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  • 1.
    Goodkin, K.
    et al.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sciences, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Heckman, T.
    Department of Psychology, Ohio University, Athens, OH, United States.
    Siegel, K.
    School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States.
    Linsk, M.
    Jane Adams School of Social Work, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, United States.
    Khamis, I.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sciences, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Lee, D.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sciences, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Lecusay, Robert
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sciences, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Poindexter, C. C.
    Jane Adams School of Social Work, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, United States.
    Mason, S. J.
    Jane Adams School of Social Work, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, United States.
    Suarez, P.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sciences, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Eisdorfer, C.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sciences, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    "Putting a face" on HIV infection/AIDS in older adults: A psychosocial context2003In: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, ISSN 1525-4135, E-ISSN 1944-7884, Vol. 33, p. S171-S184Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Older HIV-1-seropositive individuals largely have not been investigated with respect to their psychosocial characteristics. In this article, the authors review research reported to date regarding the psychosocial context of this growing subgroup of HIV-1-infected individuals. Specifically, the authors consider the characteristics of mood state, life stressor burden, social support network, and coping strategies that individuals older than 50 years are more likely to adopt in adjusting to HIV-1 infection. The authors also separately consider issues of caregiving burden. Data supporting a theoretically based stressor-support-coping model are presented and related to targeting psychotherapeutic interventions for this age group.

  • 2.
    Shor-Posner, G.
    et al.
    University of Miami School of Medicine, Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Miami, FL, United States.
    Lecusay, Robert
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Division of Disease Prevention, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Morales, G.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Division of Disease Prevention, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Campa, A.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Division of Disease Prevention, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Miguez-Burbano, M. J.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Division of Disease Prevention, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Neuroprotection in HIV-positive drug users: Implications for antioxidant therapy2002In: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, ISSN 1525-4135, E-ISSN 1944-7884, Vol. 31, p. S84-S88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Impaired neuroprotection resulting from oxidative stress has been implicated in neurodegeneration in a number of pathologic conditions of the brain, including both subcortical and cortical type dementias. Production of excessive oxidative stress, moreover, can lead to elevated levels of certain proinflammatory cytokines that are considered to be contributing factors to neuronal injury and are evident in HIV-related dementia as well as in other neurodegenerative conditions. Inhibitors of oxidative damage could thus be promising therapeutic agents for preventing progressive nerve cell death and slowing the advance of neurodegenerative disease. The potential of antioxidant therapy to provide neuroprotection is substantiated by studies demonstrating reduced oxidative stress with supplementation and lower risk for cognitive impairment with higher plasma antioxidant levels.

  • 3.
    Shor-Posner, G.
    et al.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry, Miami, FL, United States.
    Miguez, M. J.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry, Miami, FL, United States.
    Pineda, L.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry, Miami, FL, United States.
    Rodriguez, A.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry, Miami, FL, United States.
    Ruiz, P.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry, Miami, FL, United States.
    Castillo, G.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry, Miami, FL, United States.
    Burbano, X.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry, Miami, FL, United States.
    Lecusay, Robert
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry, Miami, FL, United States.
    Baum, M.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry, Miami, FL, United States.
    Impact of selenium status on the pathogenesis of mycobacterial disease in HIV-1-infected drug users during the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy2002In: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, ISSN 1525-4135, E-ISSN 1944-7884, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 169-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The risk of mycobacterial disease is significantly increased in drug abusers as well as in immunocompromised HIV-1-infected individuals. The essential trace element selenium has an important function in maintaining immune processes and may, thus, have a critical role in clearance of mycobacteria. The impact of selenium status on the development of mycobacterial diseases in HIV-1-seropositive drug users was investigated over a 2-year period (1999-2001). Twelve cases of mycobacterial disease (tuberculosis, 9; infection due to atypical Mycobacterium species, 3) occurred; these 12 cases were compared with 32 controls with no history of respiratory infections who were matched on age, sex, and HIV status. Significant risk for development of mycobacterial disease was associated with a CD4 cell count of <200/mm(3), malnutrition, and selenium levels of less than or equal to 135 mug/L (patients with these levels were 13 times more likely to develop mycobacterial disease). Multivariate analyses controlling for antiretroviral treatment and CD4 cell count revealed that both body mass index and selenium level remained significant factors in the relative risk for developing mycobacterial disease (relative risk, 3; p =.015); these findings suggest that selenium status may have a profound impact on the pathogenesis of mycobacterial disease.

  • 4.
    Wilkie, F. L.
    et al.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sciences, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Goodkin, T.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sciences, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Khamis, L.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sciences, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    van Zuilen, M. H.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sciences, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Lee, D.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sciences, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Lecusay, Robert
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sciences, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Concha, M.
    Department of Neurology, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Symes, S.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Suarez, P.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sciences, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Eisdorfer, C.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sciences, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Cognitive functioning in younger and older HIV-1 - Infected adults2003In: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, ISSN 1525-4135, E-ISSN 1944-7884, Vol. 33, p. S93-S105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In young adults, a major neurologic complication of HIV-1 infection is cognitive motor impairment. Epidemiologic findings suggest that increasing age is a significant risk factor for HIV-1-associated dementia as the AIDS-defining illness. Findings from the few studies that have directly measured cognition in younger and older HIV-1-infected adults, however, have been mixed, in pan, because of small sample sizes and other methodologic differences between studies. The authors present preliminary findings on cognitive functioning in symptomatic HIV-1-infected younger (aged 20-39 years) and older (aged 50 years or older) adults. Independent of age, HIV-1 infection was accompanied by learning and memory retrieval deficits, which were significantly associated with high plasma viral loads in the young adults. Relative to the younger and older HIV-1-negative (HIV-1-) groups, only the younger HIV-1-positive (HIV-1(+))group had significantly longer reaction times (RTs). Within the older HIV-1(+) group, however, longer simple and choice RTs were significantly correlated with higher viral loads and lower CD4 cell counts. Although HIV-1 infection affects cognition independent of age, longitudinal studies involving large numbers of older individuals are needed to determine whether there are age differences in the prevalence, nature, and severity of HIV-1-associated cognitive dysfunction.

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