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  • 1. Gringras, P.
    et al.
    Green, Dido
    Centre for Rehabilitation, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Wright, B.
    Rush, C.
    Sparrowhawk, M.
    Pratt, K.
    Allgar, V.
    Hooke, N.
    Moore, D.
    Zaiwalla, Z.
    Wiggs, L.
    Weighted blankets and sleep in autistic children - A randomized controlled trial2014Inngår i: Pediatrics, ISSN 0031-4005, E-ISSN 1098-4275, Vol. 134, nr 2, s. 298-306Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    To assess the effectiveness of a weighted-blanket intervention in treating severe sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    METHODS:

    This phase III trial was a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover design. Participants were aged between 5 years and 16 years 10 months, with a confirmed ASD diagnosis and severe sleep problems, refractory to community-based interventions. The interventions were either a commercially available weighted blanket or otherwise identical usual weight blanket (control), introduced at bedtime; each was used for a 2-week period before crossover to the other blanket. Primary outcome was total sleep time (TST) recorded by actigraphy over each 2-week period. Secondary outcomes included actigraphically recorded sleeponset latency, sleep efficiency, assessments of child behavior, family functioning, and adverse events. Sleep was also measured by using parent-report diaries.

    RESULTS:

    Seventy-three children were randomized and analysis conducted on 67 children who completed the study. Using objective measures, the weighted blanket, compared with the control blanket, did not increase TST as measured by actigraphy and adjusted for baseline TST. There were no group differences in any other objective or subjective measure of sleep, including behavioral outcomes. On subjective preference measures, parents and children favored the weighted blanket.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The use of a weighted blanket did not help children with ASD sleep for a longer period of time, fall asleep significantly faster, or wake less often. However, the weighted blanket was favored by children and parents, and blankets were well tolerated over this period.

  • 2.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    et al.
    Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Gellert, Paul
    Charité–Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany.
    Dombrowski, Stephan U.
    University of Stirling, United Kingdom.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för omvårdnad. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ADULT.
    Motivational interviewing with parents for obesity: An RCT2015Inngår i: Pediatrics, ISSN 0031-4005, E-ISSN 1098-4275, Vol. 135, nr 3, s. e644-e652Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Motivational interviewing (MI) has been shown to be an effective strategy for targeting obesity in adolescents, and parental involvement is associated with increased effectiveness. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the role of parental involvement in MI interventions for obese adolescents.

    METHODS: A total of 357 Iranian adolescents (aged 14–18 years) were randomized to receive an MI intervention or an MI intervention with parental involvement (MI + PI) or assessments only (passive control). Data regarding anthropometric, biochemical, psychosocial, and behavioral measures were collected at baseline and 12 months later. A series of intention-to-treat, 2-way repeated-measures analysis of covariance were performed to examine group differences in change in outcomes measures over the 12-month follow-up period.

    RESULTS: Results revealed significant effects on most of the outcome parameters for MI + PI (eg, mean ± SD BMI z score: 2.58 ± 0.61) compared with the passive control group (2.76 ± 0.70; post hoc test, P = .02), as well as an additional superiority of MI + PI compared with MI only (2.81 ± 0.76; post hoc test, P = .05). This pattern was also shown for most of the anthropometric, biochemical, psychometric, and behavioral outcome variables.

    CONCLUSIONS: MI with parental involvement is an effective strategy in changing obesity-related outcomes and has additional effects beyond MI with adolescents only. These findings might be important when administering MI interventions in school settings.

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