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  • 1. Arguedas, O.
    et al.
    Andersson-Gäre, Boel
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Fasth, A.
    Porras, O.
    Development of a Costa Rican version of the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire1997In: Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0315-162X, E-ISSN 1499-2752, Vol. 24, no 11, p. 2233-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To validate a Spanish language version of the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) for use in Costa Rica and to evaluate the feasibility, reliability, and cross cultural equivalency of this version. METHODS: The original questionnaire, translated without modification into Spanish, was administered to 12 children, all above 10 years of age, with the diagnosis of juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) and to their parents. There were several problems in comprehension, and self-administration with this version was not possible. For this reason a teacher and a psychologist were consulted to create a modified Costa Rican version. We administered this 2nd version to 46 children with JCA and 62 of their parents. RESULTS: The modified Costa Rican HAQ (CR-CHAQ) was self-administered by 93.5% of the patients and 84% of the parents. The median time to complete the questionnaire was 12 min for the children, 10 min for the parents. The main difficulty in comprehension was the pain score for both groups. Test-retest (Spearman R = 0.73) and interobserver (Spearman R = 0.70) reliability were good. Validity of the instrument was confirmed by the high correlation between the disability and discomfort scores and conventional clinical variables. There was satisfactory correlation between the disability score and conventional clinical variables. Discriminant validity was confirmed by the capacity of the CR-CHAQ to evaluate patients as being in different categories of disease activity. CONCLUSION: After modifications, the CR-CHAQ achieved cross cultural equivalency.

  • 2. Arguedas, O.
    et al.
    Fasth, A.
    Andersson-Gäre, Boel
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    A prospective population based study on outcome of juvenile chronic arthritis in Costa Rica2002In: Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0315-162X, E-ISSN 1499-2752, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 174-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To study the disease process and outcome in an unselected group of patients with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA). METHODS: From a population based study in San Jose, Costa Rica, 47 patients with JCA with disease onset from 1993 through 1995 were investigated after median duration of 4.1 yrs (range 2.9-4.9) (incidence group). Another 49 children with disease onset prior to 1993 and younger than 16 years of age on December 31, 1995 (cross sectional group) were also followed. RESULTS: In the incidence group, 4/47 children changed subtype during the course of the disease. All did so within 2 years from disease onset, and the same observation was made in the cross sectional group. Uveitis was described at onset in a single case, and no child developed uveitis later. In patients from the incidence group in the process of being transferred to adult rheumatology clinics, 48% were still taking medication. Patients who had involvement of proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints at onset had an increased risk of being active or stable at followup (RR 12.3, 95% CI 1.4-108.3). A higher chance of no continuing disease activity at followup was observed in children with oligoarticular disease than in the other subtypes (RR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2-6.9). CONCLUSION: Uveitis associated with antinuclear antibody positive JCA and psoriatic arthritis in Costa Rican children is uncommon, and the risk of developing uveitis remains low during the course of the disease. Involvement of PIP joints predicts an increased risk of continuing disease. The course of JCA in Costa Rican children is not milder than in Caucasian populations, since 48% of the patients showed persistent disease activity at the transition to adult care.

  • 3. Arguedas, O.
    et al.
    Fasth, A.
    Andersson-Gäre, Boel
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Porras, O.
    Juvenile chronic arthritis in urban San Jose, Costa Rica: a 2 year prospective study1998In: Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0315-162X, E-ISSN 1499-2752, Vol. 25, no 9, p. 1844-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To find the incidence and prevalence of juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) in the urban area of San Jose, Costa Rica. METHODS: During the year preceding our 2 year prospective, population based study, we conducted an educational program on JCA. The physicians caring for children < 16 years of age from all centers in the study area followed the program. They were asked to refer all cases of possible JCA according to EULAR criteria. The children were all evaluated at the National Children's Hospital. RESULTS: Of 189 children referred, 48 fulfilled EULAR criteria for JCA. The 2 year incidence rate for JCA was 13.7 per 100,000 children < 16 years old. This corresponds to an annual incidence per 100,000 children of 6.8 (95% CI 4.1-9.6). The incidence rate for pauciarticular onset JCA was 3.9 per 100,000. At the prevalence date, 122 cases of JCA were recorded, corresponding to a prevalence of 34.9 per 100,000 children < 16 years. When patients in remission were excluded, the prevalence was 31.4 per 100,000 (95% CI 25.5-37.2). The pauciarticular onset form was the most common, 71% of all prevalence cases. The highest incidence and prevalence were noted for pauciarticular girls with late onset JCA. No incidence peak was found in preschool age. The girl-to-boy ratio was 1.5/1. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) were positive in only 7 cases (6.3%). IgM rheumatoid factor was found in 13 children (10.6%). Chronic iritis was observed in 4 cases, all of them ANA negative and older than 7 years of age at onset of arthritis. CONCLUSION: The incidence and prevalence observed were lower than those reported in other population based studies, but within the confidence intervals of their data. The incidence rate for pauciarticular JCA was significantly lower than that reported in other comparable studies. ANA positive pauciarticular preschool girls and associated uveitis were rarely encountered.

  • 4. Berntson, L.
    et al.
    Andersson-Gäre, Boel
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Fasth, A.
    Herlin, T.
    Kristinsson, J.
    Lahdenne, P.
    Marhaug, G.
    Nielsen, S.
    Pelkonen, P.
    Rygg, M.
    Incidence of juvenile idiopathic arthritis in the Nordic countries: A population based study with special reference to the validity of the ILAR and EULAR criteria2003In: Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0315-162X, E-ISSN 1499-2752, Vol. 30, no 10, p. 2275-2282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To find the incidence of juvenile arthritis according to the ILAR and EULAR criteria within defined areas in the Nordic countries, and to study the validity of the ILAR and EULAR criteria from this perspective. METHOD: A longitudinal, prospective, population based study with patients enrolled according to the ILAR and EULAR criteria. Twenty doctors in Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Finland collected data from the incidence cases within their catchment areas over a period of 1.5 years, beginning July 1, 1997. Clinical and serological data from the first year of the disease were collected. RESULTS: In the whole group of 315 patients, the incidence rate was 15 per 100,000 children/year (95% CI 13-17) according to the ILAR criteria, varying from 7 (1-13) in Iceland, 19 (7-31) and 23 (10-36) from 2 different regions in Norway, and 9 (5-12) and 16 (9-23) from 2 different areas in Denmark, to 15 (12-18) in Sweden and 21/100,000/year (15-26) in the Helsinki region in Finland. An early peak in distribution for age of onset was found in girls but not in boys. The number of antinuclear antibody (ANA) positive children in the whole group, made up of children who had undergone at least one analyzed ANA test, was 123/315 (39%). Girls were ANA positive in 83/197 (42%) and boys in 40/118 (34%). Uveitis developed in 27/315 (8.6%) children during the first 6 months of the disease. CONCLUSION: Incidence rates of juvenile arthritis for areas within the Nordic countries were in accord with previous data. The ILAR criteria present slightly higher incidence rates, with a shorter disease duration for inclusion, compared to the EULAR criteria. Patients in one subgroup in either of the criteria sets do not necessarily belong to the expected subgroup in the other set of criteria; e.g., for juvenile ankylosing spondylitis (EULAR) and enthesitis related arthritis (ILAR). Our epidemiological findings are a reminder to be aware of possible new subgroups in children with juvenile arthritis.

  • 5. Berntson, L.
    et al.
    Fasth, A.
    Andersson-Gäre, Boel
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Herlin, T.
    Kristinsson, J.
    Lahdenne, P.
    Marhaug, G.
    Nielsen, S.
    Pelkonen, P.
    Rygg, M.
    The influence of heredity for psoriasis on the ILAR classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis2002In: Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0315-162X, E-ISSN 1499-2752, Vol. 29, no 11, p. 2454-2458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how heredity for psoriasis influences classification according to the International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR). Heredity for psoriasis is currently both an exclusion and an inclusion criterion for different types of childhood arthritis according to ILAR classification criteria. METHODS: Twenty physicians in 5 Nordic countries prospectively collected data from the incident cases in their catchment areas over an 18 month period beginning July 1, 1997. Clinical and serological data from the first year of disease were collected. RESULTS: Of the 321 patients included who could be classified according to ILAR criteria for childhood arthritis, 50 (15.6%) patients were excluded from 55 classification events and fulfilled criteria for "other arthritis 1" i.e., did not fulfill criteria for any of the other classification categories, primarily because of heredity for psoriasis. If psoriasis in second degree relatives was disregarded as an exclusion criterion, only 8.7% of the patients remained in the "other arthritis 1" subgroup. For 20.6% of the whole group, heredity for psoriasis in a first or second degree relative (or both) and its distribution among arthritis subgroups did not differ except for juvenile psoriatic arthritis. CONCLUSION: We suggest that second degree heredity for psoriasis be withdrawn as an exclusion criterion from the ILAR criteria.

  • 6. Berntson, L.
    et al.
    Fasth, A.
    Andersson-Gäre, Boel
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Kristinsson, J.
    Lahdenne, P.
    Marhaug, G.
    Nielsen, S.
    Pelkonen, P.
    Svensson, E.
    Construct validity of ILAR and EULAR criteria in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a population based incidence study from the Nordic countries. International League of Associations for Rheumatology. European League Against Rheumatism2001In: Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0315-162X, E-ISSN 1499-2752, Vol. 28, no 12, p. 2737-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: New classification criteria (ILAR) have been proposed for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). They are more descriptive than those formerly used [American College of Rheumatology (ACR), European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)], but require validation against classifications already in use. We validated the ILAR criteria in relation to the EULAR criteria in a prospective, incidence, and population based setting, and analyzed their feasibility. METHODS: Construct validity of ILAR and EULAR classification criteria refers to how closely the 2 instruments are related and how each of them operates in classifying subgroups/categories. Twenty doctors in 5 Nordic countries collected data from the incidence cases within their catchment areas during an 18 month period beginning July 1, 1997. Clinical and serological data from the first year of disease were collected. RESULTS: A total of 322 patients were included. Classification according to the ILAR criteria was possible in 321 patients; 290 patients had a disease duration > or = 3 months and were classified according to the EULAR criteria. One child could only be classified according to the EULAR criteria. Thus, 31/322 (9.6%) children were classified according to the ILAR criteria only. Forty-eight of 321 (15%) patients did not fit into any category and 6% (20/321) fulfilled criteria for2 categories. In the ILAR classification 5 out of 7 categories/subgroups have 2 to 5 specified exclusion criteria that highly discriminate the definition of each patient. In our study the exclusion criteria were fulfilled to only a small extent. CONCLUSION: The EULAR and ILAR criteria differ concerning the operational definitions of the subvariables involved, which complicates their comparison. By using ILAR rather than EULAR criteria the number of cases with juvenile arthritis increased by 10%, considering the first half-year after onset. The validity of the ILAR criteria is low since they often exclude patients from subgroup classification and the possibility of having more than one diagnosis is not negligible. The specified exclusion criteria for some of the subgroups are difficult to fulfill in clinical work and variables involved could be questioned with regard to their consistency.

  • 7.
    Bertilsson, Lennart
    et al.
    Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson-Gäre, Boel
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Quality Improvement and Leadership in Health and Welfare.
    Fasth, Anders
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Gothenburg.
    Petersson, Ingemar F.
    Department of Orthopedics, Clinical Sciences, and Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund.
    Forsblad-D'elia, Helena
    Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, University of Gothenburg.
    Disease course, outcome, and predictors of outcome in a population-based juvenile chronic arthritis cohort followed for 17 years2013In: Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0315-162X, E-ISSN 1499-2752, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 715-724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate disease course, outcome, and predictors of outcome in an unselected population-based cohort of individuals diagnosed with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) followed for 17 years. METHODS: The cohort consisted of 132 incidence JCA cases identified 1984-1986 according to EULAR criteria. At 5-year followup, 129 individuals underwent joint assessment, laboratory measurements, radiographic examination, and medication and functional assessment. At 17-year followup, 86 were examined with joint assessment, laboratory measurements, medication assessment, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), Keitel functional test (KFT), and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36). RESULTS: At 17-year followup, 40% were in remission, 44% changed subgroups, median HAQ score was 0.0 (range 0.0-1.5), and median KFT was 100 (range 54-100). SF-36 scores were significantly lower compared to a reference group. Thirty-nine percent of those in remission at 5-year followup were not in remission at 17-year followup. In multivariate analyses of variables from the 17-year followup: remission was predicted by remission at 5-year followup (OR 4.8); HAQ > 0 by rheumatoid factor (RF)-positivity at 5-year followup (OR 3.6); KFT < 100 by nonremission (OR 11.3); and RF-positivity (OR 5.6) at 5-year followup; and the SF-36 physical component summary score above average of the reference group by remission at 5-year followup (OR 5.8). CONCLUSION: This longterm study of 86 individuals with JCA showed large variability of disease courses and of impaired health-related quality of life. Sixty percent were not in remission at 17-year followup. Longterm outcome was best predicted by and associated with characteristics at 5-year followup rather than those at onset.

  • 8.
    Björk, Mathilda
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Thyberg, Ingrid
    Hälsouniversitetet i Linköping.
    Rikner, Klas
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Balogh, Istvan
    Lunds universitet.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Sick leave before and after diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis: a report from the Swedish TIRA project2009In: Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0315-162X, E-ISSN 1499-2752, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 1170-1179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Our study describes sick leave during 3 years before and 3 years after diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in relation to referents and identifies predictors for sick leave during the third year after diagnosis of RA. METHODS: One hundred twenty patients (76% women) from the Swedish early RA study TIRA were included. Disease activity and disability were registered regularly during 3 years in TIRA. Referents were matched for sex, age, and home town. Sick leave data were obtained for patients 3 years before and 3 years after diagnosis and for the referents for the corresponding 6 years. RESULTS: No differences were seen between patients and referents regarding sick leave during the first 2 years, whereas sick leave increased in patients 6 months before diagnosis, from 30% to 53%. During the 3 years after diagnosis, sick leave among patients was rather stable, varying between 50% and 60%, even though disability pension increased and sickness benefit decreased. Sick leave before diagnosis, disability 1 year after diagnosis, and type of work were identified as predictors for sick leave during the third year after diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Not surprisingly, sick leave in patients increased the year before diagnosis. Although disease activity and disability diminished after diagnosis, the patients' sick leave remained essentially unchanged. Sick leave 3 years after diagnosis was foremost predicted by earlier sick leave, disability, and type of work.

  • 9.
    Björk, Mathilda
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Thyberg, Ingrid
    Hälsouniversitetet i Linköping.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Hälsouniversitetet i Linköping.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Hälsouniversitetet i Linköping.
    Hand Function and Activity Limitation According to Health Assessment Questionnaire in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Healthy Referents: 5-Year Followup of Predictors of Activity Limitation (The Swedish TIRA Project)2007In: Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0315-162X, E-ISSN 1499-2752, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 296-302Article in journal (Refereed)
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