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  • 1.
    Bauweraerts, Jonathan
    et al.
    Univ Mons, Mons, Belgium.;Univ Mons, Warocque Sch Business & Econ, Pl Warocque 17, B-7000 Mons, Belgium..
    Cirillo, Alessandro
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO). Univ Naples Federico II, Family Business Lab Accounting & Governance FLAG, Naples, Italy.;Jonkoping Int Business Sch, Ctr Family Entrepreneurship & Ownership CeFEO, Jonkoping, Sweden..
    Sciascia, Salvatore
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO). Jonkoping Int Business Sch, Ctr Family Entrepreneurship & Ownership CeFEO, Jonkoping, Sweden.;Cattaneo Univ, Family Business Lab FABULA, LIUC, Castellanza, Italy..
    Socioemotional Wealth and Tax Aggressiveness in Private Family Firms: The Role of the CEO's Characteristics2024In: Family Business Review, ISSN 0894-4865, E-ISSN 1741-6248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on recent works calling for more tax research in the family business context, this study draws on the distinction between restricted and extended socioemotional wealth (SEW) to analyze how both SEW dimensions affect tax aggressiveness. Based on a sample of 201 private Belgian family firms, consistent findings from multiple regression analyses indicate that restricted SEW is positively related to tax aggressiveness, whereas extended SEW exerts a negative influence on tax aggressiveness. Our results also indicate that the family status of the CEO, CEO gender and CEO tenure moderate the relationship between both SEW dimensions and tax aggressiveness.

  • 2.
    Bauweraerts, Jonathan
    et al.
    Warocque School of Business and Economics, University of Mons, Mons, Belgium.
    Rondi, Emanuela
    Department of Management, Università degli Studi di Bergamo, Bergamo, Italy.
    Rovelli, Paola
    Faculty of Economics and Management, Centre for Family Business Management, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Bozen-Bolzano, Italy.
    De Massis, Alfredo
    Faculty of Economics and Management, Centre for Family Business Management, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Bozen-Bolzano, Italy; IMD Business School, Lausanne, Switzerland; Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom; Institute of Family Business and Institute for Entrepreneurs, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang, China.
    Sciascia, Salvatore
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO). Faculty of Economics & Management, FABULA (Family Business Lab), Cattaneo University – LIUC, Castellanza, Italy.
    Are family female directors catalysts of innovation in family small and medium enterprises?2022In: Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, ISSN 1932-4391, E-ISSN 1932-443X, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 314-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research Summary: While family small and medium enterprises (SMEs) increasingly involve women in their boards, the role of female directors as catalysts of innovation is yet to be fully understood. Drawing on upper echelons theory, we examine directors’ gender in conjunction with family affiliation to investigate the influence of family female directors on family SMEs’ innovation. Moreover, by analyzing the contingent role of socioemotional wealth preferences, we open the black box of noneconomic aspects shaping the cognition and behavior of boards. Our analysis of a unique survey-based sample of 287 Belgian family SMEs reveals that family female directors do exert a positive influence on R&D intensity. However, according to the mixed gamble logic, this influence is filtered by the positive and negative moderation of their socioemotional wealth preferences.

    Managerial Summary: We examine the role that women who are members of the family owning a business play in the decision making of SMEs. Specifically, we investigate the influence that the involvement of family female directors in the board of family SMEs exerts on innovation decisions. To empirically address this line of inquiry, we conducted a survey on 287 Belgian family SMEs. Our analysis shows that the involvement of family female directors in the board fosters family SME’s innovation investments. Yet, such an influence is weakened by the intention of the family to retain control over the business but is enhanced by the identification of family members with the firm and by the desire to renew family bonds through dynastic succession. Therefore, our study cautions family SMEs’ owners and managers to pay attention to these important dimensions of diversity when appointing directors to their board. 

  • 3.
    Brunelli, Sofia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO). Cattaneo Univ LIUC, FABULA Family Business Lab, Castellanza, VA, Italy..
    Sciascia, Salvatore
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO). Cattaneo Univ LIUC, FABULA Family Business Lab, Castellanza, VA, Italy..
    Baù, Massimo
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO). Jonkoping Int Business Sch JIBS, Ctr Family Entrepreneurship & Ownership CeFEO, Jonkoping, Sweden..
    Nonfinancial reporting in family firms: A systematic review and agenda for future research2023In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, E-ISSN 1099-0836Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper offers a systematic review of the literature on nonfinancial reporting in family firms, which has substantially grown in recent years. We identified and analyzed 74 articles published between 2002 and 2023. The work contributes to the domains of nonfinancial reporting and family business by providing an integrative and critical overview of the literature and by identifying future research avenues. We conclude by offering practical implications for managers, consultants, and policymakers.

  • 4.
    Cirillo, Alessandro
    et al.
    Univ Naples Federico II, Dept Econ Management Inst, Via Cinthia,45 Monte Sant Angelo, I-80126 Naples, Italy..
    Maggi, Barbara
    LIUC Univ, Dept Econ & Management, Cso Matteotti,22, I-21053 Castellanza, VA, Italy..
    Sciascia, Salvatore
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO). LIUC Univ, Dept Econ & Management, Cso Matteotti,22, I-21053 Castellanza, VA, Italy.;Jonkoping Int Business Sch, Ctr Family Entrepreneurship & Ownership, CeFEO, Jonkoping, Sweden..
    Lazzarotti, Valentina
    LIUC Univ, Dept Ind Engn, Cso Matteotti,22, I-21053 Castellanza, VA, Italy..
    Visconti, Federico
    LIUC Univ, Dept Econ & Management, Cso Matteotti,22, I-21053 Castellanza, VA, Italy..
    Exploring family millennials' involvement in family business internationalization: Who should be their leader?2022In: The Journal of Family Business Strategy, ISSN 1877-8585, E-ISSN 1877-8593, Vol. 13, no 3, article id 100455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on generational theory, we argue that family millennials' involvement is a driver of export intensity in family firms, but it depends on two different CEO characteristics, namely: family membership and societal generational membership. An ordered probit regression analysis on 92 Italian family firms confirms that the involvement of family millennials positively influences export intensity and that a millennial CEO enhances that positive effect. In addition, we found that a non-family CEO amplifies such a positive effect, whereas a family CEO tends to turn the tide so that the effect of family millennials' involvement becomes negative. The novel findings of our explorative study contribute not only to the research on family business and internationalization, but also to the literature on generational theory.

  • 5.
    Gjergji, R.
    et al.
    FABULA – Family Business Lab, Università Cattaneo - LIUC, Corso Matteotti 22, (VA), Castellanza, 21053, Italy.
    Vena, L.
    School of Economics & Management, Università Cattaneo – LIUC, Corso Matteotti 22, (VA), Castellanza, 21053, Italy.
    Campopiano, G.
    Center for Young and Family Enterprise (CYFE) & Department of Management, Information and Production Engineering, University of Bergamo, Via Pasubio 7/B, (BG), Dalmine, 24044, Italy.
    Sciascia, Salvatore
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO). FABULA – Family Business Lab, Università Cattaneo - LIUC, Corso Matteotti 22, (VA), Castellanza, 21053, Italy.
    Cortesi, A.
    School of Economics & Management, Università Cattaneo – LIUC, Corso Matteotti 22, (VA), Castellanza, 21053, Italy.
    Strategy disclosure and cost of capital: The key role of women directors for family firms2023In: The Journal of Family Business Strategy, ISSN 1877-8585, E-ISSN 1877-8593, article id 100570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether and to what extent strategy disclosure influences the cost of capital, comparing family and non-family firms and considering the proportion of women directors. We theorize that voluntary strategy disclosure may be either beneficial or detrimental depending on the perceptions by financial stakeholders about the role of governance attributes. These stakeholders might, indeed, assess strategy disclosure differently based on their stereotyped view of the family firm status and women's involvement on the board of directors. By referring to a sample of 93 listed Italian small and medium-sized enterprises, we show that, unlike with their non-family counterparts, strategy disclosure increases the cost of capital for family firms. However, an increasing proportion of women directors softens this negative effect. Moreover, when a critical mass of women directors is appointed to the board, the strategy disclosure becomes beneficial for family firms too. We consequently offer a threefold contribution to the literature on gender diversity, family business and corporate voluntary disclosure.

  • 6.
    Maggi, Barbara
    et al.
    FABULA-Family Business Lab, Università Cattaneo-LIUC, Castellanza, Italy.
    Gjergji, Rafaela
    FABULA-Family Business Lab, Università Cattaneo-LIUC, Castellanza, Italy.
    Vena, Luigi
    School of Economics & Management, Università Cattaneo-LIUC, Castellanza, Italy.
    Sciascia, Salvatore
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO). FABULA-Family Business Lab, Università Cattaneo-LIUC, Castellanza, Italy.
    Cortesi, Alessandro
    School of Economics & Management, Università Cattaneo-LIUC, Castellanza, Italy.
    Family firm status and environmental disclosure: The moderating effect of board gender diversity2023In: Business Ethics, the Environment & Responsibility, ISSN 2694-6416, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 1334-1351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on agency and resource-based view theories, this study investigates the level of environmental disclosure (ED) practices of family versus non-family firms and explores the moderating role of board gender diversity. We test our hypotheses on a 3-year (2018–2020) panel data sample comprising 324 observations of Italian small- and medium-sized enterprises traded on the Euronext Growth Milan. Findings show that, compared to non-family firms, companies with a family firm status are characterized by lower levels of ED. Gender diversity on the board, however, moderates this relationship, reducing this gap, to the extent that the family firm status is associated with higher ED when the number of women directors is high enough to constitute a critical mass. We consequently contribute to the studies on family business, corporate governance, and corporate social responsibility. 

  • 7.
    Maggi, Barbara
    et al.
    FABULA (Family Business Lab), Cattaneo University – LIUC, Castellanza, Italy.
    Pongelli, Claudia
    European University of Rome, Rome, Italy; IPAG Entrepreneurship and Family Business Center, IPAG Business School, Nice, France.
    Sciascia, Salvatore
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO). FABULA (Family Business Lab), Cattaneo University – LIUC, Castellanza, Italy.
    Family firms and international equity-based entry modes: a systematic literature review2023In: Multinational Business Review, ISSN 1525-383X, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 38-63Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Although research on family firms (FF) internationalization has seen a boom over the past 30 years, the understanding of how FFs internationalize with equity modes is still fragmented. Indeed, the majority of extant literature on this topic identifies internationalization with export, overlooking the alternative equity-based entry modes FFs have when entering a foreign country. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap with a framework-based systematic literature review on the topic to improve the understanding of this phenomenon and propose a way forward.

    Design/methodology/approach - This study conducted a framework-based systematic literature review of 93 papers published between 1993 and 2021.

    Findings - This study adds to the current debate on FFs internationalization by integrating previous review efforts with a deeper investigation of FFs' equity-based entry modes. This study contributes to this body of knowledge in the family business research by synthetizing and systematizing extant literature with a framework-based approach from the international business (IB) field. In so doing, this study builds a stronger link between these two areas of research. Finally, research gaps and promising research avenues for future studies are also presented.

    Originality/value - This study responds to the call to create a dialogue between the FFs and IB fields by systematizing the extant body of knowledge and integrating the FF literature with one of the most widely used frameworks (Pan and Tse, 2000) on entry modes in the IB domain.

  • 8.
    Martínez-Alonso, R.
    et al.
    Department of Economics and Business, University of Almería, Carretera de Sacramento, s/n, Almería, 04120, Spain.
    Martínez-Romero, M. J.
    Department of Economics and Business, University of Almería, Carretera de Sacramento, s/n, Almería, 04120, Spain.
    Rojo-Ramírez, A. A.
    Department of Economics and Business, University of Almería, Carretera de Sacramento, s/n, Almería, 04120, Spain.
    Lazzarotti, V.
    FABULA - Family Business Lab, Cattaneo University - LIUC, C.so Matteotti, 22, Castellanza, 21053, Italy.
    Sciascia, Salvatore
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Process innovation in family firms: Family involvement in management, R&D collaboration with suppliers, and technology protection2023In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 157, article id 113581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on insights from the upper echelon theory, this article aims to examine the impact of family involvement in management on process innovation within family firms, considering the mediating role of R&D collaboration with suppliers and the moderating role of technology protection. Conducting a panel data analysis on 5,332 firm-year observations of Spanish manufacturing family firms for the period 2007–2016, we find that the negative relationship between family involvement in management and process innovation is mediated by R&D collaboration with suppliers. Furthermore, we find that the negative effect of family involvement in management on R&D collaboration with suppliers and ultimately on process innovation is mitigated by technology protection and even becomes positive for high levels of technology protection.

  • 9.
    Pongelli, C.
    et al.
    Deparment of Economics, European University of Rome, Via degli Aldobrandeschi, 190, Rome, 00163, Italy.
    Majocchi, A.
    Department of Business and Management, LUISS University, Viale Romania 32, Rome, 00197, Italy.
    Bauweraerts, J.
    Control, Audit, Risk Management and Entrepreneurship Department, University of Mons, Place Warocqué, 17, Mons, 7000, Belgium.
    Sciascia, Salvatore
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO). FABULA – Family Business Lab, Università Cattaneo - LIUC, Corso Matteotti 22, Castellanza, 21053, Italy.
    Caroli, M.
    LUISS Business School, LUISS University, Via Nomentana, 216, Rome, 00162, Italy.
    Verbeke, A.
    McCaig Chair in Management, Haskayne School of Business, University of Calgary, University Drive N.W., Scurfield Hall 418, 2500, Calgary, AB, Canada.
    The impact of board of directors’ characteristics on the internationalization of family SMEs2023In: Journal of world business (Print), ISSN 1090-9516, E-ISSN 1878-5573, Vol. 58, no 2, article id 101412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Family small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) face both general bounded rationality challenges and a unique expression of bounded rationality in their internationalization process: the bifurcation bias, a concept aligned with modern transaction cost theory (TCT). We argue that efficient governance in family SMEs, and especially features of the Board of Directors’ composition, can help alleviate bounded rationality. Complementing TCT with upper echelons theory (UET), we investigate which Board characteristics in family SMEs contribute to efficient governance and the ensuing strategy decisions. We focus specifically on strategy decisions in the internationalization sphere. Our empirical analysis of survey data from 328 Belgian family SMEs, operating out of a small open economy, reveals that family SMEs internationalize more if their Boards are ‘open’, ‘inclusive’, ‘experienced’ and ‘active’. These Board characteristics, all reflective of efficient governance, i.e., providing the Board with the capacity to alleviate bounded rationality constraints, positively contribute to internationalization, especially (and perhaps paradoxically) when the family SME is managed by a CEO who is also a family member.

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