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  • 1.
    Glaad, Daniel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Kapitaltäckningsgarantier: Krav på avrop eller automatiskt utlösande?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    If an enterprise lacks capital it might be in desperate need of capital contribution to avoid liquidation. One solution to restore the economic balance, is to construct a contract in which the enterprise ensures that capital contribution will be made on given conditions. The purpose with this thesis is to analyze different ways to establish such agreements.

    A capital contribution can be triggered by a call-off from the board of directors to the contributor, or automatically, when the shareholders’ equity falls below 50 percent of the registered capital stock. In the literature, the latter is represented as the most adaptable. A consequence of capital contribution, that automatically triggers when shareholders’ equity falls below the critical point, is that it enables for enterprises to stay at a low economic level. This is because the automatically triggered contribution keeps the economic level just as high as necessary. Thus, the enterprise does not have to perform measures that otherwise would be required, according to the Swedish Companies Act. From that follows, that such agreements enables a possibility for the board of directors to avoid legal responsibility to set up a control balance sheet, controlled by an independent auditor. This indisputably reduces the protection for creditors, which are intended to be protected by the rules in the Swedish Companies Act. Therefore, in my opinion, such contractual terms for capital contributions should not be acceptable. When a board of directors has to trigger the contribution by a call-off, they are instead obliged to define the amount before the contribution can be made. Consequently, preventing inactivity within the board of directors, which must be frequently updated with the financial situation. Accordingly these terms of contract in an agreement of capital contribution, would be more in line with the regulations in the Swedish Companies Act.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 2.
    Glaad, Daniel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    The Hardcore Restrictions on Internet Distribution under the Regulation 330/2010: The scope of Objective Justifications and the Double Negative Presumption2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the approach and attitude towards restrictions on internet distribution in distribution systems under EU competition law. When the Regulation 330/2010 and the Vertical Guidelines entered into force in 2010 a new level of guidance was given by the Commission on internet distribution. The Vertical Guidelines made an important contribution with its detailed rules but did also leave some questions. In the case C-439/09, Pierre Fabre Dermo-Cosmétique which came in the late 2011 the COJ gave its first preliminary ruling concerning internet distribution and two of those questions are addressed and examined in this thesis.

    The Vertical Guidelines state that distributors are generally free to use internet for sale and marketing purposes and the first question regards the scope of objective justifications for restricting internet distribution. The thesis shows that the Commission has taken a quite restrictive approach on restrictions on internet distribution which has, at least partly, been confirmed by the COJ. It is however possible to objectively justify restrictions with reference to foremost health and safety but also due to technically advanced and high quality products.

    The second question concerns the double presumption rule mentioned in the Vertical Guidelines stating that an agreement containing a hardcore restriction is presumed to infringe Art 101(1) in the TFEU by not being exempted by Regulation 330/2010 and to not fulfill the criteria in Art 101(3) in the TFEU for being individually exempted. The examination of the rule and the analyze of case law gives that the COJ does not seem to take the presumption rule into consideration in regard of internet distribution. The conclusion is however that; restrictions together with any other directly or indirectly outright bans on internet distribution must be carefully constructed and performed.

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    The hardcore restriction on internet distribution
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