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  • 1.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Industriell Produktion.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Industriell Produktion.
    Composite Manufacturing: How Improvement Work Might Lead to Renewed Product Validation2012In: Proceedings of the 5th International Swedish Production Symposium / [ed] Mats Björkman, 2012, p. 505-513Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-performance polymer composites are mainly used in applications where the benefits of high strength and low weight justify the high material and manufacturing costs. Many of these applications are found today in the aerospace, space and defense industries. Most of today’s commonly used manufacturing methods within this area are highly labor intensive. Furthermore, the quality requirements from the customers require a high level of process control. The purpose of this paper is to explore how changes that are introduced in order to improve productivity in a manufacturing system are managed, particularly with regard to who takes the decision to implement a change and how a change is validated. The study is based on qualitative interviews performed at several companies that manufacture composite components for the aerospace, space and defense sectors. The findings show that the responsibility for deciding to implement a change and the need for validating it are based on many diverse and interconnected factors. Therefore, it is difficult to construct guidelines for early assessment of the scope and cost of a proposed change. Hence each individual change request must be evaluated on its own. The study also shows that the validation process can be adapted to a level that is based on the type of change. In addition, it highlights that control over process parameters in manufacturing is essential.

  • 2.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Industriell Produktion.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Alexandersson, Dan
    GKN Aerospace Applied Composites AB.
    Three-Dimensional Ultrasonic Cutting of RTM-Preforms – A Part of a High Volume Production System2013In: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Composite Materials, 28th July - 2nd August 2013, Montreal, Canada: Composite Materials:The Great Advance / [ed] Suong Van Hoa & Pascal Hubert, Electronic Publishing BytePress.com , 2013, p. 8960-8969Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process parameters for an automated, three-dimensional ultrasonic cutting process of RTM-preforms are examined in order to find how they affect the cutting quality.

  • 3.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Industriell Produktion.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Thuswaldner, Michael
    RUAG Space AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Automated Composite Manufacturing Using Off-the-shelf Automation Equipment – A Case from the Space Industry2014In: Proceedings of the 16th European Conference on Composite Materials, 22nd-26th June 2014, Seville, Spain, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel approach to the manufacturing of composite products using off-the-shelf automation equipment is explored in this article. A manufacturing concept for a specific product is developed and analyzed, from a technical perspective, in order to find areas where off-the-shelf automation equipment can be used. The article also highlights areas where case-specific solutions need to be developed. In this particular case, off-the-shelf automation equipment can be used for most of the tasks that the manufacturing system needs to perform. The most challenging process is identified as the application of adhesive. The manufacturing concept described in the article shows that it is possible to build a system for the manufacturing of composite components using a high degree of off-the-shelf automation equipment.

  • 4.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Industriell Produktion.
    Jonsson, Marie
    Swerea Sicomp, Compraser Labs, Bröderna Ugglas Gata hus 208B, 58188 Linköping, Sweden.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Automated material handling in compostie manufacturing using pick-and-place systems - a review2018In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 51, p. 222-229Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing use of fiber reinforced polymer composites follows a natural pursuit for more rational and effective manufacturing. Robotic pick-and-place systems can be used to automate handling of a multitude of materials used in the manufacturing of composite parts. There are systems developed for automated layup of prepreg, dry fibers and thermoplastic blanks as well as to handle auxiliary materials used in manufacturing. The aim of this paper is to highlight the challenges associated with automated handling of these materials and to analyze the main design principles that have been employed for pick-and-place systems in terms of handling strategy, reconfigurability, gripping technology and distribution of gripping points etc. The review shows that it is hard to find generic solutions for automated material handling due to the great variety in material properties. Few cases of industrial applications in full-scale manufacturing could be identified.

  • 5.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Industriell Produktion.
    Jonsson, Marie
    Swerea Sicomp, Compraser Labs.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Automation of Composite Manufacturing Using Off-the-shelf Solutions, Three Cases from the Aerospace Industry2015In: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Composite Materials, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With an increased use of composite materials follows a need for rational, cost-efficient manufacturing processes. This paper explores how off-the-shelf solutions, developed for other purposes than composite manufacturing, can be used to build systems for automated composite manufacturing. Three demonstrators, each of them dealing with a specific type of material and all of them representing different manufacturing technologies for automated composite manufacturing, are presented and analyzed to find aspects that affect the ability to use off-the-shelf solutions. The three demonstrators target low to medium manufacturing volumes of complex products and they have been developed in collaboration with industrial partners within the aerospace industry. The conclusions drawn from the development of the demonstrators are that it is technically feasible to use off-the-shelf solutions in the three cases while adhering to the high quality standards of the industry. Furthermore three groups of aspects, quality aspects, product aspects and system aspects, which affect the ability to use off-the-shelf solutions for automated composite manufacturing, are identified.

  • 6.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Industriell Produktion.
    Jonsson, Marie
    Swerea SICOMP.
    Lindbäck, Jan Erik
    Saab Aerostructures.
    Åkermo, Malin
    Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Robot-Forming of Prepreg Stacks ‐ Development of Equipment and Methods2016In: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Composite Materials (ECCM17), 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the aerospace industry the manufacturing of composite components with complex shapes, such as spars, ribs and beams are often manufactured using manual layup and forming of prepreg material. Automated processes for prepreg layup and efficient forming techniques like vacuum forming are sometimes difficult to employ to these type of products due to technical limitations. This paper describes the development of tools and the forming sequence needed to automate sequential forming of a complex shape using an industrial robot. Plane prepreg stacks are formed to the final shape using a dual-arm industrial robot equipped with rolling tools. Tests show that the developed tools and the employed sequence can be used to form stacks to the desired shape with acceptable quality.

  • 7.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Industriell Produktion.
    Lindbäck, Jan Erik
    Saab Aerostructures.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Automated Removal of Prepreg Backing Paper - A Sticky Problem2013In: Proceedings of the SAE 2013, Aerotech Congress and Exhibition, 24th-26th September 2013, Montreal,Canada, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated solutions for manufacturing composite products based on prepreg often imply Automatic Fiber Placement or Automatic Tape Laying. These systems are generally associated with huge investments. For certain manufacturing applications it is interesting to investigate alternatives to find simpler and less costly automation. One example of an automated system could be the use of a standard industrial robot to pick single prepreg plies from an automated cutting machine and stack them to form a plane laminate. This paper is based on a case illustrating a product from the aircraft manufacturing industry. The case will demonstrate a pick and place concept on a general level and illustrate challenges that must be solved. The challenge selected to be the main focus for this paper is an automated process for backing paper removal. A literature review of different gripping technologies reveals several interesting technologies, and the most promising are tested for backing paper removal. The tests show that an automated removal process can be designed by using standard vacuum grippers in combination with mechanical clamping grippers. In order to lift the backing paper with a vacuum gripper an initial separation between the backing paper and prepreg is needed. This separation is most easily mechanically induced by bending the material. The proposed solution for automatic backing paper removal can be integrated in a manufacturing cell for manufacturing of the studied product.

  • 8.
    Comstock, Mica
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik.
    Towards the mass customization of mobile telephones: current strategy and scenarios for realization at Ericsson2001In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Production Research, 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paradigm of Mass Production is being challenged in a number of industries where fragmented markets and the customer's desire for individualized products have become the norm. In the largest consumer electronics industry in the world, that of mobile telephones, manufacturers are well aware of these trends. Many of these same manufacturers are responding with Mass Customization, which has been defined as customized production at Mass Production efficiency and speed. This research, conducted at Ericsson Mobile Communications AB in Sweden, explores the implications of implementing a Mass Customization strategy for the production of mobile telephones. The paper begins with an objective presentation of Mass Customization, which lays the foundation for a discussion of the strategy's applicability at Ericsson and in the mobile telephone industry as a whole. The study focused on the past, present, and projected roles of customized production at the company, and investigated its potential for Mass Customization in the future. Two frameworks from the customized manufacturing literature guided the data collection and analysis in the case. Findings from the study point towards minimal, yet increasing customization at Ericsson, and highlight recent efforts towards the realization of increasingly customer-focused production there. The applicability of different Mass Customization scenarios for Ericsson and its industry is also discussed.

  • 9.
    Comstock, Mica
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Winroth, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering.
    Project Course within Assembly-NET2002Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Diffner, Björn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Monteringsteknik.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Monteringsteknik.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Monteringsteknik.
    Manufacturing Challenges Associated With the introduction of New Powertrain Vehicles2011In: Proceedings of 21st International Conference on Production Research ICPR21, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For the automotive industry, where the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) has had complete dominance, the transition to new powertrains will be challenging. The new powertrain vehicles must be manufactured with the same efficiency as ICE vehicles in order to reach a competitive price. This article explores some of the manufacturing challenges related to workload differences in current products and those associated with the introduction of new powertrain vehicles in a Mixed Model Assembly line for ICE vehicles. Three possible solutions to workload differences are described in theory, including how they are used in the current manufacturing system and how they might be used when introducing new powertrain vehicles. The solutions found were sequencing, dedicated assembly stations and modularity. In conclusion, it is suggested that modularity is the most efficient method in terms of flexibility and utilization, and some design approaches to facilitate efficient manufacturing are also suggested.

  • 11.
    Diffner, Björn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Monteringsteknik.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Monteringsteknik.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Monteringsteknik.
    Successful Automotive Platform Strategy – Key Factors2011In: Proceedings of the 4th International Swedish Production Symposium, 2011, p. 85-92Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to describe the benefits, problems and challenges associated with a platform strategy. Based on theoretical and empirical studies, some key factors for a successful platform strategy are identified and discussed. This paper also explores how a successful platform strategy in the automotive industry should be designed. There is no stringent platform definition in the automotive industry, and the definition varies between different manufacturers and over time. A literature review has been completed to identify some key factors in successful platform strategies. The identified factors are as follows: Bill of Process, Hard Points, Wheelbase, Track Width, Powertrain Architecture and Drive Wheel Positioning. These factors were then investigated at both SAAB Automobile and Volvo Cars through the authors´ own observations conducted during factory visits and interviews. This was done in order to evaluate the identified factors from their effect on the production system and the final product. These factors are considered important to be able to get scale benefits from the use of common components and production processes, at the same time as they allow vehicles to be tailored for different markets and customer needs.

  • 12.
    Diffner, Björn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Monteringsteknik.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Monteringsteknik.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Monteringsteknik.
    To stay competitive in future automotive assembly – Some challenges related to flexibility2011In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management (IEOM 2012), 2011, p. 62-67Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The undergoing adaptation of mass customization, alongside the development and demand for new power trains, is challenging the manufacturing system of automotive manufacturers. This, in combination with demands from emerging markets and constantly decreasing product lifecycles, calls for increased flexibility. Based on the research findings, key flexibility types for the automotive industry were identified as Mix, New Product, Modification and Volume flexibility. To achieve these flexibilities, the mixed model assembly, modularity and platform strategies are identified as important factors. A generic BOP as part of the platform strategy is central to enable transferring of production.

  • 13.
    Fredriksson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Malm, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Industriell Produktion.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    What are the differences between related offset and outsourcing?: A case study of a related offset business at Saab2016In: International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation, ISSN 1470-6075, E-ISSN 1741-5284, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 132-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, offset contracts have become more complex. For the seller to carry through and review the effects and the demands of an offset contract, they need a framework.The paper identifies five main differences between outsourcing and related offset, which are translated into activities to be included in a suggested related offset framework. The paper is based on an in-depth case study of a related offset business at Saab, a Swedish military aircraft producer. The analysis compared the studied case with an existing outsourcing process identified in literature. The paper contributes by providing an overview of the activities taking place during a related offset process and showing the effect of the different hierarchical levels involved in the process on the efficiency of the fulfilment of the offset business. This paper is based on a single case study, and the suggested differences should be verified through further case studies.

  • 14.
    Gopinath, Varun
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Risk Assessment Process for Collaborative Assembly - A Job Safety Analysis Approach2016In: 6th CIRP Conference on Assembly Technologies and Systems (CATS) / [ed] R. Söderberg, Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 44, p. 199-203Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International safety standards state that risk assessment is the first step in understanding and eliminating hazardous work environment. The traditional method of risk assessment using Job Safety Analysis, where sequential tasks of the operator are analysed for potential risks, needs to be adapted to applications where humans and robots collaborate to complete assembly tasks. This article proposes a novel approach by placing equal emphasis on various participants working within their workspaces. An industrial case study wil be used to showcase the merits of the process when used at an early stage in the development of a collaborative assembly cell. 

  • 15.
    Gopinath, Varun
    et al.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Understanding situational and mode awareness for safe human-robot collaboration: case studies on assembly applications2019In: Production Engineering, ISSN 0944-6524, E-ISSN 1863-7353, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order for humans and robots to collaborate on an assembly line, safety of operations is a prerequisite. In this article, two assembly stations where a large industrial robots collaborate with humans will be analysed with the aim to 1. determine the characteristics of hazards associated with human-robot interaction and 2. design solutions that can mitigate risks associated with these hazards. To support the aim of this article, a literature review will attempt to characterize automation and detail the problems associated with human-automation interaction. The analysis points at situational awareness and mode-awareness as contributing factors to operator and process safety. These underlying mechanisms, if recognised by the risk assessment team as hazards, can mitigate risks of operator injury or production delays. This article details the function of visual and physical interfaces that allow operators to comprehend system-state in order to avoid undesirable situations. 

  • 16.
    Gopinath, Varun
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Andersson (Ölvander), Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Risk Assessment for Collaborative Operation: A Case Study on Hand-Guided Industrial Robots2018In: Risk Assessment / [ed] Valentina Svalova, InTech , 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk assessment is a systematic and iterative process, which involves risk analysis, where probable hazards are identified, and then corresponding risks are evaluated along with solutions to mitigate the effect of these risks. In this article, the outcome of a risk assessment process will be detailed, where a large industrial robot is used as an intelligent and flexible lifting tool that can aid operators in assembly tasks. The realization of a collaborative assembly station has several benefits, such as increased productivity and improved ergonomic work environment. The article will detail the design of the layout of a collaborative assembly workstation, which takes into account the safety and productivity concerns of automotive assembly plants. The hazards associated with hand-guided collaborative operations will also be presented.

  • 17.
    Gopinath, Varun
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Derelöv, Micael
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Demonstrators to support research in Industrial safety - A Methodology2018In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 17, p. 246-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Activities to support manufacturing research are carried out with the intention to gain knowledge of industrial problems and provide solutions that addresses these issues. In order for solution to be viable to the industry, research activities are carried out in close collaboration with participants from the industry, academia and research institutions. Interactive research approach motivates participants with multi-disciplinary perspective to collaborate and emphasizes joint learning in the change process. This article, presents a methodology, where participants with different expertise can collaborate to develop safety solutions. The concept of a demonstrator, which represents cumulative result of a series of research activities, is presented as a tool to showcase functioning and design intent in a collaborative research environment. The results of a pilot study, where manufacturing professionals evaluated design decisions that resulted in a demonstrator, will be presented. 

  • 18.
    Gopinath, Varun
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Gustafsson, Ake
    Volvo Car Corp, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Stefan
    Volvo Car Corp, Sweden.
    Collaborative Assembly on a Continuously Moving Line - An Automotive Case Study2018In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 17, p. 985-992Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborative operation is a state in which a purposely designed robot system and an operator work within a collaborative workspace. To ensure a safe working environment, safety standards suggest conducting a task-based risk assessment followed by risk reduction to reduce the risks to an acceptable level. In this article, an automotive case study will be used to understand safety issues associated with collaborative operations with large industrial robots. Based on this case study, a layout of the collaborative workstation, in terms of workspaces and tasks, which is the outcome of a risk assessment program will be presented. The first critical step in risk assessment is hazard identification, which can allow the risk assessing team to evaluate the hazards and suggest measures to mitigate the risks. Therefore, the hazards identified during the risk assessment program will also be detailed along with measures to mitigate the risks and is expected to complement our understanding of the nature of hazards associated with collaborative operations with large industrial robots. 

  • 19.
    Gopinath, Varun
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Gustafsson, Åke
    Core Manufacturing Engineer, Volvo Car Coopeation,Göteborg, Sweden.
    Design Criteria For A Conceptual End Effector For Physical Human Robot Production Cell2014In: Proceedings of The 6th International Swedish Production Symposium 2014, Clarion Hotel Post, Göteborg, Sweden, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speed, precision and repeatability are virtues of industrial robots which are relied on by manufacturing firms but also necessitates segregating them within controlled fenced areas. Therefore, industrial robots cannot cooperate with line workers in assembling task. With recent developments in robotics, new possibilities have emerged that can enable manufacturing firms to be flexible and cost effective. This paper presents preliminary results from investigations into the possibility of a man-machine production cell where plastic panels are assembled under the car. A conceptual man-machine collaborative production cell will be presented detailing characteristics required to ensure safety.

  • 20.
    Gopinath, Varun
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Ore, Fredrick
    Global Industrial Development, Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden; Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Safe Assembly Cell Layout through Risk Assessment: An Application with Hand Guided Industrial Robot2017In: Proceedings of the 50th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems / [ed] Mitchell M. Tseng, Hung-Yin Tsai and Yue Wang, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 63, p. 430-435Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk assessment is a systematic and iterative process which involves risk analysis where the probable hazards are identified and corresponding risks are evaluated along with solutions to mitigate the effect of these risks. In this article the outcome of a risk assessment process will be detailed where a large industrial robot is being used as a intelligent and flexible lifting tool that can aid operators in assembly tasks. The realization of a collaborative assembly station has several benefits such as increased productivity and improved ergonomic work environment. The article will detail the design of the layout of a collaborative assembly cell which takes into account the safety and productivity concerns of automotive assembly plants.

  • 21.
    Gopinath, Varun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management & Engineering, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ore, Fredrik
    Global Industrial Development, Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Grahn, Sten
    Swerea IVF, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Management & Engineering, Linköping, Sweden.
    Safety-Focussed Design of Collaborative Assembly Station with Large Industrial Robots2018In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 25, p. 503-510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The perceived benefits of large industrial robots for collaborative operations are characteristics such as long reach with heavy load carrying capability. Collaborative operations refers to situations where operators and robots share a workspace to complete tasks in close proximity. This mode of operation coupled with the physical characteristics of large robots represents high risks to injury and for these reasons, the safeguarding of the workspaces needs to be achieved in conjunction with the tasks to be performed within the workstation. This article will detail two workstations that was developed in a laboratory environment and are partial results of a research project titled ToMM2, whose aim was to understand safety issues associated with collaborative operations with large robots. 

  • 22.
    Grahn, Sten
    et al.
    Swerea IVF AB, Sweden; Mälardalen University (MDH), Sweden.
    Gopinath, Varun
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Wang, Xi, Vincent
    KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm 11428, Sweden.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Exploring a Model for Production System Design to Utilize Large Robots in Human-Robot Collaborative Assembly Cells2018In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 25, p. 612-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been shown that large robots can be safely installed for human-robot collaborative assembly cells in experimental setups. It has also been found that these installations require demanding considerations of a significant number of layout and safety parameters. This indicates that successful commercial implementations will require a resource efficient model for production system design that anticipates utilization of large robots in collaborative settings. Experiences from experimental setups have been used to explore a basic model for such production system design, to stimulate a discussion regarding what model characteristics should be tested and validated in future research.

  • 23.
    Grahn, Sten
    et al.
    Mälardalen University (MDH), Eskilstuna, Sweden / Swerea IVF AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalen University (MDH), Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Safety Assessment Strategy for Collaborative Robot Installations2017In: Robots Operating in Hazardous Environments / [ed] Hüseyin Canbolat, InTech , 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial resource efficiency can be improved if the safety barrier between humans and robots is removed, as this enables operators and robots to work side by side or in direct collaboration to solve a task, usually referred to as a collaborative robot installation. Even though technology development makes the barrier removal ever more feasible from a safety perspective, this still produces a possible hazardous working environment, and safety assessment strategies are crucial. A wide area of knowledge is required to assess all fields that can help ensure safe human-machine interaction. Here the focus is primarily on providing a description of the key fields identified, including how operators psychologically accept working with robots, and providing a cursory description of the research front for each individual field. In addition to covering a large number of parameters, the assessment strategy also needs to be cost-effective. A significant part of all parameters that can be considered when attempting to produce optimized and cost-effective collaborative robot installations will also have a direct impact on operator safety. Hence, assessments for safety, and assessments for cost-effectiveness, cannot be separated, and are treated as two objectives that need to be viewed in sync.

  • 24.
    Grahn, Sten
    et al.
    Swerea IVF AB, Sweden; Malardalen University, Sweden.
    Langbeck, Bjorn
    Swerea IVF AB, Sweden.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Backman, Bjorn
    Swerea IVF AB, Sweden.
    Potential advantages using large anthropomorphic robots in human-robot collaborative, hand guided assembly2016In: 6th CIRP Conference on Assembly Technologies and Systems (CATS) / [ed] R. Söderberg, Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 63, p. 281-286Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborative robot installations often mean man-machine workspace sharing. This mode of operation can lead to reductions of tact time and work space requirements. We have analyzed potential further benefits of man machine collaboration, where operators and powerful robots share workspace, cooperating when lifting and handling large objects. We found that this mode of operation has the potential to generate economic advantages by reducing the need for manual operators and lifting tools and by offering new opportunities for component logistics. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 25.
    Grünberg, Tomas
    et al.
    KTH.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansson, Björn
    CTH.
    Nordell, Peter
    CTH.
    Tangen, Stefan
    KTH.
    Productivity improvement work at ABB Robotics, Västerås2002Report (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Henriksson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    An outlook on multi material body solutions in the automotive industry – possibilities and manufacturing challenges2016In: SAE Technical Paper Series, Detroit (MI), USA: Society of Automotive Engineers , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the automotive industry, mass reduction and lightweight design is a continuing trend that does not show signs of declining. When looking at where to reduce weight in a vehicle, the body is a preferential subsystem due to its large contribution to overall mass and the stability of body composition over a specific model range. The automotive industry of today moves toward a greater differentiation in materials that compose a car, which can be seen in the several different multi material vehicle bodies that have been introduced by manufacturers in recent years. But while mixing materials may contribute to a good compromise between weight reduction and vehicle cost, it also proposes a number of challenges that need to be addressed. Among other material factors, the different coefficients of thermal expansions might introduce new stresses during painting and curing. Joining processes and possible chemical reactions between materials also needs to be taken into account, the same with the question of whether to integrate or differentiate different functions in a system. If the manufacturing plant uses mixed model assembly lines, design of end effectors for gripping multiple different materials is another challenge not previously encountered in this context. In this paper, a number of production and manufacturing related challenges are discussed, and the authors highlight different areas where the requirements of design engineering tools needs to be evaluated for these new multi material concepts and design decisions in order for automotive manufacturers to ensure future market competitiveness.

  • 27.
    Henriksson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Including Student Case Projects in Integrated Product and Production Development Research – Methodology Description and Discussion2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within integrated product and production development research, casestudies needto be performed for data gathering purposes. Today, there are two commonly used ways to perform this research; observingindustry projects orhaving the researchers perform the projects themselves. The first option can pose data access and IPRissues, and the second optioncomes with biasing risks. Another approach is to work with studentcaseprojects, givingstudents interesting projects and findinga solution to mediate both data gathering opportunity and biasing risks. This approach has been tested at Linköping University, with students performing projects in the Vinnovafunded Production 2030 –Large Scale Production in Mixed Materials project. Two larger student case projects have been performed on the topic of material substitution and mixed material solutions within the automotive industry.In this paper, the method used to include student projects is presented along with identified benefits and drawbacks. Including student case projects in research have shown to be beneficial in research on processes, projects and methodology, but needs to be complemented by data fromindustry projects and the researcher ́s own work within integrated product and production development in order to create a more reliable analysis with high level of detail.

  • 28.
    Henriksson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Integrated Product and Production Research on Introducing Internet of Things in Swedish Wood Industry Products2018In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 25, p. 10-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To enable transitioning the Swedish economy into a bioeconomy, Swedish wood industry need to increase added value and introduce new products to market by introducing new technology and improving the product and production development processes. Research in automotive industry have shown the need for integrating product and production development when introducing new technology in existing production systems, and have indicated a possibility of using specifically designed student case projects in order to generate qualitative data. In this paper, one student case project on product and production development in the Swedish wood industry, involving IoT wood products, is presented and evaluated.

  • 29.
    Henriksson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    On Material Substitution in Automotive BIWs – From Steel to Aluminum Body Sides2016In: 26th CIRP Design Conference / [ed] L. Wang & T. Kjellberg, Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 50, p. 683-688Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Weight reduction and material substitution are increasing trends in the automotive industry. In this project, the task of substituting the steel body side in the monocoque of a large SUV towards an aluminum body side was investigated through a design engineering approach adopting a breadth-first analysis method. One conclusion based on the analysis is that the choice of joining technology would become arbitrary due to the breadth-first approach. In this paper, the authors present their findings from the aforementioned case, including the challenges with switching between materials with fundamentally different properties when performing material substitution projects. The possibility of having taken a depth-first analysis approach, and the possible effects on the project result, is discussed.

  • 30.
    Henriksson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Product development in the Swedish Automotive industry: Can design tools be viewed as decision support systems?2015In: / [ed] Anthony SF Chiu, International Foundation for Production Research (IFPR) , 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Design engineers working in the automotive industry have to take many design decisions, based on numerous diverse criteria. This results in a high workload of complex decisions. One way to reduce decision complexity and improve decisions could be to improve design tools. Decision support systems (DSSs) have been used in a managerial context to improve decisions. In this article, the authors assess whether design tools generally can be viewed as DSSs. A combination of literature review, surveys and qualitative interviews with seven design engineers was used to assess whether current design tools function as decision supports in product development. Although the specific design context needs to be considered, this study’s results suggest that design tools can generally function as DSSs. In future work, the adaptability to different problem solving patterns needs further in-depth research in the form of individual studies for specific tools in specific contexts.

  • 31.
    Henriksson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Towards Applying The Boothroyd, Dewhurst and Knight Methodology for Cost Estimation on Fibre Composite Manufacturing - A Theoretical Approach2014In: Proceedings of The 6th International Swedish Production Symposium 2014 / [ed] Johan Stahre, Björn Johansson, Mats Björkman, Gothenburg, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased usage of carbon fibre composite poses challenges for the automotive industry; one is to manage carbon fibre composites within the product development process. This paper combines knowledge in design engineering, material science and production technology, aiming to bridge these domains. The study indicates that mass production methods suitable for carbon fibre have several factors in common with traditional polymer production methods. Thus, it is possible that DfMA methods for traditional polymer production can be adjusted for carbon fibre composite production. The result is summarised in a table aiming to facilitate engineering decisions related to cost estimations for composite moulding.

  • 32.
    Henriksson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Wever, Renee
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Berry, Patrick
    Linköpings universitet, Fluida och mekatroniska system.
    Student-developed laboratory exercises - An approach to cross-disciplinary peer education2016In: Proceedings of NordDesign 2016: part 2, The Design Society , 2016, p. 226-235Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With new technologies and demands from industry, universities need to adapt in order to educate engineers suited for the job market of tomorrow. Focusing on the fields of product development and mechanical engineering, topics such as new lightweight materials and lightweight designs are currently a focus of many industries, and the demand from industry is that engineers graduating should have some knowledge in these fields. In this case, a project was set up for a student-developed laboratory exercise in lightweight material, focusing on the interconnection between material properties, geometry and manufacturing technology in order to fulfil a contextual requirement. The industry chosen was the aircraft industry, due to its heavy emphasis on light weight. The chosen component (a civil aircraft radome) meant that material properties not necessarily connected to high specific strength became important, something that adds educational value to the exercise. Since the introduction of the exercise, the plan is to introduce the laboratory exercise in more courses where the interdisciplinary connections between material properties, geometry and manufacturing technology needs to be explained for students as well as evaluate how this approach to exercise development can be improved and further utilized. This paper presents the learnings from setting up the laboratory exercise, as well as discusses the possibilities of thesis works as an enabler for peer education and puts these in a context for a future, adaptive engineering education that quickly can add or renew material in the curriculum without substantial investment of resources.

  • 33.
    Henriksson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Wilhelmsson, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    University as a Laboratory: Exploring how engineering education can support industrial needs2018In: NordDesign 2018: DESIGN IN THE ERA OF DIGITALIZATION / [ed] Ekströmer, Philip; Schütte, Simon and Ölvander, Johan, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Universities have two major tasks; generating knowledge through research and educating students for academia, the public sector and the industry. In this paper, the authors explore how engineering education can support industrial needs on two fronts: creating a case study platform for research and preparing graduating engineering students to become more capable engineers when beginning their working life in industry, by applying the ""University as a laboratory"" concept. ""University as a laboratory"", as coined by Henriksson (2017), means that research-based case study projects are brought into educational courses where students are assigned to work as engineering designers, and researchers can observe problem solving patterns and evaluate different methodologies (also presented by Henriksson and Johansen (2016)). Though the concept have been presented earlier (Henriksson and Johansen 2016, Henriksson 2017), a more thorough evaluation is in order to further understand the effects of integrating research and education in the ""University as a laboratory"" concept. This is done through the performance and evaluation of a research-based engineering design education project in collaboration with automotive industrial partners; a project on lightweight and sustainable product and production development. The study evaluates three aspects of the project; the researchers' view, the teachers' view and the students' view. Data on all three aspects has been gathered through group interviews, observations and written assignments during the project, as well as interviews with participating students one year after the end of the project and workshops with researchers and teachers involved in the project. Analysis has been done on a qualitative basis, to investigate whether case projects are suitable for deep understanding in engineering fields and whether project courses are suitable to test different approaches of integrated product and production development.

  • 34.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Monteringsteknik.
    Collaborative Product Introduction within Extended Enterprises2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The trend of outsourcing within the electronic industry has contributed to the creation of new types of extended enterprises. These extended enterprises must be able to manage a challenging situation with shorter product life cycles and increased collaboration between companies during the vital product introduction process. For the electronic industry, which is currently acting in an “era of hyper-competition”, it is a challenge to implement an efficient and flexible collaboration within an extended enterprise during the product introduction process. In the product introduction process, a product design is prepared for and transferred into production.

    During the course of this research, the electronic industry has changed continuously. Empirical data were first collected within an Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) that was responsible for its own production. Based on a strategic decision at the OEM, a new extended enterprise was established. In general, these new extended enterprises within the electronic industry consist of: a “product owner” in the form of an OEM that owns the product design and its brand; a “producer” in the form of an Electronic Manufacturing Services (EMS) company that is responsible for the production; and suppliers of services, material, components, equipment etc. However, in the later stages of this research the studied EMS was responsible for the product introduction, production and distribution of the product to the end user. In order to compare and contrast trends and lessons learned in similar industries, case studies within the mechanical engineering and aerospace industries also were performed.

    The dissertation primarily describes the process of collaborative product introduction (PI) within the electronic industry, and presents among other things a number of general conditions for efficient collaborative PI within an EE in that industry. First, a clearly communicated definition of what is included in product introduction is needed. A second condition is that early participation from all involved partners in the EE’s product introduction process supports efficient collaboration. Third, clear communication and information handling within the extended enterprise – both internally and externally – was found to facilitate collaboration. Fourth, business approaches should be built on trust, reliability and respect for each other’s competence. Finally, the importance of cultural awareness, both between different companies and countries, cannot be ignored. This research also presents a framework for supporting collaborative product introduction within an extended enterprise, which serves to both synthesize and summarize much of the research.

  • 35.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Global production - a short review of some papers and the situation in a manufacturing network2000Report (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Konstruktion för produktion ger förutsättningar till bättre produktivitet2003Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 37.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Monteringsteknik.
    Product introduction within extended enterprises : description and conditions2002Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The trend of outsourcing within the electronic industry has contributed to the creation of new types of extended enterprises. These extended enterprises must be able to manage a challenging situation with shorter product life cycles, increased co-operation between companies during product development, more individualized products, etc.

    In general, these new extended enterprises consist of: a "product owner" in the form of an Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) that owns the product design and its brand; a "producer" in the form of an Electronic Manufacturing Services (EMS) company that is responsible for the manufacturing; and suppliers of services, material, components, equipment etc. In some cases the producer has the responsibility for the product introduction process. In the product introduction process a product design is prepared for and transferred into production. The product introduction includes the design of the production system.

    The challenging situation in the electronic industry demands an efficient and flexible manner of work during the product introduction process within an extended enterprise. The objective for this thesis is therefore to explore and describe, on a general level, factors, parameters, and conditions that are of importance for an efficient product introduction within an extended enterprise.

    In the research empirical data were. first collected within an OEM that was responsible for its own manufacturing. Based on a strategic decision at the OEM a new extended enterprise was founded. This new extended enterprise consists of the original OEM as a product owner, an EMS as a producer with responsibility for product introduction and manufacturing, and their suppliers. After this strategic decision, further empirical data were collected within this newly founded extended enterprise.

    The analysis of the empirical data made it possible to explore and describe a generic product introduction process. Furthermore, a generic structure of an extended enterprise is presented and the main conditions to fulfill in order to achieve an efficient product introduction within an extended enterprise are described. These main conditions are:

    1. A clear defmition of what is included in product introduction.
    2. Early participation from Production System Design in the product development project.
    3. Clear communication and information handling within the extended enterprise - both internally and externally.
    4. Business approaches built on trust, reliability and respect for each other's competence.
  • 38.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ajkunic, Almir
    Linköpings universitet.
    Elik, Cevat
    Linköpings universitet.
    Jina, Kaylan
    Linköpings universitet.
    Nyberg, Jonathan
    Linköpings universitet.
    Sarajlic, Rijad
    Linköpings universitet.
    Lundquist, Agneta
    Dassault Systemes Sweden AB.
    Assembly simulation in practice - An illustrative learning case2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 39.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Monteringsteknik.
    Björklund, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Methods for cooperative product development in extended enterprises2003In: Proceedings of the Euroma/POMS Conference, June 16-18, Como, Italy, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Monteringsteknik.
    Björklund, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Product realization through concurrent engineering within extended enterprises: A case study2003In: Proceedings of the 10th ISPE International Conference on Concurrent Engineering: Research and Applications, July 26-30, Madeira, Portugal, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Monteringsteknik.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Monteringsteknik.
    Conflicting goals in Concurrent Engineering: Case Studies from Product Introduction within Extended Enterprises2003In: Proceedings of the 10th ISPE International Conference on Concurrent Engineering: Research and Applications, July 26-30, Madeira, Portugal, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Monteringsteknik.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Monteringsteknik.
    Product introduction within extended enterprises2002In: Proceedings of ISCE’02 International Symposium on Consumer Electronics, Ilmenau, Germany, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The outsourcing trend within the electronic industry during the last decade has founded new company networks - so called extended enterprises (EEs). Future products will, to a higher degree. be jointly developed and produced within these EEs consisting of product owners. producers and suppliers. The transfer of a design into production - product introduction (PI) or industrialization - needs to be suitable for co-operation within EEs with the aim of shorten the time from concept to volume production.

    This paper will describe PI within an EE relevant for the electronic industry. A definition of the PI process will be presented. Furthermore. a performed case study gives the following overall and fundamental criteria to consider working with PI within EEs. 1) A clear definition of what is included in PI, 2) Early participation of all participants in the product development project. 3) Clear cormmmication and information handling within the EE and 4) Business approach build on trust. reliability and respect for each other's competence.

  • 43.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    et al.
    LiU, IKP.
    Comstock, Mica
    LiU, IKP.
    Winroth, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Coordination in Collaborative Manufacturing Mega-Networks: A Case Study2005In: Journal of engineering and technology management, ISSN 0923-4748, E-ISSN 1879-1719, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 226-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborative manufacturing networks are becoming popular. Today, the scale of these networks can be enormous, and include a complex myriad of partners from numerous companies and organizations spanning several countries and even continents. This paper explores how these partners successfully coordinate projects, through an investigation of one such “collaborative manufacturing mega-network”, or CMMN, in the commercial aerospace industry. The case is analyzed with the aid of the literary state-of-the-art, and a number of organizational, structural, and cultural issues are discussed including mass customization. Finally, some of the most important factors for the successful CMMN are presented.

  • 44.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    et al.
    LiU, IKP.
    Comstock, Mica
    LIU, IKP.
    Winroth, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    From Mass Production to Mass Customization: Enabling perspectives from the Swedish mobile telephone industry2004In: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 362-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much has been written about the conceptual nature of mass customization, and the success of several best business practitioners in the area have been well documented. Most companies, however, are not textbook examples of best practise, but rather are making incremental progress towards mass customization based on a mass production heritage. This paper presents the findings of a case study that investigated a mass customization initiative at a leading mobile telephone manufacturer in Sweden. The primary objective of the study was to determine the implications of a radically new manufacturing initiative for the company – the production of a customized, entry-level mobile telephone. The differences between the traditional scenario of the mass production of standardized products at the company and that of the new customized production were also sought. The findings of the study, which are presented using the product, process and system perspectives, are aided by a number of customization-related frameworks from the literature. The discussion includes the impact of moving the customization order point downstream in the value chain in terms of increased efficiency and reduced lead times, the reduced requirement for manufacturing flexibility with shifting production system boundaries, and the company’s status as a mass customizer.

  • 45.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Industriell träteknik.
    Eklöf, David
    Linköpings universitet, Industriell träteknik.
    Challenges for Swedish Wood Furniture Manufacturers: Its Handcraft Tradition versus Modern Production Technologies2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Industriell träteknik.
    Lahdo, Gabi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Elo, Kristofer
    Linköpings universitet, Produktionsteknik.
    Furniture Manufacturing: Aspects on Assembling Chairs with a Two-Armed Robot2010In: 3rd CIRP Conference on Assembly Technologies and Systems: Responsive, customer demand driven, adaptive assembly / [ed] Terje K. Lien, Trondheim. Norway: Tapir Akademisk Forlag , 2010, p. 157-163Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    et al.
    LiU, IKP.
    Winroth, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Localization of Manufacturing: A Systematic Framework2003In: Proceedings of “One World? One view of OM?: The Challenges of Integrating Research and Practice”, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing competition forces companies to find the most beneficial way to manufacture their products for a global market. Most relocations of manufacturing have been justified mainly due to reduction of cost. The manufacturing industry is therefore facing a trend of localization of manufacturing in low cost countries, mainly Asia and Eastern Europe. Previous examples have been the ship building industry and the textile industry, when manufacturing almost disappeared from Europe and North America. The choice of localization is however more complex than to be based on cost solely, even though everything in one or another way can be translated into cost or income. Non-financial issues are difficult to estimate, but important to handle in order to attain a more holistic approach.

    This paper presents an illustrative and holistic framework for making decisions on locating manufacturing in relation to the market and suppliers, linked to cost and competence.

  • 48.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    et al.
    LiU, IKP.
    Winroth, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Björkman, Mats
    LiU, IKP.
    An Economical Analysis on A Strategic Investment in an Assembly Line: Case Study at Ericsson Mobile Communications AB2001In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Production Research: ICPR - 16, July 29. -August 3., 2001Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last four years the global annual production of mobile telephones has increased four times. To Ericsson Mobile Communications AB’s supply unit in Linköping, Sweden, this has been a tremendous challenge. The supply unit has increased the produced volume of mobile telephones six times during this period at the same premises. The strategy for the production-engineering department was to change the manual assembly line into an automated assembly line. The automated assembly line was built up with SONY smart cells. During 1998 the volumes increased rapidly and the automation strategy where copied to the test stations for the mobile telephones.

    This paper discusses the importance of how to link a manufacturing strategy to economical calculations. A case study at Ericsson Mobile Communications AB shows how financial calculations was used when changing from manual testing to automated testing of mobile telephones. Even though all benefits were not accounted for, the studied automation project for automated board test had a calculated pay back period of 7 months. The decreasing production volumes for mobile telephones made that the real yearly cost for the investment increased dramatically compared to the calculated investment cost. The decision-makers need to analyze the risks in an investment calculation due to the uncertainty in data used in the calculations. For example, it can be difficult to analyze the risks depending on the difficulty to predict the development for the product market and the future product volumes. The investment calculation result can also differ depending on who is delivering the numerical data that are included in the calculations.

  • 49.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Industriell ekonomi.
    Flexible Automation as a Competitive Business for Manufacturing SMEs2014In: SPS2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Monteringsteknik.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Industriell ekonomi.
    Serving Customers Together: Support for Interorganisational Product Realisation in SMEs2008In: Proceedings of the Swedish Production Symposium 2008, Stockholm, Sweden: KTH , 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many companies collaborate in company networks in order to increase the competence available for development and manufacturing of products. These companies need to exchange information during all phases in a product realisation project. This information may be very sensitive, eg in the early concept phases for a new product or very important for the production output in the later phases. The objective of this paper is to investigate opportunities and challenges with IT support for interorganisational complex product realisation for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the manufacturing industry. Based on three industrial cases the findings show that there are three types of challenges to manage for SMEs that want to collaborate; (1) strategic collaboration, (2) im-provement collaboration, and (3) operative collaboration. These three types of collaboration are critical in order to improve the way customers are served by SMEs.

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