements of attention relating to living with it on a daily basis.The young child's experiences are crucial to providing evidence based care. The aim of this study was to explore the everyday life of young children as expressed by the child and parents at six months and one year post diagnosis.

    METHODS: Interviews were conducted with children and their parents connected to a paediatric oncology unit in Southern Sweden. A qualitative content analysis of interview data from two time points, six months and one year post diagnosis, was carried out.

    RESULTS: The process of living with cancer at six months and at one year post diagnosis revealed the child's striving for an ordinary, everyday life. Experiences over time of gaining control, making a normality of the illness and treatment and feeling lonely were described.

    CONCLUSION: Nurses have a major role to play in the process of striving for a new normal in the world post-diagnosis, and provide essential roles by giving the young child information, making them participatory in their care and encouraging access to both parents and peers. Understanding this role and addressing these issues regularly can assist the young child in the transition to living with cancer. Longitudinal studies with young children are vital in capturing their experiences through the cancer trajectory and necessary to ensure quality care.

  • 9.
    Darcy, Laura
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Björk, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Knutsson, Susanne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Following young children's health and functioning in everyday life through their cancer trajectory2016In: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1043-4542, E-ISSN 1532-8457, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 173-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Knowledge of living with childhood cancer, through the trajectory, is sparse.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to follow young children’s health and functioning in everyday life through their cancer trajectory.

    Methods: Data were gathered longitudinally from a group of 13 young children and their parents connected to a pediatric oncology unit in Sweden. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for Children and Youth structure was used to identify difficulties in health and functioning in everyday life, in interview and questionnaire data. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed to show patterns of difficulty over a 3-year period from diagnosis.

    Results: Difficulties experienced by children declined and changed over time. An increase in difficulties with personal interactions with others and access to and support from health care professionals was seen 2 to 3 years after diagnosis and start of treatment. Similar patterns are seen within individual children’s trajectories in relation to diagnosis but individual patterns were seen for each child.

    Conclusions and Clinical Implications: Health care professionals need to plan for ongoing contact with school services and information and support pathways, beyond the treatment period. A person-centered philosophy of care is required throughout the cancer trajectory.

  • 10.
    Darcy, Laura
    et al.
    Institution of Health Science, University College Borås.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Simeonsson, Rune J
    Peterson, Christina
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Björk, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Health and functioning in the everyday lives of young children with cancer: documenting with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth (ICF-CY).2015In: Child Care Health and Development, ISSN 0305-1862, E-ISSN 1365-2214, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 475-482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Health care focus is shifting for children from surviving childhood cancer to living with it on a daily basis. There is a need to document health and function in the everyday lives of young children with cancer using the multidimensional framework and language of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth (ICF-CY).

    AIMS: The aims of this study were (1) to document health and functioning in the everyday lives of young children with cancer using ICF-CY codes and (2) to identify a comprehensive code set that can aid clinical assessment.

    METHOD: Interviews with children diagnosed with cancer and their parents, were transcribed, reviewed for content and coded to the ICF-CY using linking procedures.

    RESULTS: A comprehensive code set (n = 70) for childhood cancer was identified. The majority of content identified to codes was related to activity and participation describing social relations with family, peers and professionals, preschool attendance and play, as well as issues related to support and independence.

    CONCLUSIONS: The ICF-CY can be used to document the nature and range of characteristics and consequences of cancer experienced by children. The identified comprehensive code set could be helpful to health care professionals, parents and teachers in assessing and supporting young children's health and everyday life through the cancer trajectory. The comprehensive code set could be developed as a clinical assessment tool for those caring for young children with cancer. The universal language of the ICF-CY means that the utility of a clinical assessment tool based on identified codes can have wide reaching effects for the care of young children with cancer.

  • 11.
    Darcy, Laura
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Knutsson, Susanne
    Institution of Health Science, University College Borås, Sweden.
    Huus, Karina
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    The everyday life of the young child shortly after receiving a cancer diagnosis, from both children's and parent's perspectives2014In: Cancer Nursing, ISSN 0162-220X, E-ISSN 1538-9804, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 445-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Providing qualified, evidence-based healthcare to children requires increased knowledge of how cancer affects the young child's life. There is a dearth of research focusing on the young child's experience of everyday life.

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore young children's and their parents' perceptions of how cancer affects the child's health and everyday life shortly after diagnosis.

    Methods: Thirteen children with newly diagnosed cancer aged 1 to 6 years and their parents, connected to a pediatric oncology unit in Southern Sweden, participated in this study through semistructured interviews. Child and parent data were analyzed as a family unit, using qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Everyday life was spent at hospital or at home waiting to go back to hospital. Analysis led to the following categories: feeling like a stranger, feeling powerless, and feeling isolated.

    Conclusions: The child wants to be seen as a competent individual requiring information and participation in care. Parents need to be a safe haven for their child and not feel forced to legitimize painful and traumatic procedures by assisting with them. Nurses play a major role in the lives of children. Research with and on the young child is necessary and a way of making them visible and promoting their health and well-being.

    Implications for practice: Nurses need to reevaluate the newly diagnosed child's care routines so as to shift focus from the illness to the child. This requires competent nurses, secure in their caring role.

  • 12. Edwinson Månsson, Marie
    et al.
    Enskär, KarinJönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Pediatrisk vård och specifik omvårdnad2008Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13. Edwinson Månsson, Marie
    et al.
    Enskär, KarinJönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Pediatrisk vård och specifik omvårdnad2000Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Einberg, Eva-Lena
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Nygren, Jens
    School of Health and Welfare, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Petra
    School of Health and Welfare, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    'Through my eyes': Health-promoting factors described by photographs taken by children with experience of cancer treatment2016In: Child Care Health and Development, ISSN 0305-1862, E-ISSN 1365-2214, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 76-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Health promotion for children with cancer should be based on the children's own needs and desires. Because there is a lack of knowledge in this area, the aim of this study was to explore what promotes health from the perspective of children with experience of cancer treatment.

    Methods

    Fifteen children between 8 and 12 years of age participated in focus groups with three children in each group. The children were given a camera and instructions to photograph subjects that promote their health. Focus group discussions were based on the photographs and the children's own description of those photographs. The analysis of focus group discussions and photographs was conducted using inductive content analysis.

    Results

    According to the children, health-promoting factors are defined as meaningful relationshipsrecreational activities and a trustful environment. Meaningful relationships include togetherness within the familyaffection for pets and friendship with peers. Recreational activities include engagement in play and leisurewithdrawal for relaxation and feeling enjoyment. Trustful environment includesconfidence in significant others and feeling safe.

    Conclusions

    Knowledge from this study can contribute to health promotion interventions and quality improvements in the health care of children with experience of cancer treatment. Children's experiences with what promotes health in their everyday lives provide a better understanding of the type of support children prefer when promoting their own health.

  • 15.
    Einberg, Eva-Lena
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Nygren, Jens M.
    Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Friendship Relations From the Perspective of Children With Experience of Cancer Treatment: A Focus Group Study With a Salutogenic Approach2015In: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1043-4542, E-ISSN 1532-8457, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 153-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Friendships are significant to child development and health but diseases such as cancer can interrupt the contact with friends. The purpose of this study was to describe perceptions of friendship from the perspective of children undergoing cancer treatment, in order to build knowledge that can be used in a health promotion intervention for these children. Fifteen children between 8 and 12 years of age participated in focus groups, where a mixture of informative and creative techniques were used. The focus group discussions were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in three generic categories, "Common interests and experiences," "Mutual empathic actions." and "Mutual trust and understanding," incorporating seven subcategories. Based on children's descriptions from a salutogenic perspective, friendship emerged as An equal and mutual commitment that evolves over time and with interactions face-to-face and digitally, a child perspective on friendship should be central to the development of health promotion interventions designed to support friendship relations of children treated for cancer.

  • 16.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Assessing the life situation of children and adolescents with cancer and their families.1997Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Being an expert nurse in pediatric oncology care: nurses' descriptions in narratives2012In: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1043-4542, E-ISSN 1532-8457, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 151-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pediatric oncology has become a highly specialized area, and the transition from novice nurse to expert can be complicated. The aim of this study was to describe the perceptions of nurses in pediatric oncology regarding the role of an expert nurse in pediatric oncology. Nurses (n = 66) working in pediatric oncology participated by writing their narratives. The data were analyzed by means of content analysis, and 3 categories were found: an expert has confidence in his or her knowledge, an expert provides high-quality care, and an expert is given possibilities for professional growth. It can be concluded that when nurses are given possibilities for continuous education and reflection, and have a feeling of satisfaction at being able to fulfill a child and his or her family's needs, this enhances their possibility to become experts and maintain expert competence.

  • 18.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Commentary1999In: European Journal of Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1462-3889, E-ISSN 1532-2122, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 13-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Could symptom distress and life situation be measured in children and adolescents with cancer?2003In: Medical and Pediatric Oncology Volume 41 Issue 4: International Society of Paediatric Oncology, SIOP XXXV Meeting, Cairo, Egypt, October 8-11, 2003. SIOP Abstracts, 2003, p. 245-246Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Education for Nurses in Pediatric Oncology Care2002In: NOBOS 2002 meeting, 26-28 may, Helsinki, Finland, 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Ethical aspects of judging the alternative treatment of children with cancer1995In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 51-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To study quality of life and subjective post-concussion symptoms in adults (16-60 years) with a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) 3 months and 1 year after injury.

    METHODS: Of a total of 489 patients 173 responded to questionnaires at 3 months and at 1 year, including the SF-36 health-related quality of life survey, which is a standardized measure validated for Swedish conditions. Post-concussion symptoms were rated as either existing or non-existing in a 21-item checklist [a modified version of Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS)].

    RESULTS: SF-36 showed impaired scores in all dimensions. Existing post-concussion symptoms were reported by 1545%. Significantly, more symptoms were present at 3 months than at 3 weeks after injury. Furthermore, a significant correlation between higher rates of post-concussion symptoms and lower SF-36 scores was found. CONCLUSIONS:

    The SF-36 results were significantly impaired compared with an age- and gender-matched normative control group and the rate of post-concussion symptoms was significantly higher at 3 months than at 3 weeks after injury. As a significant correlation between higher rates of symptoms and low SF-36 scores was also found we assume SF-36 to be a sensitive enough measure of MTBI-related effects.

  • 22.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    [Life situation in children with cancer. Questionnaire helps in determining quality of life]1997In: Vårdfacket, ISSN 0347-0911, Vol. 21, no 9, p. 36-9Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Enskär, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Ankarcrona, Elisabeth
    Pediatric department, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Jörgense, Anna
    Pediatric department, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Huus, Karina
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Undocumented refugee children in Swedish healthcare: Nurses' knowledge concerning regulations and their attitudes about the care2012In: Vård i Norden, ISSN 0107-4083, E-ISSN 1890-4238, ISSN 0107-4083, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 44-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate nurses' attitudes about care for undocumented refugee children and also to investigate the knowledge among nurses concerning the regulations for this care. The study is quantitative and based on a questionnaire sent to all nurses working in pediatric healthcare and medical care in a medium-sized county in Sweden. The overall response was 91 questionnaires (55.9%). Most of the respondents felt insecure or lacked knowledge of what regulations are valid when undocumented refugee children seek medical care or healthcare. Almost all nurses had a positive attitude toward caring for these children, but they feel they lack knowledge about the regulations regarding their care. To optimize the care situation for these children the regulations should be reviewed and altered to allow the nurse, legally and securely, to care for them.

  • 24.
    Enskär, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Berterö, Carina
    Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer: Experiences Affecting Self-image, Relationships, and Present Life2010In: Cancer Nursing, ISSN 0162-220X, E-ISSN 1538-9804, Vol. 33, no 1, p. E18-E24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about how young adults experience being a childhood cancer survivor is limited, as most previous research concerning the quality of life in survivors of childhood cancer has been conducted using standardized questionnaires. The aim of the current study was to identify and describe young adults' own experiences of long-term effects of cancer treatment on their self-image, relationships, and present life related to the impact of being a survivor of childhood cancer. Interviews were held with 7 young adults, 20 to 23 years of age. The verbatim-transcribed interviews were analyzed using constant comparative analysis. The core category was identified as "compensated life picture." All the negative and difficult experiences are compensated for with a positive view on and positive expectations regarding life. This core category was grounded in 5 categories: living a normal life, bodily changes, relationships with and support from others nearby, sentient life, and personal growth. The findings in this study illustrate the importance for healthcare staff to be aware of young adult survivors' experiences of their childhood cancer and its long-term effects. Extra attention and support from the healthcare system after the concluded treatment period are needed via a support program or support group for young adults.

  • 25.
    Enskär, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Björk, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Life Science, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Knutsson, Susanne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Darcy, Laura
    Department of Health Science, University College Borås, Sweden.
    Huus, Karina
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    A Swedish perspective on nursing and psychosocial research in paediatric oncology: A literature review2015In: European Journal of Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1462-3889, E-ISSN 1532-2122, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 310-317Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: A dramatic improvement in outcomes of survival rates of childhood cancer has been seen. Caring science research is central in providing skills and knowledge to the health care sector, but few overviews of the content of published research have been carried out. The aim of this review was to investigate the content and methodology of published studies in paediatric oncology relevant to caring science, and also to compare possible differences in content and method of the published studies from the nursing and psychosocial perspectives.

    METHOD: A systematic literature review was performed of 137 published articles on paediatric oncology relevant to caring science in Sweden.

    RESULTS: The results show that most of the studies were descriptive or comparative ones with a quantitative design. Most of them focused on parents (43%) or children (28%). Most of the studies investigated wellbeing (88%), using questionnaires (54%) or interviews (38%). Several different measurement instruments had been used. While the results were often clearly presented, the clinical implications were more diffuse. The most acknowledged research fund was the Swedish Childhood Foundation (75%).

    CONCLUSIONS: To reflect the children' perspectives in paediatric oncology require that future researchers take on the challenge of including children (even young ones) in research. The use of a limited number of agreed measurement instruments is desirable. The biggest challenge for the future is to make a shift from explorative to intervention studies. There is an urgent need to transform research results into clinical practice.

  • 26.
    Enskär, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Björk, Olle
    Marky, Ildiko
    Pekkanen, Kirsti
    Pergert, Pernilla
    Education for nurses in pediatric oncology care in Sweden2005In: Pediatric blood & cancer Volume 45 Issue 4: Abstracts of the 37th Annual Conference of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP), Vancouver, Canada, 21-24 September 2005, 2005, p. 563-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Enskär, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Björk, Olle
    Marky, Ildiko
    Pekkanen, Kirsti
    Pergert, Pernilla
    Education for nurses in pediatric oncology care in Sweden2006In: NOBOS, Nordic Society of Pediatric Oncology Nurses, 6th meeting 6-9 May 2006 Tampere, Finland, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Enskär, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Carlsson, M
    Golsäter, Marie
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Hamrin, E
    Symptom distress and life situation in adolescents with cancer1997In: Cancer Nursing, ISSN 0162-220X, E-ISSN 1538-9804, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 23-33Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Enskär, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Carlsson, M
    Golsäter, Marie
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Hamrin, E
    Kreuger, A
    Life situation and problems as reported by children with cancer and their parents1997In: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1043-4542, E-ISSN 1532-8457, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 18-26Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Enskär, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Carlsson, M
    Golsäter, Marie
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Hamrin, E
    Kreuger, A
    Parental reports of changes and challenges that result from parenting a child with cancer1997In: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1043-4542, E-ISSN 1532-8457, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 156-163Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Enskär, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Carlsson, M
    Hamrin, E
    Kreuger, A
    Swedish Health care personnel's perceptions of disease and treatment-related problems experienced by children with cancer and their families1996In: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1043-4542, E-ISSN 1532-8457, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 61-70Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Enskär, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Carlsson, M
    von Essen, L
    Kreuger, A
    Hamrin, E
    Development of a tool to measure the life situation of parents of children with cancer1997In: Quality of Life Research, ISSN 0962-9343, E-ISSN 1573-2649, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 248-256Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Enskär, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Golsäter, Marie
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Från barndom till ungdom: den växande människans omvårdnadsbehov2009In: Omvårdnadens grunder: Perspektiv och förhållningssätt / [ed] Friberg, F & Öhnén, J, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2009, 1, p. 109-145Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34.
    Enskär, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Hamrin, Elisabeth
    Carlsson, Marianne
    von Essen, Louise
    Swedish mothers and fathers of children with cancer: perceptions of well-being, social life, and quality care.2011In: Journal of psychosocial oncology, ISSN 1540-7586, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 51-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim was to describe and compare well-being, social life, and quality care among parents of children with cancer with respect to mothers versus fathers and whether the children were on versus. off treatment. The Life Situation Scale for Parents (LSS-P) was answered by 320 parents, comprising 85 mothers and 71 fathers of children on treatment, and 93 mothers and 71 fathers of children off treatment. The results show that the well-being of parents of children with cancer is affected by their child's situation, and that they experience such things as economic strain and a sense of being dependent on the care provided, especially during the child's treatment phase. Mothers whose children are receiving treatment see their life situation as less satisfying, and report being sadder and having lower self-esteem.

  • 35.
    Enskär, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Huus, Karina
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Björk, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Life Science, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Darcy, Laura
    Institution of Health Science, University College of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Knutsson, Susanne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Institution of Health Science, University College of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    An analytic review of clinical implications from nursing and psychosocial research within Swedish pediatric oncology2015In: Journal of Pediatric Nursing: Nursing Care of Children and Families, ISSN 0882-5963, E-ISSN 1532-8449, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 550-559Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Enskär, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Johansson, Inez
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Ljusegren, Gunilla
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Widäng, Ingrid
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Lecturers' experiences of participation in an international exchange2011In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 541-546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization is a trend in higher education and is judged to be essential to quality; however, there is a lack of publications on the outcome of lecturers' exchange. The aim of this study was to describe lecturers' experiences of participating in an international exchange. Twenty-six lecturers who had taken part in an exchange were invited to participate through writing a narrative. Data was analyzed with a qualitative method, and five categories emerged: Preparation and timing, challenges in teaching, demanding but worthwhile, broadening perspective and expanding network. The overall result showed that participating lecturers judged their international exchange to be a positive experience that had resulted in personal as well as professional development. However, a successful exchange requires planning, support and an open mind from all involved lecturers and institutions.

  • 37.
    Enskär, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Knutsson, Susanne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Huus, Karina
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Darcy, Laura
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Björk, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    A literature review of the results from nursing and psychosocial research within Swedish pediatric oncology2014In: Journal of Nursing & Care, ISSN 2167-1168, Vol. 3, no 6, p. 1-8Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The body of research-based knowledge in paediatric caring science has been increasing leading to dramaticimprovements in treatment. The purpose of this manuscript was to analyze results as stated by the researchers', inrecently published articles on nursing and psychosocial research, within Swedish pediatric oncology setting. Thiswas done through a review of 137 published articles about paediatric oncology related to caring science in Sweden.The result shows that the illness has affected, in both positive and negative ways, the wellbeing of everyone cominginto contact with the child. The cancer also causes distress related to all aspects of life including physical,psychological, existential and social. Mediating factors for the experience of distress and wellbeing are: disease andtreatment severity, age, gender and ethnicity of the participant, time since diagnosis, the use of internal and externalsupport, and the identity of the person reporting the data. Health promoting aspects frequently reported are: familytogetherness, coping strategies, engaging in normal life and activities, and quality of care which includes emotionalsupport, information and family participation in care. The hospital staff has to be aware of the psychosocial issuesexperienced by children with cancer and their families, and they have to acknowledge the value of formalinterventions, reporting benefits for children, families, and themselves.

  • 38.
    Enskär, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Ljusegren, Gunilla
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Gimbler Berglund, Ingalill
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Eaton, Nicola
    Harding, Rosemary
    Mokoena, Joyce
    Chauke, Motsedisi
    Moleki, Maria
    Attitudes to and knowledge about pain and pain management, of nurses working with children with cancer: A comparative study between UK, South Africa and Sweden2007In: Journal of Research in Nursing, ISSN 1744-9871, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 501-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pain is among the most common effects of cancer and its treatment. Children and young people with cancer often consider pain from procedures and treatment to be the worst aspect of their illness. This study aimed to i) identify and describe knowledge and attitudes to pain and pain management amongst nurses working with children with cancer and ii) compare the perspectives on pain and pain management of nurses from UK, South Africa and Sweden. 106 nurses working with children with cancer in UK, South Africa and Sweden completed Salanterä’s (1999) questionnaire on nurses’ attitudes to pain in children. Nurses had good levels of knowledge and positive attitudes to pain management, with Swedish nurses’ having higher levels of knowledge and a more positive attitude to pain management than nurses from UK or South Africa. A high level of knowledge was correlated to a more positive attitude to pain management. Knowledge levels need to be improved to ensure more positive attitudes to pain management, especially for nurses in South Africa. Swedish nurses’ level of knowledge about non-pharmacological pain management strategies has scope for improvement. British nurses may need to focus more on the sociology and psychology of pain.

  • 39.
    Enskär, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Ljusegren, Gunilla
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Gimbler Berglund, Ingalill
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Eaton, Nicola
    Harding, Rosie
    Mokoena, Joyce
    Chauke, Motshedisi
    Nurses attitudes and knowledge about pain in children: A comparative study Between South Africa, Sweden and United Kingdom2006In: European Journal of Oncology Nursing Volume 10, Issue 3: 37th Congress of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology Vancouver Canada 19-24 September 2005. Abstracts, 2006, p. 233-234Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Enskär, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Nolbris, Margaretha
    Hellström, Anna-Lena
    Siblings of children with cancer2006In: NOBOS, Nordic Society of Pediatric Oncology Nurses, 6th meeting 6-9 May 2006 Tampere, Finland, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Enskär, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. HHJ. CHILD. HHJAFO.
    Pergert, Pernilla
    Round table discussion on ethics: For nurses in pediatric oncology care2008Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 42.
    Enskär, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    von Essen, L
    Important aspects of care and assistance for children with cancer2000In: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1043-4542, E-ISSN 1532-8457, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 239-249Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Enskär, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Von Essen, Louise
    Perceptions of distress, coping, support and good care among adolescents, on or off cancer treatment2006In: NOBOS, Nordic Society of Pediatric Oncology Nurses, 6th meeting 6-9 May 2006 Tampere, Finland, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Enskär, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Von Essen, Louise
    Perceptions of distress, support, participation in life and good care among children, 7-12 years of age, on or off cancer treatment2005In: Pediatric blood & cancer Volume 45 Issue 4: Abstracts of the 37th Annual Conference of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP), Vancouver, Canada, 21-24 September 2005, 2005, p. 585-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Enskär, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    von Essen, Louise
    Physical problems and psychosocial function in children with cancer2008In: Paediatric Nursing, ISSN 0962-9513, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 37-41Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Enskär, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    von Essen, Louise
    Prevalence of aspects of distress, coping, support and care among adolescents and young adults undergoing and being off cancer treatment2007In: European Journal of Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1462-3889, E-ISSN 1532-2122, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 400-408Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Enskär, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    von Essen, Louise
    Swedish mothers and fathers perception of distress, coping, support and care2007In: Pediatric Blood & Cancer Vol. 49 Issue 4: Abstracts of the 39th Annual Congress of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP), November 1-3, 2007, Mumbai, India., 2007, p. 411-412Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Gimbler Berglund, Ingalill
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Björkman, Berit
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Faresjö, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Huus, Karina
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Management of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the anesthesia and radiographic context2017In: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, ISSN 0196-206X, E-ISSN 1536-7312, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 187-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: As a primary objective, this study purports to develop guidelines to better care for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), particularly regarding these children's preparation for anesthesia and radiologic procedures.

    Methods: Using a Delphi method with an online distribution of questionnaire, guidelines for caring for children with ASD were created. Twenty-one participants were included in the expert panel. These participants were working with children with ASD in several anesthesia and radiology departments in Sweden. A list of items was created from a previous survey and the literature. In the first round, the items with <60% agreement were discarded. Items were merged, and a new list was created. Two more similar rounds were performed. In the last 2 rounds, 21 participants responded, and 80% agreement was considered to be consensus.

    Results: The final guidelines consisted of 14 items and a checklist of 16 factors. The 5 areas covered by the items and the checklist were as follows: planning involving parents/guardians, features in the environment, and use of time, communication, and the health care professionals. The organization was important in making it possible for the health care professional to care for the individual child according to the child's needs. It was important to involve the parents/guardians to obtain knowledge about the functioning of the child.

    Conclusion: A caring encounter involving a child with ASD in the anesthesia and radiology contexts requires advance planning, catered specifically to the individual needs of each child. To accomplish this, general knowledge regarding ASD and ASD's particular manifestation in the child entrusted to their care, is required from the health care workers. The organization needs to have structures in place to facilitate this process.

  • 49.
    Gimbler Berglund, Ingalill
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Huus, Karina
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Faresjö, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Biomedical Platform.
    Björkman, Berit
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Perioperative and anesthesia guidelines for children with autism: A nationwide survey from Sweden2016In: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, ISSN 0196-206X, E-ISSN 1536-7312, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 457-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The overall aim of this study was to describe the current set of guidelines for the preparation and care for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the perioperative setting across Sweden and explore the content of these guidelines in detail.

    Method: An online questionnaire was distributed to the chairpersons of all anesthesia departments (n = 68) and pediatric departments (n = 38) throughout Sweden. Follow-up phone calls were made to those departments that did not return the questionnaire. The presence of guidelines was analyzed through descriptive statistics. These guidelines and comments on routines used in these departments were analyzed inspired by conventional content analysis.

    Results: Seven of the 68 anesthesia departments and none of the 38 pediatric departments across Sweden have guidelines for preparing and/or administering care to children with ASD within the perioperative setting. From the guidelines and routines used, 3 categories emerge: "lacking the necessary conditions," "no extra considerations needed," and "care with specific consideration for children with ASD." These 3 categories span a continuum in the care. In the first category, the anesthesia induction could result in the child with ASD being physically restrained. In the last category, the entire encounter with the health care service would be adapted to the specific needs of the child.

    Conclusion: There is a lack of evidence-based guidelines specifically designed to meet the needs of children with ASD in the preoperative period in Sweden. Further research is needed to understand if children with ASD would benefit from evidence-based guidelines.

  • 50.
    Gimbler Berglund, Ingalill
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Ljusegren, Gunilla
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    FACTORS INFLUENCING NURSES PAIN MANAGEMENT OF CHILDREN:  2006In: 7th International Symposium on Pediatric Pain, Vancover, June 25-29, 2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
123 1 - 50 of 128
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