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  • 1. Acs, Z. J.
    et al.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Introduction to Institutions, Entrepreneurship, and Firm Growth: From Sweden to the OECD2002Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 19, nr 3, s. 183-187Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2.
    Acs, Zoltan J.
    et al.
    LSE, London, UK, George Mason University, Faifax, USA.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS). Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Philippe Aghion: recipient of the 2016 Global Award for Entrepreneurship Research2017Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 48, nr 1, s. 1-8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Professor Philippe Aghion is the 2016 recipient of the Global Award for Entrepreneurship Research, consisting of 100,000 Euros and a statuette designed by the internationally renowned Swedish sculptor Carl Milles. He is one of the most influential researchers worldwide in economics in the last couple of decades. His research has advanced our understanding of the relationship between firm-level innovation, entry and exit on the one hand, and productivity and growth on the other. Aghion has thus accomplished to bridge theoretical macroeconomic growth models with a more complete and consistent microeconomic setting. He is one of the founding fathers of the pioneering and original contribution referred to as Schumpeterian growth theory. Philippe Aghion has not only contributed with more sophisticated theoretical models, but also provided empirical evidence regarding the importance of entrepreneurial endeavours for societal prosperity, thereby initiating a more nuanced policy discussion concerning the interdependencies between entrepreneurship, competition, wealth and growth.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Bjerke, Lina
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Import flows: extraregional linkages stimulating renewal of regional sectors?2013Inngår i: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 45, nr 12, s. 2999-3017Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the role of regional import flows for renewal of regional industries. The hypothesis is that imports stimulate renewal of local industries by being vehicles for technology diffusion and means by which local firms can exploit advantages of global specialisation. We find robust and positive relationships between high-quality imports and renewal of regional exports, where the latter are measured by the introduction of novel export products of local firms. Connectedness to international markets via import networks appears to be a stimulus for the renewal of regional exports. 

  • 4.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Lunds Universitet, Department of Industrial, Lund, Sweden.
    Bjerke, Lina
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS). Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre. Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Institutet för näringslivsanalys. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Introduction2017Inngår i: Geographies of Growth: Innovations, Networks and Collaborations, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2017, s. 1-15Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 5.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Industry R&D Location: The Role of Accessibility to University R&D and Institutions of Higher Education2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    The Role of Higher Education and University R&D for Industrial R&D Location2009Inngår i: Universities, Knowledge Transfer And Regional Development, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar , 2009, s. 85-108Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Lund.
    Johansson, Börje
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Lööf, Hans
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Introduction: Innovation and  Growth - From R&D Strategies of Innovating Firms to Economy-Wide Technological Change2012Inngår i: Innovation & Growth: From R&D Strategies of Innovating Firms to Economy-Wide Technological Change / [ed] Martin Andersson, Börje Johansson, Charlie Karlsson and Hans Lööf, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, s. 1-17Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 8.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Johansson, Börje
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Lööf, Hans
    Multinationals in the Knowledge Economy - a Case Study of AstraZeneca in Sweden2010Inngår i: Repositioning Europe and America for Growth: The role of governments and private actors in key policy areas / [ed] Enerhard Bohne and Charlie Karlsson, Berlin: LIT Verlag , 2010, s. 233-278Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Knowledge Accessibility and Regional Economic Growth2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Regional Innovation Systems in Small and Medium-Sized Regions: A Critical Review and Assessment2004Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 11.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    The role of accessibility for regional innovation systems2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 12.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    The Role of Accessibility for the Performance of Regional Innovation Systems2004Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 13.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Bjerke, Lina
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Imports and renewal of regional exports2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 14.
    Andersson, Åke. E
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Batten, D.FKarlsson, CharlieHögskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Knowledge and Industrial Organization1989Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 15.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Age of managers and employees – Firm survival2020Inngår i: Journal of the Economics of Ageing, ISSN 2212-828X, Vol. 15, artikkel-id 100215Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many developed countries will face a disproportionately large share of older individuals in the future. This change may lead to a labour force characterized by older employees and older operational managers. This paper contributes to the existing literature on the effect of aging on firm performance by performing an explorative analysis of how the age of the operational manager and the age composition of employees relate to the survival of Swedish firms during 2004–2013. We observe that the relationship between the age of the operational manager and firm exit changes functional shape when separated into different firm-size categories. Additionally, the age of the operational manager tends to be more important for new firms compared to incumbents. The share of older employees is positively associated with firm survival. 

    Fulltekst tilgjengelig fra 2021-10-25 00:01
  • 16.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Determinants of entrepreneurship. Is it all about the individual or the region?2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established at whatever spatial level studied that economic actors exhibit a strong tendency to cluster. Despite this fact many explanations to entrepreneurship only considers the personal characteristics of entrepreneurs. This is certainly not a satisfactory state-of-the-art. It is obvious that the influence of spatial factors must be considered carefully. In this paper we illustrate empirically that variations in the rate of entrepreneurship are explained not only in terms of characteristics of entrepreneurs, such as education, sector of employment, occupation, experience and income but also by the characteristics of i) the localities where they worked before they became entrepreneurs, ii) the localities where they currently started their firm and iii) the regions where these localities are situated. The characteristics of localities include size, population density, firm density and type of locality (metropolitan, urban, semi-rural or rural). The estimations use a multi-level approach to decipher the how much of the variance that can be explained by the different levels (individual, locality and region). The data used in this study is micro-level data for Sweden provided by Statistics Sweden.

  • 17.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS). Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Determinants of self-employment among commuters and non-commuters2016Inngår i: Papers in regional science (Print), ISSN 1056-8190, E-ISSN 1435-5957, Vol. 95, nr 4, s. 755-774Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse the determinants of self-employment and focus on the contextual environment. By distinguishing between commuters and non-commuters we are able to analyse the influence from the work and home environment, respectively. Our results indicate a significant difference between non-commuters and commuters in terms of the role of networks for becoming self-employed. Our results indicate that it is the business networks where people work, rather than where they live that exerts a positive influence on the probability of becoming self-employed. These effects are further robust over educational and occupational categories.

  • 18.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Entrepreneurship and age across time and space2018Inngår i: Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie, ISSN 0040-747X, E-ISSN 1467-9663, Vol. 109, nr 3, s. 371-385Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies confirm an inverted U-shaped relationship between age and entrepreneurship. This paper deepens the understanding of this relationship by analysing how the relationship varies across time and across different types of regions, aspects often overlooked in the current literature. An individual perspective is taken, and the probability of starting a firm is expected to increase as individuals' age but at a decreasing rate. The results show significant differences in the relationship between the age of individuals and the rate of entrepreneurship across time and space. The age-entrepreneurship profile has shifted to the left over time such that individuals are younger when they start firms. 

  • 19.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Human Capital and New Firm Formation2007Inngår i: Uddevalla Symposium 2007: institutions for knowledge generation and knowledge flows - building innovative capabilities for regions : papers presented at the 10th Uddevalla Symposium, 14-16 June, 2007, Uddevalla, Sweden, Trollhättan: Department of Economics and Informatics, University West , 2007, s. 185-204Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 20.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Location of New Firms: Influence of Commuting Behaviour2017Inngår i: Growth and Change, ISSN 0017-4815, E-ISSN 1468-2257, Vol. 48, nr 4, s. 682-699Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the entrepreneurship literature, it is generally assumed that an individual establishes a new firm in a location in which they have strong ties, normally in the municipality of residence or employment. We scrutinise this general assumption and show that firm location depends on individual characteristics, such as the commuting experience. Our results show that commuting influences the firm location choice. The probability of establishing a firm in the work municipality increases if the entrepreneur is a commuter, holding constant the type of region and unobservable and observable individual features. 

  • 21.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Who says life is over after 55? Entrepreneurship and an aging population2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies confirm a positive inverted U-shaped relationship between age and entrepreneurship. This paper analyses if this statement is true also for Sweden. By focusing on those above the age of 50, this paper adds knowledge about how individuals close to their retirement act in terms of self-employment and to what extent they contributeas entrepreneurs to the overall society. First, it analyses at the regional level the propensity of older people to start firms with a focus on the relationship between different age cohorts and the rate of new firm formation. At the second stage, an individual perspective is taken where the probability to become self-employed is expected to increase as individuals become older but at a decreasing rate. By decomposing the population in different age cohorts, it is possible to find differences in the probability of becoming self-employed. To increase and deepen the knowledge about the relationship between age and entrepreneurship this paper further adds to existing literature by separating regions into different categories along the urban-rural hierarchy. The results in this paper confirm that the rate of entrepreneurship first increases and then decreases with age. Individuals above both 55 and 64 have a positive influence on the rate of entrepreneurship at both the regional as well as the individual level. The impact is stronger in locations that are more rural.

  • 22.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Johansson, Börje
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Stadsförnyelse i Norrköping och Linköping: Konsekvenser av Ostlänken, regional infrastruktur och investeringar i stadskärnorna2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 23.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Karlsson, CharlieHögskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.Kekezi, OrsaHögskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Handbook of research on entrepreneurship and aging2019Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many developed countries are facing a demographic change with an increasing share of older individuals, yet little is known about how older workers will impact regional and national economies in terms of labor market dynamics. This Handbook deals with the important and emerging field of entrepreneurship among this group and focuses on the behavioral perspectives of this phenomenon; on innovation, dynamics and performance; and the ways entrepreneurship among the elderly looks within different countries.

    [From publisher's description]

  • 24.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Kekezi, Orsa
    Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Introduction to the Handbook of research on entrepreneurship and aging2019Inngår i: Handbook of research on entrepreneurship and aging / [ed] M. Backman, C. Karlsson & O. Kekezi, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2019, , s. 448s. 1-22Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst tilgjengelig fra 2020-05-05 00:00
  • 25.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Petersson, Lars
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Klaesson, Johan
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Konsekvensanalys av projektet "Handelscentrum Ljungby Shop Stop"2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 26. Batten, D.F
    et al.
    Karlsson, CharlieHögskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Infrastructure and the Complexity of Economic Development1996Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 27. Bettinelli, C.
    et al.
    Dossena, G.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Entrepreneurial propensity: An Empirical Investigation2010Inngår i: En­trepreneurship Today / [ed] Dossena, G., Milano: McGraw-Hill, 2010, s. 49-71Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 28.
    Bjerke, Lina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Andersson, Martin
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Import of Products and Export Innovation2008Inngår i: Uddevalla Symposium 2008: spatial dispersed production and network governance: papers presented at the 11th Uddevalla Symposium, 15-17 May, 2008, Kyoto, Japan / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: Department of Economics and IT, University West , 2008, s. 31-53Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 29.
    Bjerke, Lina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Handelskontakter i Borås: en studie av export- och importflöden2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 30.
    Bjerke, Lina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Metropolitan Regions and Product Innovation2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In smaller countries, the non-metropolitan regions are to a substantial degree linked togetherwith the metropolitan regions through various networks. The national infrastructure andtransport networks are often organised with the metropolitan region as the central hub. Thiscreates a number of dependencies between the metropolitan region and the non-metropolitanregions in a small country. In this paper we focus on the role that metropolitan regions playfor the renewal of the export base in the non-metropolitan regions in a small country. Theanalytical part can be divided into three main parts: i) the role of the Stockholm metropolitanregion for the renewal of the export base in the rest of Sweden between 1997 and 2003; ii)which non-metropolitan regions gain renewal of their export base; and iii) what factors canexplain the spatial distribution of these gains. The results show that distance has little to dowith the potential success of an export products diffused from Stockholm. Instead, regionalcharacteristics such as a large manufacturing sector, educational level, size of public and/oragricultural sector, and access to producer services have a larger influential potential.

  • 31.
    Bjuggren, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Andersson, Åke E.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Johansson, Börje
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Kommunal markskatt är mycket bättre2006Inngår i: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, Vol. 22 septemberArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 32. Blum, U.
    et al.
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    Abstract [en]

    The Lisbon Agenda that was launched in 2000, and had a set time-period of ten years. The purpose of the Lisbon Agenda was to make the EU the most competitive, knowledge-based economy in the world, and at the same time preserving, or even improving social cohesion and maintain environmental sustainability. The Lisbon Agenda had a large number of goals, in both quantified and qualified measures, in different areas. The main instrument that was put forward was the open method of co-ordination (OMC) that includes indicators, benchmarking, peer pressure, and best practise demonstrations.

    The forthcoming Lisbon Agenda will certainly need new approaches, and new instruments. One of the areas of instruments that can be further explored is innovation policies where the use of R&D and human capital is enhanced. Human capital is a natural part of a knowledge-based economy, and has positive impacts on growth, and jobs in the economy. Innovation policy instruments are diversified and are integrated in many areas of an economy and on many levels, which make them ideal for the next Lisbon Agenda. The instruments can have a general or specific characteristics and some span over the two characteristics.

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    Backman, Mikaela
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    Juusola, Pia
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    The Lisbon Agenda from 2000 to 20102007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
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