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  • 1.
    Eslami, Mohammad H.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship, Linköping, Sweden.
    Knowledge integration with customers in collaborative product development project2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Driven by rapid technological developments, greater customer expectations, and increased product complexity,product development processes increasingly rely on the integration of dispersed specialist knowledge.Consequently, many industrial firms are changing the way they approach product development. Productdevelopment increasingly relies on knowledge integration across firm boundaries. Customers are one of the mostindispensable sources of knowledge, and their knowledge needs to be integrated during product development.However, little is known about the processes and mechanisms used to integrate customer knowledge in productdevelopment.Therefore, firms must devise processes and mechanisms that support knowledge integration withcustomers. This thesis aims to investigate knowledge integration with customers in collaborative productdevelopment.

    The work described in this thesis combines a case study with a survey approach. More specifically, five casestudies were conducted at three industrial manufacturing firms. Data were collected in 46 interviews, along withinformal discussions, workshops, and secondary material. The case studies revealed the role of knowledgeintegration, knowledge integration mechanisms, and the importance of contextual factors related to the customer’stechnical capability, and the locus of initiative for the product development project. A cross-sectional survey wasperformed in order to ascertain the role of knowledge integration and its effect on innovation performance and theeffect of firms and customers’ technical capability and locus of initiative on knowledge integration withcustomers. The survey study generated 216 responses from firms operating in the Swedish manufacturingindustry.

    This thesis consists of a compiled summary and five appended papers. The results in these provide the basis formodelling knowledge integration with customers. The findings confirm that integrating knowledge withcustomers in product development is associated with better innovation performance. Further, the results point tothe dynamic characteristics of knowledge integration in product development processes. More specifically, firmstend to apply different combinations of mechanisms in different phases, depending on the intended content of theknowledge contribution of the customer and the requirements of each phase in the development process. Inaddition, the degree of technical capability, internal integration capability, and locus of initiative are importantfactors influencing knowledge integration processes. This thesis sheds new light on collaborative productdevelopment with customers by demonstrating that knowledge, and particularly the integration of knowledgeacross firm boundaries, is a central property of product development. The study focuses on industrial andmanufacturing firms, complementing current perspectives on the role of customers in other sectors. In thisparticular sector, complexity and system-wide implications need to be resolved together with customers throughknowledge integration activities. An important implication of the thesis is that firms need to devise mechanismsfor knowledge integration with customers, and be prepared to redevise these as the firm progresses through theproduct development phases.

  • 2.
    Eslami, Mohammad H.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköpings universitet, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap.
    Internal integration in complex collaborative product development projects2016In: International Journal of Innovation Management, ISSN 1363-9196, E-ISSN 1757-5877, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 1-28, article id 1650008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the importance of internal integration for effective inter-firm collaboration with suppliers is widely acknowledged, it is presently unclear how it is achieved in complex collaborative product development projects. This paper aims to address this gap in extant knowledge by investigating the internal integration approaches and exploring related project management challenges. Specifically, three internal integration approaches are found, namely integration based on multidirectional, frequent interaction; integration based on delimited, problem-solving; and based on unidirectional, information-oriented interaction. The study findings suggest that internal integration approaches are related to the degree of uncertainty in the subsystems of the suppliers, rather than the overall product system. Consequently, in complex product development projects involving many internal functions and several different suppliers, the specific supplier tasks, rather than the overall project structure and aims, determine the mode of internal integration required. This complexity creates important challenges for organisation, and requires flexibility in internal integration approaches.

  • 3.
    Eslami, Mohammad H.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköpings universitet, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap.
    Knowledge integration with customers in collaborative product development projects2016In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 31, no 7, p. 889-900Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This paper addresses the need for managerial and organizational approaches to knowledge integration with customer in collaborative product development projects. The purpose is to identify the roles of customers in terms of the customer's knowledge contribution and timing of customer collaboration in the product development process.

    Design/methodology/approach

    This study is based on a multi-case study approach, comprising four product development projects from two large international suppliers. The cases were selected following the theoretical replication logic. Data consist of interviews, workshops, and secondary information. For each of the cases, a within case analysis was performed followed by a cross-case analysis.

    Findings

    The study shows that the customer's knowledge contribution is aligned with the specific requirements of each phase of the product development. Three specific customer roles are identified and connected to the customer's knowledge contribution and the timing of customer collaboration. The technical capability of the customer and the locus of initiative of the product development project are affecting the prerequisites for knowledge integration with customers.

    Research limitations/implications

    The study is performed from the perspective of supplier firms. We have not been able to capture the perspective of the customer in detail. As it is expected that both customers and suppliers benefit from a systematic knowledge exchange, future studies could examine knowledge contributions in both directions.

    Practical implications

    The findings can be used to devise effective approaches for collaborative product development with customers related to the customer's knowledge contribution and the timing of customer collaboration and provide guidance to firms seeking to benefit from knowledge residing at customers.

    Originality/value

    This is one of the first studies to focus on the integration of customers' knowledge in product development processes. This paper contributes to the customer supplier collaboration literature by presenting further insight into customers' knowledge contributions, the timing of customer collaboration in product development processes and the prerequisites for knowledge integration with customers.

  • 4.
    Eslami, Mohammad H.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship, Linköping, Sweden.
    Knowledge Integration with customers in Innovation: Empirical Evidence from Swedish Manufacturing Firms2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Eslami, Mohammad H.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship, Linköping, Sweden.
    Making the most out of customer collaboration in product development process -  The role of knowledge integration2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Eslami, Mohammad H.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship, Linköping, Sweden.
    The role of technical capability and locus of initiative on knowledge integration with customers in collaborative product development2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Eslami, Mohammad H.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköpings universitet, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap.
    Brusoni, Stefano
    ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    The dynamics of knowledge integration in collaborative product development: Evidence from the capital goods industry2018In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 75, p. 146-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on an in-depth single case study of a collaborative product development project, this paper argues that knowledge integration mechanisms change across the different phases of the product development process, reflecting changes in the content and sources of knowledge to be integrated. Our findings imply that managers need to be able to adapt and change their knowledge integration approaches throughout product development processes. We discuss implications for the use of product development models when integration of knowledge with customers is an essential part of a firm's attempt to create a competitive advantage.

  • 8.
    Eslami, Mohammad H.
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC).
    Melander, Lisa
    Chalmers University, Department of Technology Management, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Exploring uncertainties in collaborative product development: Managing customer-supplier collaborations2019In: Journal of engineering and technology management, ISSN 0923-4748, E-ISSN 1879-1719, Vol. 53, p. 49-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper explores technological, commercial and organizational uncertainties of collaborative product development by customers and suppliers. The empirical data consist of an in-depth single case study of a collaborative product development project. The findings provide a deep insight into the dynamic character of different uncertainties in collaborative product development. The study shows the complexity of managing uncertainties as well as the importance of having not only well-functioning external collaboration but also internal cross-functional collaboration. The findings imply how uncertainties are interrelated and how one type of uncertainty influences other uncertainties, which affects how both customers and suppliers manage the relationship.

  • 9.
    Eslami, Mohammad H.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship, Linköping, Sweden.
    Melander, Lisa
    Chalmers, Teknikens ekonomi och organisation, Supply and Operations Management.
    Organizational challenges when collaborating in product development projects2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Eslami, Mohammad H.
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC).
    Melander, Lisa
    Chalmers University, Department of Technology Management, Göteborg, Sweden.
    The roles of purchasing and marketing in collaborative product development when involving suppliers and customers2019In: Book of abstracts, 2019, p. 49-49Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper aims to investigate the role of purchasing and marketing in collaborative product development when they involve suppliers and customers. Six collaborative development product development projects at different large high-tech firms are studied. The results show that purchasing and marketing differ in regard to their contributions and roles of managing partner relationships. Purchasing appears to collaborate more with R&D and have well-established routines, processes and strategies for handling both technical and relational issues with suppliers. Marketing, on the other hand collaborate less with R&D and have fewer routines, processes and strategies for managing customers involved in product development.

  • 11.
    Eslami, Mohammad H.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship, Linköping, Sweden.
    Oinonen, Minna
    Lappeenranta University of Technology Department of Value Network Management.
    Knowledge integration between customers and suppliers during solution development process2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines knowledge integration processes that take place between suppliers and their customers, with a specific focus on how suppliers integrate the knowledge of their customers in their new solution development processes. Five customer collaborations in a four-solution development process at one Swedish and one Finnish international supplier are studied. The findings indicate that knowledge integration between supplier and customer in the ideation, development and commercialization phase of the solution development process is not performed uniformly. In fact, evidence suggests that the knowledge integrating intensity and the content of knowledge might change throughout the solution development process. The paper’s contribution to the managerial practice lies in the findings that can help suppliers manage their expectations regarding the knowledge that they could attain in each phase of the solution development process.

  • 12.
    Eslami, Mohammad H.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship, Linköping, Sweden.
    Rosell, David T.
    Linköpings universitet, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap.
    Melander, Lisa
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Kunder och leverantörer i öppna respektive slutna innovationssamarbeten2016In: Öppen innovation: i teori och praktik / [ed] Nicolette Lakemond, Fredrik Tell, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, p. 203-220Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Viberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Eslami, Mohammad H.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC).
    The effect of machine learning on knowledge-intensive R&D in the technology industry2020In: Technology Innovation Management Review, ISSN 1927-0321, E-ISSN 1927-0321, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 87-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of such current state-of-the-art technology as machine learning (ML) on organizational knowledge integration is indisputable. This paper synergizes investigations of knowledge integration and ML in technologically advanced and innovative companies, in order to elucidate the value of these approaches to organizational performance. The analyses are based on the premise that, to fully benefit from the latest technological advances, entity interpretation is essential to fully define what has been learned. Findings yielded by a single case study involving one technological firm indicate that tacit and explicit knowledge integration can occur simultaneously using ML, when a data analysis method is applied to transcribe spoken words. Although the main contribution of this study stems from the greater understanding of the applicability of machine learning in organizational contexts, general recommendations for use of this analytical method to facilitate integration of tacit and explicit knowledge are also provided.

  • 14.
    Viberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden .
    Eslami, Mohammad H.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC).
    Malm, Anna
    Combitech, Linköping, Sweden.
    The potentials of machine learning in knowledge integration2019Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 14 of 14
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