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  • 1.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafiksäkerhet, samhälle och trafikant, TST.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Grumert, Ellen
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Hastighetsdämpande åtgärder: en litteraturstudie med fokus på nya trafikmiljöåtgärder och ITS-orienterade lösningar2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A literature survey has been conducted regarding international traffic calming measures that could have a potential use in Sweden and other Nordic countries. Focus has been on measures in new traffic environments and ITS (Intelligent Transport System) based solutions. Information has been obtained through searches in literature databases and on different homepages, as well as from contacts in networks. Initially, we describe common traffic calming measures used today in Swedish traffic environments. For example, different forms of vertical and horizontal measures, and different types of surfaces, road markings and paintings. In the case of existing ITS solutions, we mention speed reminder signs, variable message signs and Motorway Control System (MCS).

    New kinds of physical measures that have most potential for use are e.g. modifications of speed bumps and the construction of small curves that enforce lower speed. Such curvatures can be used at entrances to communities or before roundabouts.

    Different concepts of "shared space" (e.g. walking speed zones) are something that could be used more extensively, even at intersections and other locations in urban areas. In such cases, all traditional road equipment is removed and a synergy between different user groups is created, leading to lower speeds.

    Different types of road markings and paintings can be used to visually narrow the road, but also in order to create an optical illusion that makes one feel as if the speed is high. However, such measures are not fully effective during winter conditions. Applications in 3D can also be used to create the illusion of obstacles in the roadway and result in reduced speeds. It is important to consider the overall picture and to combine various measures in a correct way. This report gives some examples on how to implement speed reduction measures in communities with thoroughfares. Furthermore, we give example on how strategic approaches and policy design may help to efficiently implement different kinds of traffic calming measures.

    ITS-solutions, where a two-way communication between vehicles and between vehicles and the infrastructure is used, have gained momentum in Europe and internationally. Three possible systems that have not yet been introduced on the market are described. Most of the cooperative systems are still in a research and development phase. The potential of the systems is considered to be large, and this is also reflected in the extensive research and development investments in the area. Furthermore, ITS as a whole, i.e. cooperative systems as well as other ITS solutions is believed to have a great potential.

  • 2.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafiksäkerhet, samhälle och trafikant, TST.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafiksäkerhet, samhälle och trafikant, TST.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Drift och underhåll, DOU.
    Genell, Anders
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Ljudvarningar vid vägarbetsplatser för att uppnå sänkta hastigheter: Kartläggning och praktisk utvärdering2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A project has been carried out to find methods that effectively decrease drivers’ speeds at road work sites through real-time audio warnings. The project consisted of two parts. First, a survey of existing studies took place. The results show that the characteristics of a successful audio alert are female voice, direct and informative messages, an interaction between semantics and acoustics, successively increased intensity, and the dimming of secondary audio distractions. Based on the results of the survey, a practical evaluation of the potential use of audio warnings at road work sites was carried out in a VTI driver simulator. Twenty-two car drivers drove 25 kilometer on a motorway where two road works were placed on the hard shoulder. Half of the subjects were given an audio warning before the first road work and the other half prior to the second roadwork. The audio warning consisted of a sound similar to that of a GPS warning signal, followed by a female voice saying "Warning! Road work within 500 meters. Adjust the speed!". The message was sent via the car's internal speaker system. The speed reducing effect is significant and the average decrease is estimated to be 9–17 km/h greater with audio warning than without. Furthermore, there was still a small effect (0.5–3.3 km h) left of the audio alert after the road works. More results of the simulation tests are presented along with the drivers’ subjective opinions of such systems.

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