Change search
Refine search result
1 - 34 of 34
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1. Ankam, E.
    et al.
    Dou, W.
    Strumsky, Deborah
    Wang, D. X.
    Rabinowitz, T.
    Zadrozny, W.
    Exploring Emerging Technologies Using Patent Data and Patent Classifications2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Arnold, Michelle
    et al.
    Department of Environment and Society, Utah State University, Logan, UT, United States.
    Tainter, Joseph A.
    Department of Environment and Society, Utah State University, Logan, UT, United States.
    Strumsky, Deborah
    School of Sustainability and Global Institute of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States.
    Productivity of innovation in biofuel technologies2019In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 124, p. 54-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuels are a regular focus of public policy. The productivity of innovation in biofuel technologies is rarely addressed either in research or policy. Yet as innovation in any field grows complex and costly it can experience reductions in productivity and diminishing returns to investments. We examine here the productivity of investments in the technologies used to produce biofuels, using data from the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. The results show that the productivity of innovation in biofuel technologies is declining. Continuation of this trend will in time force reductions in research investments in biofuel technologies. We discuss policy approaches to address declining returns to research investments.

  • 3.
    Bettencourt, Luis M. A.
    et al.
    CCS-3, Computer and Computational Sciences, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, United States.
    Lobo, José
    Global Institute of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States.
    Strumsky, Deborah
    Harvard Business School, Boston, MA, United States.
    Invention in the city: Increasing returns to patenting as a scaling function of metropolitan size2007In: Research Policy, ISSN 0048-7333, E-ISSN 1873-7625, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 107-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the relationship between patenting activity and the population size of metropolitan areas in the United States over the last two decades (1980-2001). We find a clear superlinear effect, whereby new patents are granted disproportionately in larger urban centers, thus showing increasing returns in inventing activity with respect to population size. We characterize this relation quantitatively as a power law with an exponent larger than unity. This phenomenon is commensurate with the presence of larger numbers of inventors in larger metropolitan areas, which we find follows a quantitatively similar superlinear relationship to population, while the productivity of individual inventors stays essentially constant across metropolitan areas. We also find that structural measures of the patent co-authorship network although weakly correlated to increasing rates of patenting, are not enough to explain them. Finally, we show that R&D establishments and employment in other creative professions also follow superlinear scaling relations to metropolitan population size, albeit possibly with different exponents.

  • 4.
    Bettencourt, Luís M. A.
    et al.
    Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies (CNLS), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, United States; Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM, United States.
    Lobo, José
    School of Human Evolution and Social Change and W. P. Carey School of Business, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States.
    Strumsky, Deborah
    Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, United States.
    West, Geoffrey B.
    Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies (CNLS), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, United States; Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM, United States.
    Urban scaling and its deviations: Revealing the structure of wealth, innovation and crime across cities2010In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 5, no 11, article id e13541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With urban population increasing dramatically worldwide, cities are playing an increasingly critical role in human societies and the sustainability of the planet. An obstacle to effective policy is the lack of meaningful urban metrics based on a quantitative understanding of cities. Typically, linear per capita indicators are used to characterize and rank cities. However, these implicitly ignore the fundamental role of nonlinear agglomeration integral to the life history of cities. As such, per capita indicators conflate general nonlinear effects, common to all cities, with local dynamics, specific to each city, failing to provide direct measures of the impact of local events and policy. Agglomeration nonlinearities are explicitly manifested by the superlinear power law scaling of most urban socioeconomic indicators with population size, all with similar exponents (~1.15). As a result larger cities are disproportionally the centers of innovation, wealth and crime, all to approximately the same degree. We use these general urban laws to develop new urban metrics that disentangle dynamics at different scales and provide true measures of local urban performance. New rankings of cities and a novel and simpler perspective on urban systems emerge. We find that local urban dynamics display long-term memory, so cities under or outperforming their size expectation maintain such (dis)advantage for decades. Spatiotemporal correlation analyses reveal a novel functional taxonomy of U.S. metropolitan areas that is generally not organized geographically but based instead on common local economic models, innovation strategies and patterns of crime.

  • 5.
    Drennan, Matthew
    et al.
    Department of City and Regional Planning, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States.
    Larsen, Shannon
    Department of City and Regional Planning, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States.
    Lobo, José
    Graduate Field of Regional Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States.
    Strumsky, Deborah
    Graduate Field of Regional Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States.
    Utomo, Wahyu
    Graduate Field of Regional Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States.
    Sectoral shares, specialisation and metropolitan wages in the Unites States, 1969-962002In: Urban Studies, ISSN 0042-0980, E-ISSN 1360-063X, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 1129-1142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the effect of specialisation upon the level of metropolitan wage per worker. Specialisation is measured by the share of metropolitan earnings in each of five traded goods and services sectors. Sectoral specialisations are assumed to be determinants of location-specific productivity, which in turn is treated as a term in a metropolitan production function. Panel data are used for estimating that production function for 313 metropolitan areas in the US, over the long period 1969-96 and two shorter periods. We find that some specialisations raise average metropolitan wages, some lower it and some have no effect, and that the effects of specialisation differ by time-period.

  • 6.
    Drennan, Matthew P.
    et al.
    Department of City/Regional Planning, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States.
    Lobo, José
    Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM, United States.
    Strumsky, Deborah
    Harvard Business School, Boston, MA, United States.
    Unit root tests of sigma income convergence across US metropolitan areas2004In: Journal of Economic Geography, ISSN 1468-2702, E-ISSN 1468-2710, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 583-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The standard deviation of metropolitan per capita personal income (PCPI) and metropolitan average wage per job (AWPJ) provide straightforward indicators of unconditional sigma convergence for metropolitan economies within the United States. Using data for all metropolitan areas in the continental United States for the period 1969-2001, we tested for the unconditional sigma income convergence hypothesis by applying two unit root tests to the time series of the two standard deviations. Our results indicate that the time series can be described as random walks with drift, thereby supporting the claim that income divergence among metropolitan economies is not decreasing.

  • 7.
    Fragkias, Michail
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Boise State University, Boise, ID, United States.
    Lobo, José
    School of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States.
    Strumsky, Deborah
    Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of North Carolina-Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, United States.
    Seto, Karen C.
    Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States.
    Does Size Matter? Scaling of CO2 Emissions and U.S. Urban Areas2013In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 6, article id e64727Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban areas consume more than 66% of the world's energy and generate more than 70% of global greenhouse gas emissions. With the world's population expected to reach 10 billion by 2100, nearly 90% of whom will live in urban areas, a critical question for planetary sustainability is how the size of cities affects energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Are larger cities more energy and emissions efficient than smaller ones? Do larger cities exhibit gains from economies of scale with regard to emissions? Here we examine the relationship between city size and CO2 emissions for U.S. metropolitan areas using a production accounting allocation of emissions. We find that for the time period of 1999-2008, CO2 emissions scale proportionally with urban population size. Contrary to theoretical expectations, larger cities are not more emissions efficient than smaller ones. 

  • 8.
    Fragkias, Michail
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Boise State University, Boise, ID, United States.
    Lobo, José
    School of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States.
    Strumsky, Deborah
    Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of North Carolina-Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, United States.
    Seto, Karen C.
    Does size matter? Scaling of CO2 emissions and U.S. Urban Areas2017In: Sustainable Cities: Urban Planning Challenges and Policy / [ed] Kimberly Etingoff, Waretown, NJ, USA: Apple Academic Press , 2017, p. 79-98Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9. Holt, Thomas J.
    et al.
    Smirnov, Olga
    Strumsky, Deborah
    Kilger, Max
    Case Study: Advancing Research on Hackers Through Social Network Data2014In: Social Networking as a Criminal Enterprise / [ed] C. D. Marcum & G. E. Higgins, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2014, p. 145-166Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Holt, Thomas J.
    et al.
    School of Criminal Justice, Michigan State University, Lansing, MI, United States.
    Strumsky, Deborah
    Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, NC, United States.
    Smirnova, Olga
    Department of Political Science, East Carolina University, NC, United States.
    Kilger, Max
    Spartan Devils Honeynet Chapter, The Honeynet Project, Seattle, WA, Broadway, United States.
    Examining the social networks of malware writers and hackers2012In: International Journal of Cyber Criminology, E-ISSN 0974-2891, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 891-903Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A substantive body of research has emerged exploring the social dynamics and subculture of computer hacking. Few, however, have considered the structure of social networks in the hacker community due in part to the lack of visible information about active hackers or malware writers. Our research focuses on the rarely studied subject of underground networks of computer hackers. Thus, this study explores the social networks of a group of Russian hackers using publicly accessible data to understand the nature of social relationships and the ways that they affect information sharing and action. The findings demonstrate that there are a limited number of highly skilled hackers relative to those with some knowledge of computers. Additionally, those hackers with substantive technical skills are centrally located within friendship networks and are the focus of greater attention overall. The impact of these findings for our understanding of computer hacking, and peer networks generally are considered in detail.

  • 11.
    Lobo, Jose
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA.
    Mellander, Charlotta
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Stolarick, Kevin
    Martin Prosperity Institute, Rotman School of Management, Univeristy of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Strumsky, Deborah
    Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, USA.
    The Inventive, the Educated and the Creative: How Do They Affect Metropolitan Productivity?2014In: Industry and Innovation, ISSN 1366-2716, E-ISSN 1469-8390, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 155-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A longstanding research tradition assumes that endogenous technological development increases regional productivity. It has been assumed that measures of regional patenting activity or human capital are an adequate way to capture the endogenous creation of new ideas that result in productivity improvements. This process has been conceived as occurring in two stages. First, an invention or innovation is generated, and then it is developed and commercialized to create benefits for the individual or firm owning the idea. Typically these steps are combined into a single model of the "invention in/productivity out" variety. Using data on Gross Metropolitan Product per worker and on inventors, educational attainment, and creative workers (together with other important socioeconomic controls), we unpack the model back to the two-step process and use a SEM modeling framework to investigate the relationships among inventive activity and potential inventors, regional technology levels, and regional productivity outcomes. Our results show almost no significant direct relationship between invention and productivity, except through technology. Clearly, the simplification of the "invention in/productivity out" model does not hold, which supports other work that questions the use of patents and patenting related measures as meaningful innovation inputs to processes that generate regional productivity and productivity gains. We also find that the most effective measure of regional inventive capacity, in terms of its effect on technology, productivity, and productivity growth is the share of the workforce engaged in creative activities.

  • 12. Lobo, José
    et al.
    Alberti, Marina
    Allen-Dumas, Melissa
    Bettencourt, Luís M. A.
    Beukes, Anni
    Bojórquez Tapia, Luis A.
    Chen, Wei-Qiang
    Dodge, Anne
    Neal, Zachary
    Perreira, Anna
    Pfeiffer, Deirdre
    Revi, Aromar
    Roberts, Debra
    Rozenblat, Céline
    Shutters, Shade
    Smith, Michel E.
    Stokes, Eleanor
    Strumsky, Deborah
    Cutler Institute, Muskie School of Public Service, University of Southern Maine, Portland, ME, USA.
    Wu, Jianguo
    A convergence research perspective on graduate education for sustainable urban systems science2021In: npj Urban Sustainability, E-ISSN 2661-8001, Vol. 1, article id 39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable urban systems (SUS) science is a new science integrating work across established and emerging disciplines, using diverse methods, and addressing issues at local, regional, national, and global scales. Advancing SUS requires the next generation of scholars and practitioners to excel at synthesis across disciplines and possess the skills to innovate in the realms of research, policy, and stakeholder engagement. We outline key tenets of graduate education in SUS, informed by historical and global perspectives. The sketch is an invitation to discuss how graduates in SUS should be trained to engage with the challenges and opportunities presented by continuing urbanization.

  • 13.
    Lobo, José
    et al.
    School of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States.
    Bettencourt, Luís M. A.
    Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM, United States.
    Strumsky, Deborah
    Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, United States.
    West, Geoffrey B.
    Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM, United States.
    Urban Scaling and the Production Function for Cities2013In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 3, article id e58407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The factors that account for the differences in the economic productivity of urban areas have remained difficult to measure and identify unambiguously. Here we show that a microscopic derivation of urban scaling relations for economic quantities vs. population, obtained from the consideration of social and infrastructural properties common to all cities, implies an effective model of economic output in the form of a Cobb-Douglas type production function. As a result we derive a new expression for the Total Factor Productivity (TFP) of urban areas, which is the standard measure of economic productivity per unit of aggregate production factors (labor and capital). Using these results we empirically demonstrate that there is a systematic dependence of urban productivity on city population size, resulting from the mismatch between the size dependence of wages and labor, so that in contemporary US cities productivity increases by about 11% with each doubling of their population. Moreover, deviations from the average scale dependence of economic output, capturing the effect of local factors, including history and other local contingencies, also manifest surprising regularities. Although, productivity is maximized by the combination of high wages and low labor input, high productivity cities show invariably high wages and high levels of employment relative to their size expectation. Conversely, low productivity cities show both low wages and employment. These results shed new light on the microscopic processes that underlie urban economic productivity, explain the emergence of effective aggregate urban economic output models in terms of labor and capital inputs and may inform the development of economic theory related to growth.

  • 14.
    Lobo, José
    et al.
    Global Institute of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States.
    Strumsky, Deborah
    Harvard Business School, United States.
    Metropolitan patenting, inventor agglomeration and social networks: A tale of two effects2008In: Journal of Urban Economics, ISSN 0094-1190, E-ISSN 1095-9068, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 871-884Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the separate effects on metropolitan patenting of inventor agglomeration and the structure of social networks linking inventors within and across metropolitan areas in the United States between 1977 and 2002. Using patent data we have been able to assign a metropolitan location to individual inventors, link inventors who have co-authored patents, and characterize the structural features of the networks linking inventors. Our main question concerns the relative importance of salient features of the social networks linking inventors on metropolitan patenting productivity. We find that agglomerative features of metropolitan areas are more important determinants of metropolitan patenting productivity than structural feature of the inventive networks. While the aggregation of isolated inventors correlates positively with patenting productivity, density of connections correlates negatively.

  • 15.
    Lobo, José
    et al.
    School of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States.
    Strumsky, Deborah
    School for the Future of Innovation in Society, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States.
    Sources of inventive novelty: two patent classification schemas, same story2019In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 120, no 1, p. 19-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An essential feature of a modern patenting system is a classification schema for organizing, indexing and coding the technical information contained in a patent. Patent classification systems make it possible for patent examiners and prospective inventors to search through existing patents in order to find information pertinent to evaluating a patent application’s purported novelty. Patent classification systems also support the construction of a taxonomy for the various sources of inventive novelty embodied in patented inventions. Until 2013 the U.S. Patent Office utilized the United States Patent Classification system and since then it has used the Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC) system; these two systems implement very different classification logics with the CPC aiming at greater granularity. Here we examine the extent to which the two patent classification systems generate similar historical narratives as to the sources of inventive novelty. Despite the differences in classification principles, common patterns are revealed regardless of which classification system is used to identify technologies. Invention is primarily a cumulative process where new inventions are developed from combining existing technologies. Refinements (the re-use of existing technologies) and combinations of previously existing technological functionalities predominate in the patent record, while inventions embodying previously unseen technologies are very rare. The rate at which inventions representing non-refinements have been introduced into the stock of inventions has kept pace with the generation of inventions representing refinements, thereby feeding the combinatorial process.

  • 16.
    Lobo, José
    et al.
    Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States.
    Strumsky, Deborah
    University of North Carolina-Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, United States.
    Rothwell, J.
    The Brookings Institution, WA, DC, United States.
    Scaling of patenting with urban population size: Evidence from global metropolitan areas2013In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 96, no 3, p. 819-828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Larger agglomerations of individuals create a social environment can sustain a larger repertoire of intellectual capabilities, thereby facilitating the creation and recombination of ideas, and increasing the likelihood that interactions among individuals will occur through which new ideas are generated and shared. Relatedly, cities have long been the privileged setting for invention and innovation. These two phenomena are brought together in the superlinear scaling relationship whereby urban inventive output (measured through patenting) increases more than proportionally with increasing population size. We revisit the relationship between urban population size and patenting using data for a global set of metropolitan areas in the OECD and show, for the first time, that the superlinear scaling between patenting and population size observed for US metropolitan areas holds for urban areas across a variety of urban and economic systems. In fact the scaling relationships established for the US metropolitan system and for the global metropolitan system are remarkably similar. 

  • 17. Lobo, José
    et al.
    Tainter, Joseph A.
    Strumsky, Deborah
    Productivity of invention2012In: Leadership in Science and Technology: A Reference Handbook / [ed] W. S. Bainbridge, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2012, p. 289-297Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Marx, Matt
    et al.
    Harvard Business School, Harvard University, Boston, MA, United States.
    Strumsky, Deborah
    University of North Carolina-Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, United States.
    Fleming, Lee
    Harvard Business School, Harvard University, Boston, MA, United States.
    Mobility, skills, and the Michigan non-compete experiment2009In: Management science, ISSN 0025-1909, E-ISSN 1526-5501, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 875-889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas a number of studies have considered the implications of employee mobility, comparatively little research has considered institutional factors governing the ability of employees to move from one firm to another. This paper explores a legal constraint on mobility-employee non-compete agreements-by exploiting Michigan's apparently inadvertent 1985 reversal of its non-compete enforcement policy as a natural experiment. Using a differences-in-differences approach, and controlling for changes in the auto industry central to Michigan's economy, we find that the enforcement of non-competes indeed attenuates mobility. Moreover, noncompete enforcement decreases mobility more sharply for inventors with firm-specific skills and for those who specialize in narrow technical fields. The results speak to the literature on employee mobility while offering a credibly exogenous source of variation that can extend previous research on the implications of such mobility.

  • 19.
    Rothwell, Jonathan
    et al.
    Metropolitan Policy Program at Brookings.
    Lobo, José
    Arizona State University, School of Sustainability.
    Strumsky, Deborah
    University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Department of Geography and Earth Science.
    Muro, Mark
    Metropolitan Policy Program at Brookings.
    Patenting Prosperity: Invention and Economic Performance in the United States and its Metropolitan Areas2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    "Patenting Prosperity: Invention and Economic Performance in the United States and its Metropolitan Areas" is the first analysis of its kind to present patenting trends on a regional level from 1980 to 2012. The report ranks all of the nation’s roughly 360 metropolitan areas on patenting levels and growth, while noting the firms and organizations responsible. It also analyzes how patenting has affected productivity levels in each region, comparing patents—which embody novel inventions—to other sources of economic dynamism, such as educational attainment.

    This report examines the importance of patents as a measure of invention to economic growth and explores why some areas are more inventive than others. Why should we expect there to be a relationship between patenting and urban economic development? As economist Paul Romer has written, the defining nature of ideas, in contrast to other economic goods, is that they are non-rival: their use by any one individual does not preclude others from using them. Although useful ideas can be freely transmitted and copied, the patent system guarantees, in principle, temporary protection from would-be competitors in the marketplace (i.e. excludability). Thus, one would expect regions to realize at least some of the value of invention, as has been shown for individual inventors and companies that patent. Yet there is no guarantee that patents generated in a specific location will generate wealth in that same location—a set of conditions (the presence of a skilled and diverse labor force, an “ecosystem” of businesses providing complementary goods and services, financing and marketing capabilities among them) have to be met for invention to be commercialized. Research has established that patents are correlated with economic growth across and within the same country over time. Yet, metropolitan areas play a uniquely important role in patenting, and the study of metropolitan areas within a single large country—the United States—allows one to isolate the role of patents from other potentially confounding factors like population size, industry concentration, and workforce characteristics.

  • 20.
    Shutters, Shade T.
    et al.
    Global Security Initiative, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States.
    Lobo, José
    School of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States.
    Muneepeerakul, Rachata
    Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States.
    Strumsky, Deborah
    Arizona State University, Santa Fe Institute Center for Biosocial Complex Systems, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States.
    Mellander, Charlotta
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS).
    Brachert, Matthias
    Department of Structural Change and Productivity, Halle Institute for Economic Research, Halle (Saale), Germany.
    Farinha, Teresa
    Department of Economic Geography, Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Bettencourt, Luís M.A.
    Mansueto Institute for Urban Innovation, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States.
    Urban occupational structures as information networks: The effect on network density of increasing number of occupations2018In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 5, article id e0196915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban economies are composed of diverse activities, embodied in labor occupations, which depend on one another to produce goods and services. Yet little is known about how the nature and intensity of these interdependences change as cities increase in population size and economic complexity. Understanding the relationship between occupational interdependencies and the number of occupations defining an urban economy is relevant because interdependence within a networked system has implications for system resilience and for how easily can the structure of the network be modified. Here, we represent the interdependencies among occupations in a city as a non-spatial information network, where the strengths of interdependence between pairs of occupations determine the strengths of the links in the network. Using those quantified link strengths we calculate a single metric of interdependence–or connectedness–which is equivalent to the density of a city’s weighted occupational network. We then examine urban systems in six industrialized countries, analyzing how the density of urban occupational networks changes with network size, measured as the number of unique occupations present in an urban workforce. We find that in all six countries, density, or economic interdependence, increases superlinearly with the number of distinct occupations. Because connections among occupations represent flows of information, we provide evidence that connectivity scales superlinearly with network size in information networks.

  • 21.
    Smirnova, Olga
    et al.
    Department of Political Science East Carolina University Brewster, Greenville, NC, United States.
    Strumsky, Deborah
    Maine Center for Business & Economic Research, Cutler Institute, Portland, ME, United States.
    Qualls, Ashley C.
    Department of Public Health, Mecklenburg County Government, United States.
    Do federal regulations beget innovation? Legislative policy and the role of executive orders2021In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 158, article id 112570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our research note focuses on whether policy changes in the transportation sector contribute to green innovations, measured as patents. We explore federal policies, specifically energy policies such as Energy Policy Act of 1992 or 2005, that provide incentives for the development of environmentally friendly technologies in transportation. Drawing on a combination of qualitative and quantitative data, we construct and test several novel policy measures while controlling for other factors that may influence green transportation innovations. We develop a unique legislative timeline with the use of key-informant interviews, literature searches, and legislative updates reviews. Only one policy variable (executive orders) appears to have a positive effect on the number of patents in green transportation innovation sphere. High capital expenditures for pollution abatement decrease innovation activity, while high operating expenditures increase innovation activity. The federal policies over the time period analyzed seem to create uncertainty rather than provide a clear incentive for innovation. The executive orders may affect innovation levels; further tests are needed with the changes in political leadership. The results of our research note signal that stronger and more consistent incentives at federal level may be necessary to realize desired policy outcomes.

  • 22.
    Stolarick, Kevin
    et al.
    The Martin Prosperity Institute, Joseph L. Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto, MaRS Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Lobo, José
    School of Human Evolution and Social Change, and W.P. Carey School of Business, Arizona State University Tempe, Arizona, USA.
    Strumsky, Deborah
    Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, USA.
    Are creative metropolitan areas also entrepreneurial?2011In: Regional Science Policy & Practice, E-ISSN 1757-7802, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 271-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent scholarship on metropolitan and regional development has highlighted the importance of two factors: entrepreneurship and skilled individuals. Using micro-level establishment data on the creation of new firms, and an occupational measure of skilled individuals (the creative class), we examine whether a metropolitan environment conducive to creative employment is also conducive to entrepreneurship (which can be seen as a creative act). Taking past growth into consideration, and allowing for annual fixed effects to account for economic cycles as well as controlling for systematic location-specific characteristics, we find that the larger the creative employment of a region, the higher the levels of entrepreneurship and regional growth. A region that has more new entrepreneurial firms open in the previous year is more likely to have higher growth in new entrepreneurial firms in the current year. 

  • 23.
    Strumsky, Deborah
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Bettencourt, Luis
    Mansueto Institute for Urban Innovation, Department of Ecology & Evolution, Department of Sociology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM, USA.
    Lobo, José
    School of Sustainability, College of Global Futures, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States.
    Agglomeration effects as spatially embedded social interactions: identifying urban scaling beyond metropolitan areas2023In: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, ISSN 2399-8083, Vol. 50, no 7, p. 1964-1980Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agglomeration is the tell-tale sign of cities and urbanization. Identifying and measuring agglomeration economies has been achieved by a variety of means and by various disciplines, including urban economics, quantitative geography, and regional science. Agglomeration is typically expressed as the non-linear dependence of many different urban quantities on city size, proxied by population. The identification and measurement of agglomeration effects is of course dependent on the choice of spatial units. Metropolitan areas (or their equivalent) have been the preferred spatial units for urban scaling modeling. The many issues surrounding the delineation of metropolitan areas have tended to obscure that urban scaling is principally about the measurable consequences of social and economic interactions embedded in physical space and facilitated by physical proximity and infrastructure. These generative processes obviously must exist in the spatial subcomponents of metropolitan areas. Using data for counties and urbanized areas in the United States, we show that the generative processes that give rise to scaling effects are not an artifact of metropolitan definitions and exist at smaller spatial scales.

  • 24.
    Strumsky, Deborah
    et al.
    Santa Fe Institute Center for Biosocial Complex Systems, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States.
    Lobo, José
    Santa Fe Institute Center for Biosocial Complex Systems, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States.
    Identifying the sources of technological novelty in the process of invention2015In: Research Policy, ISSN 0048-7333, E-ISSN 1873-7625, Vol. 44, no 8, p. 1445-1461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much work on technological change agrees that the combination of new and existing technological capabilities is one of the principal sources of inventive novelty, and that there have been instances in history when new inventions appear with few antecedents. The many discussions across research communities regarding the relative roles of combination and origination as sources of technological novelty have not provided much in the way of formal identification and quantification. By taking advantage of the technology codes used by the U.S. Patent Office to classify patents, we discretize technologies and identify four distinct sources of technological novelty. The resulting technological novelty taxonomy is then used to assess the relative importance of refining existing technologies, combining existing and new technologies, and de novo creation of technological capabilities as sources of new inventions. Our results clearly show that the process of invention has been primarily a combinatorial process accompanied by rare occurrences of technological origination. The importance of reusing existing technological capabilities to generate inventions has been steadily rising and recently overtook recombination as the source of novelty for most new inventions.

  • 25.
    Strumsky, Deborah
    et al.
    Arizona State University, Tempe, United States.
    Lobo, José
    Arizona State University, Tempe, United States.
    Mellander, Charlotta
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    As different as night and day: Scaling analysis of Swedish urban areas and regional labor markets2021In: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, ISSN 2399-8083, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 231-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The urban scaling framework views cities as integrated socioeconomic networks of interactions embedded in physical space. A crucial property of cities highlighted by this approach is that cities act to mix populations, a mixing both facilitated and constrained by physical infrastructure. Operationalizing a view of cities as settings for social interactions and population mixing—assembling a set of spatial units of analysis which contain the relevant social aspects of urban settlements—implies choices about the use of existing data, the assignation of data to locations, and the delineation of the boundaries of urban areas, all of which are far from trivial research decisions. Metropolitan areas have become the spatial unit of choice in urban economics and economic geography for investigating urban life as they are seen as encompassing the distinct phenomena of “urbanity” (proximity, density) and social interactions indirectly captured through a unified labor market. However, the population size and areal extent of metropolitan areas, as most often defined, render opaque the distinction between two salient types of urban population: those who work and those who reside within a metropolitan area. These two sets of individuals, among whom of course there is great overlap, putatively engage in different economic and social interactions which are in turn differently embedded in physical space. Availing ourselves of Swedish micro-level data for two distinct spatial units, tätorts (“dense localites”) and local labor markets, we can distinguish which types of populations and which types of spatial agglomerations are responsible for the observed scaling effects on productivity and physical infrastructure. We find that spatially contiguous labor markets are not enough to generate some of the most salient urban scaling phenomena. 

  • 26.
    Strumsky, Deborah
    et al.
    University of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC, United States.
    Lobo, José
    Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States.
    Tainter, Joseph A.
    Utah State University, Logan, UT, United States.
    Complexity and the productivity of innovation2010In: Systems research and behavioral science, ISSN 1092-7026, E-ISSN 1099-1743, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 496-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation underpins the industrial way of life. It is assumed implicitly both that it will continue to do so, and that it will produce solutions to the problems we face involving climate and resources. These assumptions underlie the thinking of many economists and the political leaders whom they influence. Such a view assumes that innovation in the future will be as productive as it has been in the recent past. To test whether this is likely to be so, we investigate the productivity of innovation in the United States using data from the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. The results suggest that the conventional optimistic view may be unwarranted.

  • 27.
    Strumsky, Deborah
    et al.
    Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, United States.
    Lobo, José
    School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States.
    van der Leeuw, Sander
    School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States.
    Using patent technology codes to study technological change2012In: Economics of Innovation and New Technology, ISSN 1043-8599, E-ISSN 1476-8364, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 267-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much work on technological change agrees that the recombination of new and existing technological capabilities is one of the principal sources of technological novelty. Patented inventions can be seen as bundles of distinct technologies brought together to accomplish a specific outcome - and this is how the US Patent Office defines inventions. The technologies constituting inventions are identified by the US Patent Office through an elaborate system of technology codes. A combinatorial perspective on invention, emblematic of approaches to technological change informed by evolutionary economics and complexity science, is inherent in the use of technology codes to summarize what is technologically novel about a patented invention. The technology codes represent a set of consistent definitions of technologies and their components spanning 220 years of inventive activity, and are an underutilized data resource for identifying distinct technological capabilities, defining technology spaces, marking the arrival of technological novelty, measuring technological complexity, and empirically grounding the study of technological change. The present discussion provides an introduction to the use of patent technology codes as well as some basic empirics. Our results highlight the highly discriminating nature of the codes and their usefulness in characterizing the type of processes by which technological capabilities generate novelty. 

  • 28.
    Strumsky, Deborah
    et al.
    Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, United States.
    Thill, Jean-Claude
    Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, United States.
    Profiling U.S. metropolitan regions by their social research networks and regional economic performance2013In: Journal of regional science, ISSN 0022-4146, E-ISSN 1467-9787, Vol. 53, no 5, p. 813-833Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On the premise that knowledge creation defines contemporary metropolitan regions, we profile them by their inventive networks, as measured by a variety of complementary social network, technology, and patenting metrics that distinguish scalar and structural aspects. Using a comprehensive, multiyear database of patent applications, we investigate whether the knowledge creation network profiles are discriminating characteristics of metropolitan regions by establishing a new urban taxonomy for metropolitan areas in the United States. The four-class taxonomy is not only statistically significant, but it is also economically meaningful in terms of economic performance of metropolitan areas. We find that metropolitan areas benefit from a higher density of inventors in the population, and that there is a positive correlation between economic performance and metropolitan areas with inventor teams working in similar or complementary areas of technology. In fact, the structure of knowledge creation networks are fundamental to economic performance and extends to metropolitan growth rates in jobs and income.

  • 29.
    Tainter, Joseph A.
    et al.
    Utah State University, United States.
    Strumsky, Deborah
    Arizona State University, United States.
    Taylor, Temis G.
    Utah State University, United States.
    Arnold, Michelle
    Utah State University, United States.
    Lobo, José
    Arizona State University, United States.
    Depletion vs. innovation the fundamental question of sustainability2017In: Physical Limits to Economic Growth: Perspectives of Economic, Social, and Complexity Science / [ed] R. Burlando & A. Tartaglia, London: Routledge, 2017, p. 65-93Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Near the end of World War II, President Franklin Roosevelt asked Vannevar Bush, director of the wartime Office of Scientific Research and Development, to prepare a report on the post-war role of government in promoting science. In his famous report, Bush wrote: “Advances in science will … bring higher standards of living, will lead to the prevention or cure of diseases, will promote conservation of our limited national resources, and will assure means of defence against aggression” (Bush, 1945: 10). This statement, so characteristic of our faith in science, became the basis for the emphasis on innovation that we know today. It is a system that has brought material prosperity in the industrialized countries and high levels of employment. Innovation has fostered the complexity of modern societies. Bush’s statement reflects what is called technological optimism, a faith in technology to solve problems. 

  • 30.
    Tsvetkova, Alexandra
    et al.
    School of Public Policy, George Mason University, VA, United States.
    Thill, Jean-Claude
    Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of North Carolina – Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, United States.
    Strumsky, Deborah
    Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of North Carolina – Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, United States.
    External effects of metropolitan innovation on firm survival: Non-parametric evidence from computer and electronic product manufacturing and healthcare services2014In: Applied Regional Growth and Innovation Models / [ed] Karima Kourtit, Peter Nijkamp & Robert Stimson, Berlin: Springer, 2014, p. 83-106Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last two decades, geography came into prominence as an important consideration in the study of knowledge accumulation, firm performance, and economic growth. The role of space as a determinant of economic outcomes comes primarily from the non-uniform distribution of human and social capital across territories. Accumulated knowledge, specific in each region, eventually should translate into productive applications and lead to dissimilar rates of economic growth (Ibrahim et al. 2009). The literature argues that knowledge, innovativeness, and entrepreneurship (factors that in the short-run are ‘attached’ to a region) play a definite role in economic outcomes. 

  • 31.
    Tsvetkova, Alexandra
    et al.
    School of Public Policy, George Mason University, VA, United States.
    Thill, Jean-Claude
    Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, NC, United States.
    Strumsky, Deborah
    Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, NC, United States.
    Metropolitan innovation, firm size, and business survival in a high-tech industry2014In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 661-676Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes to the growing body of business survival literature that focuses on regional determinants of the hazard faced by firms. Using parametric survival analysis, we test the effects of regional innovation on exit likelihood in the US computer and electronic product manufacturing during the 1992–2008 period. The novelty of our approach is in conditioning the effects of metropolitan innovation on firm size. Estimation results suggest a negative relationship between metropolitan patenting activity and survival of firms that started with 1–3 employees. This effect decreases if companies grow. Establishments with more than 4 employees at start-up are insensitive to metropolitan innovation, although size of firms that started with 4–9 employees improves their survival chances. These findings indicate that local knowledge spillovers do not translate into lower hazard. The negative relationship indicates either a creative destruction regime or decisions of entrepreneurs to shut down existing ventures in order to pursue other opportunities.

  • 32.
    Tsvetkova, Alexandra
    et al.
    George Mason University, School of Public Policy, Arlington, VA, United States.
    Thill, Jean-Claude
    University of North Carolina-Charlotte, Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, Charlotte, NC, United States.
    Strumsky, Deborah
    University of North Carolina-Charlotte, Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, Charlotte, NC, United States.
    Regional innovative environment and business survival: Non-parametric evidence from two U.S. sectors2013In: Studies in Regional Science, ISSN 0287-6256, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 105-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The determinants of business survival are an important topic of empirical study that is crucial for the design of effective policies aimed at forming and sustaining new firms in the U.S. regions. The literature suggests a wide range of firm-, industry-, market-, and region-related factors critical for business longevity. The effects of regional characteristics on the likelihood of firm exit are the least studied. This paper contributes to the literature by exploring the relationship between the level of metropolitan innovation and survival in two U.S. high-technology sectors, computer and electronic product manufacturing, and healthcare services. Using non-parametric survival analysis, we estimate the hazard faced by companies in both sectors conditioning it on innovation and controlling for a number of geographical, industrial, regional, and firm characteristics, one at a time. The results suggest that in computer and electronic product manufacturing the effects of innovation are highly dependent on other variables. The general pattern of higher hazard faced by establishments in more innovative regions usually reverses when the focus is on large and expanding companies, as well as on all firms in more agglomerated and industrially diverse environments. In healthcare services, the effect of intervening variables is less pronounced. With some exceptions, there is a positive relationship between the level of innovation and business survival in this sector.

  • 33.
    Youn, Hyejin
    et al.
    Institute for New Economic Thinking, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM, United States.
    Bettencourt, Luis M. A.
    Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM, United States.
    Lobo, José
    Center for Social Dynamics and Complexity, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States; School of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States.
    Strumsky, Deborah
    Santa Fe Institute Center for Biosocial Complex Systems, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States.
    Samaniego, Horacio
    Instituto de Conservación, Biodiversidad y Territorio, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Santiago, Chile.
    West, Geoffrey B.
    Institute for New Economic Thinking, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM, United States; Mathematics Department, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom.
    Scaling and universality in urban economic diversification2016In: Journal of the Royal Society Interface, ISSN 1742-5689, E-ISSN 1742-5662, Vol. 13, no 114, article id 20150937Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding cities is central to addressing major global challenges from climate change to economic resilience. Although increasingly perceived as fundamental socio-economic units, the detailed fabric of urban economic activities is only recently accessible to comprehensive analyses with the availability of large datasets. Here, we study abundances of business categories across US metropolitan statistical areas, and provide a framework for measuring the intrinsic diversity of economic activities that transcends scales of the classification scheme. A universal structure common to all cities is revealed, manifesting self-similarity in internal economic structure as well as aggregated metrics (GDP, patents, crime).We present a simple mathematical derivation of the universality, and provide a model, together with its economic implications of open-ended diversity created by urbanization, for understanding the observed empirical distribution. Given the universal distribution, scaling analyses for individual business categories enable us to determine their relative abundances as a function of city size. These results shed light on the processes of economic differentiation with scale, suggesting a general structure for the growth of national economies as integrated urban systems.

  • 34.
    Youn, Hyejin
    et al.
    Institute for New Economic Thinking, Oxford Martin School, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Strumsky, Deborah
    William States Lee College of Engineering, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, United States.
    Bettencourt, Luis M. A.
    Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM, United States.
    Lobo, José
    School of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States.
    Invention as a combinatorial process: Evidence from US patents2015In: Journal of the Royal Society Interface, ISSN 1742-5689, E-ISSN 1742-5662, Vol. 12, no 106, article id 20150272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Invention has been commonly conceptualized as a search over a space of combinatorial possibilities. Despite the existence of a rich literature, spanning a variety of disciplines, elaborating on the recombinant nature of invention, we lack a formal and quantitative characterization of the combinatorial process underpinning inventive activity. Here, we use US patent records dating from 1790 to 2010 to formally characterize invention as a combinatorial process. To do this, we treat patented inventions as carriers of technologies and avail ourselves of the elaborate system of technology codes used by the United States Patent and Trademark Office to classify the technologies responsible for an invention's novelty. We find that the combinatorial inventive process exhibits an invariant rate of 'exploitation' (refinements of existing combinations of technologies) and 'exploration' (the development of new technological combinations). This combinatorial dynamic contrasts sharply with the creation of new technological capabilities - the building blocks to be combined - that has significantly slowed down.We also find that, notwithstanding the very reduced rate at which new technologies are introduced, the generation of novel technological combinations engenders a practically infinite space of technological configurations. 

1 - 34 of 34
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf