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  • 1.
    Adair, Brooke
    et al.
    School of Allied Health, Australian Catholic University, Fitzroy, Vic., Australia.
    Ullenhag, Anna
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Keen, Deb
    Autism Centre of Excellence, Griffith University, Mt Gravatt, Qld, Australia.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Imms, Christine
    School of Allied Health, Australian Catholic University, Fitzroy, Vic., Australia.
    The effect of interventions aimed at improving participation outcomes for children with disabilities: a systematic review2015In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 57, no 12, p. 1093-1104Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    Enhancement of participation has been described as the ultimate outcome for health and educational interventions. The goal of this systematic review was to identify and critically appraise studies that aimed to improve the participation outcomes of children with disabilities.

    Method

    Nine databases that index literature from the fields of health, psychology, and education were searched to retrieve information on research conducted with children with disabilities aged between 5 years and 18 years. Articles were included if the author(s) reported that participation was an intended outcome of the intervention. The articles included were limited to those reporting high-level primary research, as defined by Australia's National Health and Medical Research Council evidence hierarchy guidelines. No restrictions were placed on the type of intervention being investigated.

    Results

    Seven randomized controlled or pseudo-randomized studies were included. Only three of these studies identified participation as a primary outcome. Both individualized and group-based approaches to enhancing participation outcomes appeared to be effective. Studies of interventions with a primary focus on body function or activity level outcomes did not demonstrate an effect on participation outcomes.

    Intepretation

    Few intervention studies have focused on participation as a primary outcome measure. Approaches using individually tailored education and mentoring programmes were found to enhance participation outcomes, while exercise programmes, where participation was a secondary outcome, generally demonstrated little effect.

  • 2.
    Adair, Brooke
    et al.
    Centre for Disability and Development Research, Australian Catholic University, Fitzroy, Vic., Australia.
    Ullenhag, Anna
    Physiotherapy Department, Mälardalens University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Rosenbaum, Peter
    McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Biomedical Platform.
    Keen, Deb
    Autism Centre of Excellence, Griffith University, Mt Gravatt, Qld, Australia.
    Imms, Christine
    Centre for Disability and Development Research, Australian Catholic University, Fitzroy, Vic., Australia.
    Measures used to quantify participation in childhood disability and their alignment with the family of participation-related constructs: a systematic review2018In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 60, no 11, p. 1101-1116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM:

    We aimed to identify measures used to assess the participation of disabled children and to map the measures' content to the family of participation-related constructs (fPRC) to inform future research and practice.

    METHOD:

    Six databases were searched to identify measures used to assess participation in health, psychology, and education research. Included studies involved children aged 0 to 18 years with a permanent impairment or developmental disability and reported use of a quantitative measure of participation. A second search sought relevant literature about each identified measure (including published manuals) to allow a comprehensive understanding of the measure. Measurement constructs of frequently reported measures were then mapped to the fPRC.

    RESULTS:

    From an initial yield of 32 767 articles, 578 reported one or more of 118 participation measures. Of these, 51 measures were reported in more than one article (our criterion) and were therefore eligible for mapping to the fPRC. Twenty-one measures quantified aspects of participation attendance, 10 quantified aspects of involvement as discrete scales, and four quantified attendance and involvement in a manner that could not be separated.

    INTERPRETATION:

    Improved understanding of participation and its related constructs is developing rapidly; thoughtful selection of measures in research is critical to further our knowledge base.

    WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS:

    The fPRC can support our rapidly evolving and expanding understanding of participation. Instruments selected to measure participation do not always align with emerging concepts. Matching research aims to a chosen measure's content will improve understanding of participation. Opportunities exist to develop validated participation measures, especially self-reported measures of involvement.

  • 3.
    Adolfsson, Margareta
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    The development of social strengths in children with cerebral palsy2014In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Blank, Rainer
    et al.
    Clinic for Child Neurology and Social Pediatrics, Child Centre Maulbronn, Maulbronn, Germany.
    Barnett, Anna L.
    Department of Psychology, Health & Professional Development, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Cairney, John
    Faculty of Kinesiology and Physical Education, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Green, Dido
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Kirby, Amanda
    Dyscovery Centre, University of South Wales, Newport, United Kingdom.
    Polatajko, Helene
    Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, Rehabilitation Sciences Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Rosenblum, Sara
    Laboratory of Complex Human Activity and Participation, Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.
    Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien
    Department of Health and Rehabilitation Services, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Sugden, David
    School of Special Needs Education, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Wilson, Peter
    School of Psychology and Centre for Disability and Development Research, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Vinçon, Sabine
    Clinic for Child Neurology and Social Pediatrics, Child Centre Maulbronn, Maulbronn, Germany.
    International clinical practice recommendations on the definition, diagnosis, assessment, intervention, and psychosocial aspects of developmental coordination disorder2019In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 242-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: These international clinical practice recommendations (CPR) for developmental coordination disorder (DCD), initiated by the European Academy of Childhood Disability (EACD), aim to address key questions on the definition, diagnosis, assessment, intervention, and psychosocial aspects of DCD relevant for clinical practice.

    METHOD: Key questions in five areas were considered through literature reviews and formal expert consensus. For recommendations based on evidence, literature searches on 'mechanisms', 'assessment', and 'intervention' were updated since the last recommendations in 2012. New searches were conducted for 'psychosocial issues' and 'adolescents/adults'. Evidence was rated according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (level of evidence [LOE] 1-4) and transferred into recommendations. For recommendations based on formal consensus, two meetings of an international, multidisciplinary expert panel were conducted with a further five Delphi rounds to develop good clinical practice (GCP) recommendations.

    RESULTS: Thirty-five recommendations were made. Eight were based on the evidence from literature reviews (three on 'assessment', five on 'intervention'). Twenty-two were updated from the 2012 recommendations. New recommendations relate to diagnosis and assessment (two GCPs) and psychosocial issues (three GCPs). Additionally, one new recommendation (LOE) reflects active video games as adjuncts to more traditional activity-oriented and participation-oriented interventions, and two new recommendations (one GCP, one LOE) were made for adolescents and adults with DCD.

    INTERPRETATION: The CPR-DCD is a comprehensive overview of DCD and current understanding based on research evidence and expert consensus. It reflects the state of the art for clinicians and scientists of varied disciplines. The international CPR-DCD may serve as a basis for national guidelines.

    WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS:

    • Updated international clinical practice guidelines on developmental coordination disorder (DCD).
    • Refined and extended recommendations on clinical assessment and intervention for DCD.
    • A critical synopsis of current research on mechanisms of DCD.
    • A critical synopsis of psychosocial issues in DCD, with implications for clinical practice.
    • The first international recommendations to consider adolescents and adults with DCD.
  • 5.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Biomedical Platform.
    Is independence the same as participation for young people with disabilities?2019In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 116-117Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Green, Dido
    Centre for Rehabilitation, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Are proprioceptive functions affected in Duchenne muscular dystrophy?2014In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 56, no 9, p. 805-806Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Green, Dido
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Centre for Rehabilitation, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Challenges in combining upper limb and lower limb interventions in protocols for children with brain injury2017In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 335-335Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Green, Dido
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Designing ‘free’ spaces for children with disabilities2018In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 60, no 8, p. 730-730Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Green, Dido
    Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom.
    Developmental coordination disorder in children with ADHD and physical therapy intervention2010In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 308-308Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Green, Dido
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Overlapping samples in systematic reviews and meta-analyses: Interpreting findings of cognitive outcomes following preterm birth2018In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 60, no 12, p. 1290-1290Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Green, Dido
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Prognostication and the unpredictable nature of HIV encephalopathy with bilateral lower limb spasticity2017In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 59, p. 348-349Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Green, Dido
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    The Tyneside Pegboard Test: balancing clinical utility against ecological validity2018In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 224-224Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Green, Dido
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Time and relativity in therapeutic rehabilitation2017In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 59, no 2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Green, Dido
    Centre for Rehabilitation, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Translating evidence into practice2014In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 56, no 12, p. 1132-1133Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Green, Dido
    et al.
    Guy's ad St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom.
    Charman, T.
    Pickles, A.
    Chandler, S.
    Loucas, T.
    Simonoff, E.
    Baird, G.
    Impairment in movement skills of children with autistic spectrum disorders2009In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 311-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:

    We undertook this study to explore the degree of impairment in movement skills in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and a wide IQ range.

    Methods:

    Movement skills were measured using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC) in a large, well defined, population-derived group of children (n = 101: 89 males, 12 females; mean age 11 y 4 mo, SD 10 mo; range 10 y-14 y 3 mo) with childhood autism and broader ASD and a wide range of IQ scores. Additionally, we tested whether a parent-completed questionnaire, the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ), was useful in identifying children who met criteria for movement impairments after assessment (n = 97 with complete M-ABCs and DCDQs).

    Results:

    Of the children with ASD, 79% had definite movement impairments on the M-ABC; a further 10% had borderline problems. Children with childhood autism were more impaired than children with broader ASD, and children with an IQ less than 70 were more impaired than those with IQ more than 70. This is consistent with the view that movement impairments may arise from a more severe neurological impairment that also contributes to intellectual disability and more severe autism. Movement impairment was not associated with everyday adaptive behaviour once the effect of IQ was controlled for. The DCDQ performed moderately well as a screen for possible motor difficulties.

    Interretation:

    Movement impairments are common in children with ASD. Systematic assessment of movement abilities should be considered a routine investigation.

  • 16.
    Green, Dido
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Lavesson, Niklas
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics, JTH, Jönköping AI Lab (JAIL).
    Chaos theory and artificial intelligence may provide insights on disability outcomes.2019In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 61, no 10, p. 1120-1120Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Green, Dido
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Ealing Services for Children with Disabilities, London NW Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK.
    Mount, M.
    Bobath Children’s Therapy Centre Wales, Cardiff, UK.
    Jon-Dare, G.
    Bobath Children’s Therapy Centre Wales, Cardiff, UK.
    Carroll, J.
    Bobath Children’s Therapy Centre Wales, Cardiff, UK.
    Social‐emotional impact of unilateral cerebral palsy on participation: influence of a group intervention2018In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 60, no S2, p. 14-14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Green, Dido
    et al.
    Department of Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Schertz, M.
    Gordon, A. M.
    Moore, A.
    Schejter Margalit, T.
    Farquharson, Y.
    Ben Bashat, D.
    Weinstein, M.
    Lin, J. -P
    Fattal-Valevski, A.
    A multi-site study of functional outcomes following a themed approach to hand-arm bimanual intensive therapy for children with hemiplegia2013In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 527-533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:

    This study investigated the effects of a theme-based ('magic') variation of the hand-arm bimanual intensive therapy programme, in two different countries, in improving activity performance for children with hemiplegia, including those with severe movement restrictions.

    Method:

    Twenty-three children with spastic hemiplegia (13 males, 10 females; mean age 10y 7mo, range 7-15y; Manual Ability Classification System level I, two; level II, 13; level III, eight), participated in one of three, 2-week, summer camps. A within-participant experimental design was used with the Assisting Hand Assessment and Children's Hand Experience Questionnaire as primary outcome measures. Evaluations occurred immediately before the first day, on the last day, and 3 months after intervention. Two groups underwent additional assessments 2 weeks before the camp.

    Results:

    Significant intervention effects were seen on the Assisting Hand Assessment (p=0.002) and on the Children's Hand Experience Questionnaire (p<0.001), the latter maintained at follow-up. The affected hand was reported to be used in 25% of bimanual activities before the camp, progressing to 93% after camp, and decreasing to 86% at follow-up. Severity of impairment did not influence progress.

    Interpretation:

    This themed approach to intensive intervention showed positive results in bimanual use, with improvements in independence sustained at follow-up. Although children across camps and motor severity made progress, some questions remain about intensity and duration of intervention to optimize longer-term outcomes.

  • 19.
    Imms, Christine
    et al.
    School of Allied Health and Centre for Disability and Development Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Fitzroy, Vic., Australia.
    Adair, Brooke Adair
    School of Allied Health and Centre for Disability and Development Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Fitzroy, Vic., Australia.
    Keen, Deb
    Autism Centre of Excellence, Griffith University, Mt Gravatt, Qld, Australia.
    Ullenhag, Anna
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rosenbaum, Peter
    School of Allied Health and Centre for Disability and Development Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Fitzroy, Vic., Australia.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    ‘Participation’: a systematic review of language, definitions, and constructs used in intervention research with children with disabilities2016In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 29-38Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    Improving participation of children with disabilities is a priority; however, the participation construct lacks clarity. This systematic review investigated how researchers defined ‘participation’ and the language used in participation intervention research.

    Method

    Nine health and education databases were searched for intervention studies of children with disabilities that included a participation outcome. Quantitative data were extracted using a customized form, and participation text data were extracted verbatim. Themes were derived using a thematic coding approach. These participation themes were applied to the outcome measures used in the included studies to compare participation language with the methods used to quantify participation changes.

    Results

    Of the 2257 articles retrieved, 25 were included in this review. Five participation themes and nine subthemes were developed. Two themes, attendance and involvement, were directly related to the participation construct. Three additional themes described related concepts: preferences, activity competence, and sense of self.

    Interpretation

    Attendance and involvement seem to describe the essence of the participation concept. The related themes may provide important avenues to enhance participation outcomes. This review highlighted the need for researchers to define the construct under investigation clearly and select measures carefully, as measurement choice is the mechanism through which the concept is operationalized in research.

  • 20.
    Imms, Christine
    et al.
    Centre for Disability and Development Research (CeDDR), Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Wilson, Peter H.
    Centre for Disability and Development Research (CeDDR), Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Steenbergen, Bert
    Centre for Disability and Development Research (CeDDR), Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Rosenbaum, Peter L.
    Centre for Disability and Development Research (CeDDR), Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Gordon, Andrew M.
    Cerebral Palsy Research Centre, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
    Participation, both a means and an end: a conceptual analysis of processes and outcomes in childhood disability2017In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 16-25Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review outlines a conceptual approach to inform research and practice aimed at supporting children whose lives are complicated by impairment and/or chronic medical conditions, and their families. ‘Participation’ in meaningful life activities should be an essential intervention goal, to meet the challenges of healthy growth and development, and to provide opportunities to help ensure that young people with impairments reach their full potential across their lifespan. Intervention activities and research can focus on participation as either an independent or dependent variable. The proposed framework and associated hypotheses are applicable to children and young people with a wide variety of conditions, and to their families. In taking a fresh ‘non-categorical’ perspective to health for children and young people, asking new questions, and exploring issues in innovative ways, we expect to learn lessons and to develop creative solutions that will ultimately benefit children with a wide variety of impairments and challenges, and their families, everywhere.

  • 21.
    López-Ortiz, Citlali
    et al.
    Neuroscience of Dance in Health and Disability Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, College of Applied Health Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL, USA.
    Gaebler-Spira, Deborah J.
    Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.
    McKeeman, Sara N.
    Neuroscience of Dance in Health and Disability Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, College of Applied Health Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL, USA.
    McNish, Reika N.
    Neuroscience of Dance in Health and Disability Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, College of Applied Health Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL, USA.
    Green, Dido
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Dance and rehabilitation in cerebral palsy: a systematic search and review2019In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 393-398Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    To conduct a review of research literature on the use of dance and movement with music (rhythmic auditory stimulation [RAS]) in the neurorehabilitation of children and adults with cerebral palsy (CP).

    Method

    We conducted a systematic search and quality appraisal of the research literature on dance and RAS in CP. Additionally, we linked the research outcomes to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework.

    Results

    Studies showed preliminary evidence of the benefits of dance and RAS on body functions, particularly balance, gait, walking, and cardiorespiratory fitness for individuals with CP. Research gaps are evident across all domains of the ICF, particularly in the participation and environment domains.

    Interpretation

    To facilitate translation of quantitative research outcomes to the clinical classification of the ICF, a table was constructed that links traditional areas of quantitative rehabilitation research with the ICF categories highlighting areas of research strengths and areas where increased rigor is desirable. The potential for dance and RAS to have positive impacts on body functions, emotional expression, social participation, and attitudinal change are indicated areas for consideration in future research.

    What this paper adds

    The potential for dance and movement to music help balance, gait, and walking in children and adults with cerebral palsy. Research gaps are evident across International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health domains, particularly participation and environment domains.

  • 22.
    Nolan, Lee
    et al.
    Jönköping University. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Grigorenko, Anatoli
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Balance control: sex and age differences in 9- to 16-year-olds.2005In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 47, no 7, p. 449-454Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Zielinski, Ingar M.
    et al.
    Behavioural Science Institute, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    Green, Dido
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Department of Sport and Health Science, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Rudisch, Julian
    Department of Sport and Health Science, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Jongsma, Marijtje L. A.
    Behavioural Science Institute, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    Aarts, Pauline B. M.
    Department of Pediatric Rehabilitation, Sint Maartenskliniek, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    Steenbergen, Bert
    Behavioural Science Institute, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    The relation between mirror movements and non-use of the affected hand in children with unilateral cerebral palsy2017In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 152-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:

    In children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP), it is widely believed that mirror movements contribute to non-use of the affected hand despite preserved capacity, a phenomenon referred to as developmental disregard. We aimed to test whether mirror movements are related to developmental disregard, and to clarify the relation between mirror movements and bimanual function.

    Method:

    A repetitive squeezing task simultaneously measuring both hands' grip-forces was developed to assess mirror movements by using maximum cross-correlation coefficient (CCCmax) as well as strength measures (MMstrength). Developmental disregard, bimanual performance, and capacity were assessed using a validated video-observation method. Twenty-one children with unilateral CP participated (Median age 10y 7mo, interquartile range [IQR] 10y 1mo–12y 9mo). Outcome measures of mirror movements were correlated to developmental disregard, bimanual performance, and capacity scores using Spearman's correlations (significance level: α&lt;0.05).

    Results:

    Mirror movements were not related to developmental disregard. However, enhanced mirror movements in the less-affected hand were related to reduced performance (CCCmax: ρ=−0.526, p=0.007; MMstrength: ρ=−0.750, p<0.001) and capacity (CCCmax: ρ=−0.410, p=0.033; MMstrength: ρ=−0.679, p<0.001). These relations were only moderate (performance:MMstrength: ρ=−0.504, p=0.010), low (capacity: MMstrength: ρ=−0.470, p=0.016) or absent for mirror movements in the affected hand. Additionally, seven children showed stronger movements in their less-affected hands when actually being asked to move their affected hand.

    Interpretation:

    These findings show no relation between mirror movements and developmental disregard, but support an association between mirror movements and bimanual function.

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