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  • 1.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Allgulander, Christer
    Dept of psychiatry, Karolinska Institute.
    Psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire - Short Form (CTQ-SF)2009In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 160-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Childhood maltreatment is delicate to assess both in clinical work and in research. There is a need for assessment tools that can be easily administered in an ethical and non-intrusive way that meets requirements of conceptual validity for various types of maltreatment and is sensitive to levels of severity. This study explores the psychometric properties of the Swedish translation of one such tool—the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire—Short Form (CTQ-SF; Bernstein and Fink, 1998). The CTQ-SF was administered to seven samples (total n=659)—five clinical samples and two non-clinical student samples. The factor structure supports the construct validity of the global maltreatment scale, four of the five maltreatment subscales (emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse and emotional neglect) and the minimization/denial (MD) scale, but not the physical neglect (PN) subscale. All items are highly correlated with their respective subscale. The discriminant validity is satisfactory. Highly significant correlation with social desirability gives further support for the MD-scale and to the recommendation of how to apply it. Internal consistency of PN is acceptable and for all other scales satisfactory. Swedish norm groups tend to score lower than similar American norm groups on abuse scales but higher on the neglect scales. Percentiles for seven gender-specific norm groups are presented. The weaknesses of the PN-scale are discussed and new constructs are proposed. The Swedish version of the CTQ-SF has the same construct validity and internal consistency as the original, including less homogeneity of the PN scale.

  • 2.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work.
    Kestenberg, Jenny
    Clinic of Psychiatry, NU Hospital Group, Region Västra Götaland, Sweden.
    Mattias, Edvinsson
    Clinic of Psychiatry, NU Hospital Group, Region Västra Götaland, Sweden.
    Validity of the Swedish SCID and ADDIS diagnostic interviews for substance use disorders: Sensitivity and specificity compared with a LEAD golden standard2015In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 69, no 1, p. 48-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The study explores agreement on diagnoses and diagnostic criteria for substance use disorders between two structured assessment interviews, the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV (SCID) and the Alkohol/Drog Diagnos InStrument (ADDIS). Both interviews are compared with a golden standard (GS), based on a LEAD model (Longitudinal, Expert, All Data). Method: Patients were interviewed concerning substance use problems by trained interviewers using SCID and ADDIS separately and blind to each other's results. SCID and ADDIS interviews were compared with each other, and both were compared with a GS. Results: Satisfactory agreement exists between SCID and ADDIS on criteria as well as final diagnostic suggestions, although ADDIS tended to propose dependence diagnoses somewhat more often than SCID. Agreement between SCID and GS is moderate. Sensitivity of SCID is satisfactory, as is specificity for lifetime diagnoses, while specificity for current diagnoses is perfect. ADDIS demonstrates substantial to perfect agreement with GS on dependence diagnoses and moderate agreement on abuse diagnoses (both lifetime and current), as well as showing excellent to perfect overall sensitivity and specificity. Both instruments are in almost perfect agreement with the GS on severity ratings. Conclusion: Both ADDIS and SCID can be used to ensure good standards in the diagnostic assessment of substance use disorders (both alcohol and drugs), with and without psychiatric comorbidity. Significant outcomes. Both SCID and ADDIS are in good agreement with the GS based on a LEAD model concerning substance use disorders.

  • 3.
    Gustafsson, Berit
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Region Jönköpings läns landsting.
    Gustafsson, Per
    Linköping University.
    Proczkowska Björklund, Marie
    Linköping University.
    The strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) for preschool children: a Swedish validation2016In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 70, no 8, p. 567-574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden, 80–90% of children aged 1–5 years attend preschool, and that environment is well suited to identify behaviours that may be signs of mental health problems. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a well-known short and structured instrument measuring child behaviours that indicate mental health problems well suited for preschool use.

    Aim: To investigate whether SDQ is a reliable and valid instrument for identifying behavioural problems in children aged 1–3 years and 4–5 years in a Swedish population, as rated by preschool teachers.

    Methods: Preschools situated in different sized municipalities in Sweden participated. The preschool teacher rated each individual child. Concurrent validity was tested using the Child–Teacher Report Form (C-TRF) and Child Engagement Questionnaire (CEQ). Exploratory factor analysis was conducted for age groups, 1–3 years and 4–5 years.

    Results: The preschool teachers considered most of the SDQ items relevant and possible to rate. For the children aged 1–3 years, the subscales ‘Hyperactivity’ (Cronbach alpha = 0.84, split half = 0.73) and ‘Conduct’ (Cronbach alpha = 0.76, split half = 0.80) were considered to be valid. For the age group 4–5 years, the whole original SDQ scale, 4-factor solution was used and showed reasonable validity (Cronbach alpha = 0.83, split half = 0.87).

    Conclusion: SDQ can be used in a preschool setting by preschool teachers as a valid instrument for identifying externalizing behavioural problems (hyperactivity and conduct problems) in young children.

    Clinical implications: SDQ could be used to identify preschool children at high-risk for mental health problems later in life.

  • 4.
    Monwell, Bodil
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Opioid maintenance treatment: trajectories in and out of treatment2019In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: Although efficacy studies of opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) have shown evidence of treatment benefits, there is still need for studies on its effectiveness in natural clinical processes. This study investigates the development in health, substance use and social conditions of those who applied for OMT, including those denied access or discharged.

    Method: First, persons assessed for admittance in 2005–2011 (n = 127) were categorized into four trajectory groups based on whether they were admitted or denied (n = 19), discharged (n = 31), readmitted (n = 21) or had been undergoing OMT without interruption (n = 56). Second, 99 of these, the analytical sample, were interviewed at follow-up using (a) the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) for seven problem-areas and housing, and (b) self-rated change in 11 problem areas. The ASI was compared to baseline interviews after 55 months (mean). Third, outcomes within groups was studied in relation to alternative interventions.

    Results: Within the analytical sample, those denied OMT showed no improvements at group level, those discharged had some improvements, more if readmitted than if not and those with uninterrupted OMT showed the most comprehensive improvements. Those outside OMT, denied and discharged, had considerable mortality risks related to ongoing drug use, especially in lack of well-planned alternative interventions.

    Conclusion: Improvements strongly relate to access to OMT. This study underscores that access to OMT improves the situation in all areas investigated and decreases the risk for drug-related death. It underscores the importance of two major risk situations, i.e. being denied OMT and being discharged.

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