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  • 1.
    Adam, Frane
    et al.
    Institute for Developmental and Strategic Analyses (IRSA).
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    The meaning and importance of socio-cultural context for innovation performance2013In: Innovation in Socio-Cultural Context, New York: Routledge, 2013, p. 1-21Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Ekane, Nelson
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) and Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mertz, C. K.
    Decision Research (DR), Eugene, Oregon, USA.
    Slovic, Paul
    Decision Research (DR) and University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, USA.
    Kjellén, Marianne
    Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI).
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Risk and benefit judgment of excreta as fertilizer in agriculture: An exploratory investigation in Rwanda and Uganda2016In: Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, ISSN 1080-7039, E-ISSN 1549-7860, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 639-666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research explores the use of psychometric techniques to improve understanding of psychological mechanisms underlying judgment of excreta as fertilizer in agriculture including other excreta related activities. Participants consisted of environmental health students, smallholder farmers and traders in rural and urban Rwanda and Uganda. The finding reveals an inverse relationship between risk and benefit judgments. This relationship holds for the three groups of participants with significant risk-benefit correlations of p<.0001. This finding is consistent with other studies showing that affect plays a key role in risk perception, judgment and decision making.

    Building on this finding, we conclude that individuals with high risk and low benefit judgment for excreta related practices would eschew them or emphasize strict standards. Individuals with a high benefit and low risk judgment would engage in excreta management practices regardless of the actual risks involved. This finding is relevant for risk communication and risk management as it indicates that individuals do not rely only on risk management information they receive concerning excreta and related risks but also depend to an extent on their feelings about these substances when making judgments and decisions regarding the purpose for using excreta as fertilizer and the level of exposure they can tolerate and manage.

  • 3.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis, Östersund, Sweden.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Attributes influencing self-employment propensity in urban and rural Sweden2013In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 479-514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policies aiming at promoting entrepreneurship are in general formed on national levels, without any consideration of differences between urban and rural areas. Usually, cities are provided with better and more modern infrastructure; cities have better supply of physical, financial and human capital, and connected services, and cities have a more modern industrial structure in the sense that their shares of growing industry are higher. Thus, it is possible that policies for entrepreneurship, which in general are designed for urban areas, might be less effective when they are implemented in rural areas. A first step to test the validity of this hypothesis could be to investigate the differences between cities and countryside regarding self-employment propensity and factors affecting the choice to become self-employed. Based on an exceptionally rich data set containing very detailed socio-economic and geographical information on all residents in Sweden, this paper examines: (a) the scope and structure of self-employment propensity in urban and rural areas, respectively, in Sweden, divided into full-time and part-time self-employment, and (b) the importance of a number of attributes that may have an impact on individuals' propensity to start an enterprise in the two area types. Variables being tested are connected to demography and education, labor market status, plant characteristics, self-employment experience, financial resources, family links and regional attributes. The main results indicate that self-employment entry is influenced by the same factors in the same way in urban and rural areas. However, countryside's industrial structure has a smaller share of growing industries. The fact that countryside's startups follow the existing industrial structure means that this "modernity gap" between densely built up areas and countryside remains. From a policy perspective, this must be seen as a serious problem for countryside's growth potential. This gives an argument for designing a special entrepreneurship policy for the countryside in order to increase its share of growing trades and thereby modernize its industrial structure.

  • 4.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Fölster, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM).
    Does social capital contribute to regional economic growth?: Swedish experiences2013In: Social Capital and Rural Development in the Knowledge Society / [ed] Westlund, H. and Kobayashi, K., Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013, p. 113-126Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Determinants of Net Migration to Rural Areas, and the Impacts of Migration on Rural Labour Markets and Self-Employment in Rural Sweden2015In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 693-709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Across most of Europe, the countryside seems to show a polarized development in which large districts are depopulating, while certain areas, mainly around big- and mid-sized cities, are increasing in population. The latter development is often described in concepts of “rural gentrification” and “rurbanization”, symbolizing a transformation of rural communities to communities with urban values and lifestyles. Most studies of the effects of these processes have focused on social and cultural consequences, as e.g. the displacements of lower-income households with higher-income residents and of rural culture and values with urban ones. This paper examines the phenomenon from another perspective, namely the effects of the “rurbanization” processes on countryside’s labour markets and economic life. This paper aims at analysing the determinants of net migration to rural areas in general and to different types of regions, and the impacts of inmigration on rural labour markets, self-employment and other socio-economic conditions in Sweden for the period of 2003–2005. We find that net migration into rural areas increases with the size of adjacent local and regional centres, whereas net migration decreases with the average commuting distance of workers in the rural areas. When comparing in-migrants to rural areas with rural area stayers, our results indicate that the former has lower incomes, a lower employment ratio and a lower degree of entrepreneurial activities. These differences could—at least partly—be explained by the fact that rural area stayers were on average 6 years older than rural area inmigrants, i.e. the two groups were in different stages of their life cycles.

  • 6.
    Falck, Simon
    et al.
    KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Regional Grants and FDI Location: Evidence from Swedish Regional Policy Programs 2002-20092013In: Romanian Journal of Regional Science, ISSN 1843-8520, E-ISSN 1843-8520, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 36-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates factors determining the location of foreign direct investments (FDI) in Sweden. The main purpose is to examine the link between FDI and public incentives, in the form of regional grants, which make up a central part of the Swedish regional policy and state expenditures that explicitly addresses regional development. Our main finding is that there is no evidence of a robust relationship between grants and the location of FDI. However, a statistically significant effect is found for investment support and transport allowance, which are grants that aims at promoting development in designated areas. This by supporting investments in machines, buildings, and so on, and offset costs disadvantages in the northern parts of the country. We conclude that a better integration between the work on FDI and regional development may be a plausible route to promote economic development in Sweden, particularly in deprived regions.

  • 7.
    Farrell, Kyle
    et al.
    Urban and Regional Studies, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    China’s rapid urban ascent: an examination into the components of urban growth2018In: Asian Geographer, ISSN 1022-5706, E-ISSN 2158-1762, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 85-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Having gone from 11.8% of its population inhabiting urban areas in 1950 to 49.2% by 2010, China represents the most dramatic urban transformation the world has seen. With the contemporary urban narrative presenting new challenges, particularly in terms of its unprecedented pace and scale, this paper conducts an inquiry into the nature and causes of China’s rapid urban ascent. Making use of a new analytical framework, this paper maps out the changing stages of China’s urban transition and examines the components of urban growth underpinning it. It arrives at several notable findings. Rural to urban migration has been the dominant component of urban growth, followed by urban natural population increase and reclassification. Although China’s urban growth rates were high, it is the reduction in rural growth rates that underpinned China’s particularly rapid urbanization rates. China is currently in the latter part of the accelerated stage of its urban transition, and is expected to enter the terminal stage by 2030. In light of China’s ongoing urban transition, this paper concludes with reflections on China’s New-Type Urbanization Plan 2014–2020. 

  • 8. Fröbel, Lisa
    et al.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre.
    Social capital and rural development: A preliminary pilot study2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Jeong, Hayeong
    et al.
    Kyoto University.
    Kobayashi, Kiyoshi
    Kyoto University.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Social capital for sustainable rural regions: the roles of voluntary association-mediated public service2013In: Social Capital and Rural Development in the Knowledge Society / [ed] Hans Westlund and Kiyoshi Kobayashi, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing , 2013, p. 299-332Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Johansson, Mats
    et al.
    Department of Urban and Rural Studies, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Pia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE). KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Demographic and rural trends in Europe2015In: Social capital and development trends in rural areas: Vol. 10 / [ed] Yvonne von Friedrichs, Hans Westlund, Kiyoshi Kobayashi, Kyoto: MARG Kyoto University , 2015, p. 129-158Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Kobayashi, Kiyoshi
    et al.
    Kyoto University.
    Jeong, HayeongKyoto University.Westlund, HansJönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Social Capital and Development Trends in Rural Areas Vol. 72012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Kobayashi, Kiyoshi
    et al.
    Kyoto University.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Jeong, Hayeong
    Kyoto University.
    Change the Social Structure and Social Capital2011In: Social Capital and Development Trends in Rural Areas Vol. 6 / [ed] Kobayashi, K., Westlund, H. and Jeong, H., Kyoto: MARG, Kyoto University , 2011, p. 1-8Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Li, Yuheng
    et al.
    Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Li, Yurui
    Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Department of Urban Planning and Environment, School of Architecture and Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Liu, Yansui
    College of Resources Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.
    Urban-rural transformation in relation to cultivated land conversion in China: Implications for optimizing land use and balanced regional development2015In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 47, p. 218-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper aims to investigate land conversion as a result of urban-rural transformation in the Chinese context. Theoretical analysis and empirical study of the Bohai Rim region find strong connections between the land conversion rates and urban-rural transformation intensity in the period 2000-2010. Rapid land conversion normally takes place in counties/districts of low initial level of urban-rural transformation. However, places of high initial socioeconomic level and low transformation intensity would experience slow land conversion. The different land conversion rates in relation to urban-rural transformation intensity are mainly attributed to the China's land quotas distribution system which is subjective and administrative. The study highlights the implementation of land quotas distribution system based on differences to improve the land distribution efficiency and achieve balanced regional development in China. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 14. Li, Yuheng
    et al.
    Wang, Xun
    Westlund, Hans
    KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Liu, Yansui
    Physical Capital, Human Capital, and Social Capital: The Changing Roles in China’s Economic Growth2015In: Growth and Change, ISSN 0017-4815, E-ISSN 1468-2257, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 133-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the roles of physical capital, human capital, and social capital in China’s economic growth during the reform period 1981–2010. Empirical estimation confirms that physical capital and human capital contribute to the economic growth, probably due to the capital accumulation and the improvement of labor productivity. The impact of social capital turns from being insignificant in the 1980s and the 1990s to be positive in the 2000s, suggesting its rising importance in recent decades. A declining role of physical capital in the economic growth in China from 1990s to 2000s is also found. The findings hold for several additional robustness checks, including focusing on longer term determinants of the economic growth, subregional analysis, and endogeneity. Furthermore, the foreign direct investment inflows and adjustment of economic ownership structure are also important for economic growth in China

  • 15.
    Li, Yuheng
    et al.
    KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Decomposition Analysis of Population Change and its Determinants in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region2011In: Romanian Journal of Regional Science, ISSN 1843-8520, E-ISSN 1843-8520, Vol. 5, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides two scenarios of population change and its spatial distribution at the county level in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region: three residential patterns and three population growth groups. The findings show that population change in this region mainly agglomerated to the urban districts and areas of fast population growth in the period of 1990-2000. Regression results also provide details on the contribution of a number of determinants to the population change in the divisions of each scenario. This research concludes by arguing the necessity of future population studies in terms of different regional or local conditions.

  • 16.
    Li, Yuheng
    et al.
    Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Westlund, Hans
    KTH, Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    Interpreting overall inequality in China: The roles of physical capital, human capital and social capital2013In: Regional Science Inquiry, ISSN 1791-5961, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 145-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the relationship between overall inequality in China and the contributions of physical capital, human capital and social capital. The investment in physical capital tends to enlarge overall inequality while human capital helps to reduce the inequality. Human capital appears to be more influential than physical capital in overall inequality reduction in the research period. Social capital (people's social networks) however, does not seem to exert any impact on overall inequality in the post-reform era. Possible policy implications of these results are that measures should be taken to pursue more even distributed investment of physical capital and to increase people's education in order to reduce overall inequality in China.

  • 17.
    Li, Yuheng
    et al.
    KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Social capital and economic growth in China’s provinces2013In: Social Capital and Rural Development in the Knowledge Society / [ed] Hans Westlund and Kiyoshi Kobayashi, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing , 2013, p. 182-198Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Li, Yuheng
    et al.
    KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Westlund, Hans
    KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Cars, Göran
    KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Future urban-rural relationship in China: comparison in a global context2010In: China Agricultural Economic Review, ISSN 1756-137X, E-ISSN 1756-1388, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 396-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to make a general comparison between urban-rural relationship in China and that in the developed countries, aiming to draw some experiences based on which future tendencies of urban-rural relationship in China could be predicted.

    Design/methodology/approach – The core analysis of this paper examines how the urban-rural relationship develops especially when urbanization rate reaches a very high level. Through literature review, this paper explores the evolution of urban-rural relationship in developed nations by referring to some international cities in different industrial stages. In parallel, it goes through this relationship in China from 1949 until now.

    Findings – This paper shows that future urbanization development in China will be generated largely by rural-urban migration especially the eastern-inclined migration while rural industrialization-lead urbanization would develop at the provincial level. It also points that education and training to the labor force is the crucial issue to future urbanization development in China.

    Originality/value – The obvious value of this paper is to predict, through a historical review and comparison, urban-rural relationship in China when it is approaching to high urbanization level. Literature review finds some experiences in developed countries that will somehow take place in China. It also analyzes the eastern-oriented rural-urban migration, rural industrialization and their influence on urban-rural relationship in China.

  • 19.
    Ljunggren, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Professors’ attitude to collaboration and central infrastructure for collaboration: an analysis of social capital establishment within higher education institutions2013In: Knowledge Commercialization and Valorization in Regional Economic Development / [ed] Baycan, T., Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing , 2013, p. 85-110Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20. Lundgren, Anna
    et al.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    The concept of openness in the knowledge economy: Towards a taxonomy2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Lundgren, Anna
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE). KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    The openness buzz in the knowledge economy: Towards taxonomy2017In: Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space, ISSN 2399-6544, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 975-989Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the networked information and knowledge-based economy and society, the notions of ‘open’ and ‘openness’ are used in a variety of contexts; open source, open access, open economy, open government, open innovation – just to name a few. This paper aims at discussing openness and developing a taxonomy that may be used to analyse the concept of openness. Are there different qualities of openness? How are these qualities interrelated? What analytical tools may be used to understand openness? In this paper four qualities of openness recurrent in literature and debate are explored: accessibility, transparency, participation and sharing. To further analyse openness new institutional theory as interpreted by Williamson (2000) is used, encompassing four different institutional levels; cultural embeddedness, institutional environment, governance structure and resource allocations. At what institutional levels is openness supported and/or constrained? Accessibility as a quality of openness seems to have a particularly strong relation to the other qualities of openness, whereas the notions of sharing and collaborative economics seem to be the most complex and contested quality of openness in the knowledge-based economy. This research contributes to academia, policy and governance, as handling of challenges with regard to openness vs. closure in different contexts, territorial, institutional and/or organizational, demand not only a better understanding of the concept, but also tools for analysis.

  • 22.
    Naldi, Lucia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Nilsson, Pia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Wixe, Sofia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    What is smart rural development?2015In: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 40, p. 90-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2010, the European Union adopted the notion ‘smart’ in its new ten-year growth strategy Europe 2020 stating that Europe should become a smart, sustainable, and inclusive economy. The broad and policy-oriented concepts of smart growth and smart development are part of the strategy introduced as a response to the observed low growth rates of innovation and productivity across European regions. In all its essence, the growth strategy states that smart growth supports sustainable development, which is achieved by promoting research, innovation, and knowledge in order to attain regional economic growth. What is made less clear is how the concept of smart growth can be translated to fit a diverse set of rural regions. Other outstanding issues discussed in this paper relate to the possibility to measure and empirically address the outcome of policies for smart rural development. Hence, in this paper we conceptually analyse and bring together the ideas that underlie the logic behind policies for smart growth by focusing on smart growth from the perspective of rural regions. The paper also presents indicators of smart rural development and analyses their relevance in future empirical studies.

  • 23.
    Naldi, Lucia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, ESOL (Entrepreneurship, Strategy, Organization, Leadership). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Nilsson, Pia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Wixe, Sofia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    What is Smart Rural Development?2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Nilsson, Pia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Naldi, Lucia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE). KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Wixe, Sofia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    The influence of related and unrelated variety on firm performance in European urban and rural areas2015In: Social capital and development trends in rural areas: Vol. 10 / [ed] Yvonne von Friedrichs, Hans Westlund, Kiyoshi Kobayashi, Jönköping: Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School , 2015, p. 159-178Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Nilsson, Pia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Naldi, Lucia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, ESOL (Entrepreneurship, Strategy, Organization, Leadership). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Wixe, Sofia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    The Influence of Related and Unrelated Variety on Firm Performance across European Urban and Rural Regions2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26. Nordin, Sara
    et al.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre.
    From Mountain Village to International Ski Resort: The Transformation of the Destination of Åre2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Nordin, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Innovation Systems, Entrepreneurship and Growth .
    Social Capital and the Life Cycle Model: The Transformation of the Destination of Åre2009In: Tourism, ISSN 1332-7461, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 259-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes the development of the Swedish tourism destination of Åre and its transformation from one of many mountain villages into Scandinavia’s leading alpine ski resort. In reference to Butler’s life cycle model, this evolution is analyzed and some historical turning points in Åre’s development identified. The role of social capital is added to the historical analysis, based on the assumption that there is a link between a destination’s development and its ability to reproduce its social capital. The analysis shows that the social capital at the early stage was, to a large extent, built by and around local actors which predominated the village. The transformation to an international ski resort was possible only by the entrance of new actors, increasingly from the national and international arenas. These new actors have largely come to play leading roles in Åre’s development. At the same time, the new actors’ different values and networks have impacted Åre’s social capital.

  • 28.
    Olsson, Amy Rader
    et al.
    Division of Urban and Regional Studies, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Entrepreneurial governance for local growth2015In: The rise of the city: Spatial dynamics in the urban century / [ed] Karima Kourtit, Peter Nijkamp and Roger R. Stough, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 135-159Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Rader Olsson, Amy
    et al.
    KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Measuring political entrepreneurship: an empirical study of Swedish Municipalities2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Rutten, Roel
    et al.
    Tilburg University.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Boekema, Frans
    Tilburg University, Nijmegen School of Management, Radboud University Nijmegen.
    The Spatial Dimension of Social Capital2010In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 863-871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social capital pertains to the social relations between humans, and since these social relations have a spatial dimension, so too does social capital. However, the spatial dimension of social capital has received little attention in the literature so far. Even in a glo-balizing world where electronic and virtual communication have the potential to defeat the need for geographical proximity, it is still relevant to consider the spatial dimension of social capital. After all, human beings exist most prominently in real rather than in virtual space. This special issue undertakes an inquiry into the spatial dimension of social capital from an explorative perspective. It aims to further theoretical and empirical understanding of the spatial dimension of social capital. As editors we recognize that the debate on social capital is still ongoing in the literature and that it is fed from different, sometimes conflicting perspectives. Therefore, the spatial dimension of social capital can only be conceptualized in the light of these different perspectives, which necessitates an explorative approach. Nonetheless, the various contributions of this special issue allow several conclusions that are valuable to the ongoing discussion on social capital and its spatial dimension. In the first part of this introductory paper, we discuss social capital from a conceptual angle, as we distinguish between two key approaches (the "structuralist" and "interaction-ist" approaches). We then argue how these approaches may be helpful to the understanding of the spatial dimension of social capital. In the second part, we introduce the various contributions and explain how they contribute to the aim of this special issue.

  • 31. Westin, Lars
    et al.
    Kobayashi, KiyoshiWestlund, HansJönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Social Capital and Development Trends in Rural Areas Vol. 32008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    A Brief History of Time, Space, and Growth: Waldo Tobler’s First Law of Geography Revisited2013In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 917-924Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current knowledge economy, the most important production factor, human knowledge, is much more mobile than the dominating production factors of previous periods. This means that theories of spatial development, formulated during the manufacturing-industrial era, might not be wholly applicable today. One of the basic assumptions of spatial theory is formulated in Waldo Tobler's first law of geography: "everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things." This article discusses the validity of this law in today's knowledge economy. While several factors have made distance less important, a crucial factor for innovation and growth-tacit knowledge-is still highly dependent on face-to-face contacts. This suggests that Waldo Tobler's first law of geography plays an important role also in the knowledge economy.

  • 33.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre.
    A European Growth Policy for Twenty-seven Countries?: Prospects and Problems for a Diversified Union2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Westlund, Hans
    KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    A multidimensional perspective on entrepreneurship2012In: Entrepreneurship, Social Capital and Governance: Directions for the Sustainable Development and Competitiveness of Regions / [ed] Karlsson C, Johansson B and Stough R., Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing , 2012, p. 192-220Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Innovation Systems, Entrepreneurship and Growth .
    A New Urban-Rural Relationship Needs a New Social Capital2010In: Social Capital and Development Trends in Rural Areas. Vol. 5 / [ed] Hans Westlund & Kiyoshi Kobayashi, Jönköping: Research Unit for Rural Entrepreneurship and Growth (RUREG), Jönköping International Business School , 2010, p. 77-92Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre.
    Analyzing social capital of the civil society and economic variables – a spatial problem2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Collaboration in Innovation Systems and the Role of Social Capital2011In: Socio-Cultural Dimensions of Innovation Performance / [ed] Adam, F. and Westlund, H., Ljubljana: Institute for Developmental and Strategic Analysis (IRSA) , 2011, p. 108-130Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Comments on President Jack Osman's Presentation2007In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 13-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 39.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Entrepreneurship and Regional Economic Development: A Spatial Perspective2005In: Papers in regional science (Print), ISSN 1056-8190, E-ISSN 1435-5957, Vol. 84, no 1, p. 137-139Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Entrepreneurship in the Region2007In: Journal of regional science, ISSN 0022-4146, E-ISSN 1467-9787, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 390-392Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    Handbook of social capital: The troika of sociology, political science and economics2011In: Papers in regional science (Print), ISSN 1056-8190, E-ISSN 1435-5957, Vol. 90, no 1, p. 240-241Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 42.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Innovation Systems, Entrepreneurship and Growth .
    Handbook of Social Capital: The Troika of Sociology, Political Science and Economics2009In: Papers in regional science (Print), ISSN 1056-8190, E-ISSN 1435-5957Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Högskolans regionala samverkan: drivkrafter, problem och det sociala kapitalets betydelse2005In: Lärande hela livet: en antologi om lärandets betydelse för utveckling i arbetsliv och samhälle, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2005, p. 241-246Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Innovation Systems, Entrepreneurship and Growth .
    Intangible Capital: Its Contribution to Economic Growth, Well-being and Rationality2010In: The Journal of Socio-Economics, ISSN 1053-5357, E-ISSN 1879-1239Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Järnvägar och regional tillväxt i Skandinavien under 150 år2004In: Strukturernas dynamik: Kontinuitet och förändring i ekonomisk historia, Umeå: Umeå University , 2004, p. 33-47Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Kan hela Sverige leva som Gnosjö?2008In: Ska hela Sverige leva?, Stockholm: Formas , 2008, p. 217-228Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Knowledge Intense Industries, Spatial Externalities and Social Capital2008In: Sociokulturni in organizacijski vidiki prenosa znanja / [ed] Darka Podmenik, Ljubljana: Inštitut za razvojne in strateške analize (IRSA) , 2008, p. 43-60Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Department of Urban Planning and Environment.
    Multidimensional Entrepreneurship: Theoretical Considerations and Swedish Empirics2011In: Regional Science Policy & Practice, E-ISSN 1757-7802, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 199-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship is often defined as merely the starting-up of new firms. There are obvious advantages in using this simplified definition, not least regarding measurement, but with such a definition there is also a great risk in missing important aspects of entrepreneurship and how it emerges and develops. Therefore, this paper takes its starting point in a broader definition according to which entrepreneurship is a chain of activities, including discovery of opportunities, evaluation of them and gathering resources in order to exploit these opportunities. Based on this definition, this paper examines entrepreneurship in six different spheres of society: economic; social; civil; political; academic; and innovative entrepreneurship. It can be assumed that the six forms of entrepreneurship mutually have impacts on each other, but that the directions of these impacts can vary. This paper makes a first investigation of the six dimensions of entrepreneurship in Sweden and the connections between them and measures of growth at the local government level and in various spatial areas. Economic entrepreneurship, measured in the form of start-ups, is having the strongest connections to growth of population and employment in all types of local government areas. Political entrepreneurship seems completely unimportant for growth of metropolitan and high-growth areas, but strongly correlated to growth in rural and low and medium growth areas.

  • 49.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Nyttiggörande också bortom den egna sektorn: samhällsentreprenörskap och socialt kapital2009In: Samhällets entreprenörer: En forskarantologi om samhällsentreprenörskap, Stockholm: KK-stiftelsen , 2009, p. 234-251Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre.
    Regional effects of universities and higher education: A knowledge overview of Swedish, Scandinavian and international experience.2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing role of knowledge as the base of the economy has meant growing expectations of universities all over the world to function as engines for regional growth. The independent role of universities is slowly being replaced by governmental policies for human capital formation, knowledge dispersion, innovation systems, triple helix, etc. One example is Sweden’s new University Act that added a third task to universities’ two traditional tasks, education and research,viz. cooperation with surrounding society. Theoretically, this change in policy is supported the hypothesis presented by Gibbons et al (1995) of an emerging Mode 2 of knowledge production. Based on Swedish, Scandinavian and international experience, this paper summarizes knowledge of regional effects of universities and higher education. One conclusion is that the “regiment effect” (Florax 1992) seems to be the most obvious regional effect of universities and that hopes for university-led innovative regional development have hitherto seldom been fulfilled. The paper also analyses the obstacles to more intimate cooperation between universities and surrounding society and knowledge production a la Mode 2. This analysis is performed by applying the concept of social capital. Two of the conclusions are that most regions do not have the capacity to absorb the output of the universities (Florida & Cohen 1999), and that the internal social capital of universities is not adapted to governments’ demands, nor are the relations between universities and other stakeholders in regions.

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