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  • 1.
    Bokenberger, Kathleen
    et al.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ström, Peter
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Anna L. V.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gatz, Margaret
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Association between sleep characteristics and incident dementia accounting for baseline cognitive status: A prospective population-based study2017In: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, ISSN 1079-5006, E-ISSN 1758-535X, Vol. 72, no 1, p. 134-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: While research has shown that sleep disorders are prevalent among people with dementia, the temporal relationship is unclear. We investigated whether atypical sleep characteristics were associated with incident dementia while accounting for baseline cognitive functioning.

    Methods: Screening Across the Lifespan Twin Study (SALT) participants were 11,247 individuals from the Swedish Twin Registry who were at least 65 years at baseline (1998-2002). Sleep and baseline cognitive functioning were assessed via the SALT telephone screening interview. Data on dementia diagnoses came from national health registers. Cox regression was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for dementia.

    Results: After 17 years of follow-up, 1,850 dementia cases were identified. Short (≤ 6 hours) and extended (> 9 hours) time-in-bed (TIB) compared to the middle reference group (HR=1.40, 95% CI=1.06-1.85, HR=1.11, 95% CI=1.00-1.24, respectively) and rising at 8:00AM or later compared to earlier rising (HR=1.12, 95% CI=1.01-1.24) were associated with higher dementia incidence. Bedtime, sleep quality, restorative sleep, and heavy snoring were not significant predictors. Findings stratified by baseline cognitive status indicated that the association between short TIB and dementia remained in those cognitively intact at the start.

    Conclusions: Short and extended TIB as well as delayed rising among older adults predicted increased dementia incidence in the following 17 years. The pattern of findings suggests that extended TIB and late rising represent prodromal features whereas short TIB appeared to be a risk factor for dementia.

  • 2.
    Dahl, Anna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Hassing, Linda B.
    Fransson, Eleonor
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Berg, Stig
    Reynolds, Chandra A.
    Gatz, Margrete
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Being overweight in midlife is associated with lower cognitive ability and steeper cognitive decline in late life2010In: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, ISSN 1079-5006, E-ISSN 1758-535X, Vol. 65A, no 1, p. 57-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Although an increasing body of evidence links being overweight in midlife with an increased risk for dementia in late life, no studies have examined the association between being overweight in midlife and cognitive ability in late life. Our aim was to examine the association between being overweight in midlife as measured by body mass index (BMI) and cognitive ability assessed over time. METHODS: Participants in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study Aging were derived from a population-based sample. The participants completed baseline surveys in 1963 or 1973 (mean age 41.6 years, range 25-63 years). The surveys included questions about height, weight, diseases, and lifestyle factors. Beginning in 1986, the same individuals were assessed on neuropsychological tests every 3 years (except in 1995) until 2002. During the study period, 781 individuals who were 50 years and older (60% women) had at least one complete neuropsychological assessment. A composite score of general cognitive ability was derived from the cognitive test battery for each measurement occasion. RESULTS: Latent growth curve models adjusted for twinness showed that persons with higher midlife BMI scores had significantly lower general cognitive ability and significantly steeper longitudinal decline than their thinner counterparts. The association did not change substantially when persons who developed dementia during the study period were excluded from the analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Higher midlife BMI scores precede lower general cognitive ability and steeper cognitive decline in both men and women. The association does not seem to be mediated by an increased risk for dementia

  • 3. Duggan, Emily C.
    et al.
    Piccinin, Andrea M.
    Clouston, Sean
    Koval, Andriy V.
    Robitaille, Annie
    Zammit, Andrea R.
    Wu, Chenkai
    Brown, Cassandra L.
    Lee, Lewina O.
    Finkel, Deborah
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Department of Psychology, Indiana University Southeast, New Albany, IN, USA.
    Beasley, William H.
    Kaye, Jeffrey
    Muniz-Terrera, Graciela
    Katz, Mindy
    Lipton, Richard B.
    Deeg, Dorly
    Bennett, David A.
    Björk, Marcus Praetorius
    Johansson, Boo
    Spiro, Avron
    Weuve, Jennifer
    Hofer, Scott M.
    A multi-study coordinated meta-analysis of pulmonary function and cognition in aging2019In: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, ISSN 1079-5006, E-ISSN 1758-535XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Substantial research is dedicated to understanding the aging-related dynamics among individual differences in level, change, and variation across physical and cognitive abilities. Evaluating replicability and synthesizing these findings has been limited by differences in measurements and samples, and by study design and statistical analyses confounding between-person differences with within-person changes. In this paper, we conducted a coordinated analysis and summary meta-analysis of new results on the aging-related dynamics linking pulmonary function and cognitive performance.

    METHODS: We performed coordinated analysis of bivariate growth models in data from 20,586 participants across eight longitudinal studies to examine individual differences in baseline level, rate of change, and occasion-specific variability in pulmonary and cognitive functioning. Results were summarized using meta-analysis.

    RESULTS: We found consistent but weak baseline and longitudinal associations in levels of pulmonary and cognitive functioning, but no associations in occasion-specific variability.

    CONCLUSIONS: Results provide limited evidence for a consistent link between simultaneous changes in pulmonary and cognitive function in a normal aging population. Further research is required to understand patterns of onset of decline and differences in rates of change within and across physical and cognitive functioning domains, both within-individuals and across countries and birth cohorts. Coordinated analysis provides an efficient and rigorous approach for replicating and comparing results across independent longitudinal studies.

  • 4. Ferguson, F G
    et al.
    Wikby, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Maxson, P
    Olsson, J
    Johansson, B
    Immune parameters in a longitudinal study of a very old population of Swedish people: a comparison between survivors and nonsurvivors.1995In: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, ISSN 1079-5006, E-ISSN 1758-535X, Vol. 50, no 6, p. B378-B382Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Finkel, Deborah
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Indiana University Southeast, New Albany, USA.
    Ernsth Bravell, Marie
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Temporal dynamics of motor functioning and cognitive aging2016In: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, ISSN 1079-5006, E-ISSN 1758-535X, Vol. 71, no 1, p. 109-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Because of the possible implications for intervention and thus successful aging, researchers have striven to determine whether the age changes in physical and cognitive functioning are coincident or does functioning in one domain change before, and possibly contribute to, functioning in the other.

    Methods. Bivariate dual change score models were applied to four cognitive factors and three motor functioning factors available from 813 adults who participated in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging. Participants were aged 50–88 at the first of six waves of testing covering a 19-year follow-up period; 68% participated in at least three waves.

    Results. Model comparisons indicated dynamic coupling relationships between Balance and Fine Motor factors and the Speed cognitive factor. Decline in motor function precedes decline in performance on processing speed tasks, even though the motor function tasks were not timed. Results indicated possible bidirectional coupling between Fine Motor and Speed.

    Conclusions. Combined with other dual change score model analyses of cognition and physical function, a picture is beginning to emerge of the cascade of events that may lead to cognitive aging.

  • 6.
    Finkel, Deborah
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Department of Psychology, Indiana University Southeast, New Albany, Indiana.
    Sternäng, Ola
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Jylhävä, Juulia
    Department of Medical Epidemiological and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bai, Ge
    Department of Medical Epidemiological and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Department of Medical Epidemiological and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden,and Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA .
    Functional Aging Index Complements Frailty in Prediction of Entry into Care and Mortality.2019In: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, ISSN 1079-5006, E-ISSN 1758-535X, article id glz155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to develop a functional aging index (FAI) that taps four body systems: sensory (vision and hearing), pulmonary, strength (grip strength), and movement/balance (gait speed) and to test the predictive value of FAI for entry into care and mortality.

    METHOD: Growth curve models and cox regression models were applied to data from 1695 individuals from three Swedish longitudinal studies of aging. Participants were aged 45 to 93 at intake and data from up to 8 follow-up waves were available.

    RESULTS: The rate of change in FAI was twice as fast after age 75 as before, women demonstrated higher mean FAI, but no sex differences in rates of change with chronological age were identified. FAI predicted entry into care and mortality, even when chronological age and a frailty index were included in the models. Hazard ratios indicated FAI was a more important predictor of entry into care for men than women; whereas it was a stronger predictor of mortality for men than women.

    CONCLUSIONS: Measures of biological aging and functional aging differ in their predictive value for entry into care and mortality for men and women, suggesting that both are necessary for a complete picture of the aging process across genders.

  • 7. Gatz, Margret
    et al.
    Pedersen, Nancy
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Johansson, Boo
    Johansson, K
    Mortimer, J A
    Posner, S F
    Viitanen, M
    Winblad, B
    Ahlbom, A
    Heritability for Alzheimer's disease: The study of dementia in Swedish twins1997In: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, ISSN 1079-5006, E-ISSN 1758-535X, Vol. 52, no 2, p. M117-125Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8. Ljungquist, Birgit
    et al.
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Lanke, Jan
    McClearn, Gerald E
    Pedersen, Nancy
    The effect of genetic factors for longevity: A comparison of identical and fraternal twins in the swedish twin registry1998In: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, ISSN 1079-5006, E-ISSN 1758-535X, Vol. 53, no 6, p. M441-446Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Marseglia, Anna
    et al.
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Santoni, Giola
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Nancy L
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States.
    Xu, Weili
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Cognitive Trajectories of Older Adults With Prediabetes and Diabetes: A Population-Based Cohort Study2018In: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, ISSN 1079-5006, E-ISSN 1758-535X, Vol. 73, no 3, p. 400-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetes has been linked to dementia risk; however, the cognitive trajectories in older adults with diabetes remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the effect of prediabetes and diabetes on cognitive trajectories among cognitively intact older adults in a long-term follow-up study.

    Methods: Within the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging, 793 cognitively intact older adults aged ≥50 were identified at baseline and followed for up to 23 years. Based on standardized scores from 11 cognitive tests, administered at baseline and up to seven follow-ups, four cognitive domains (verbal abilities, spatial/fluid, memory, perceptual speed) were identified by principal-component analysis. Prediabetes was defined according to blood glucose levels in diabetes-free participants. Diabetes was ascertained based on self-report, hypoglycemic medication use and blood glucose levels. Data were analyzed with linear mixed-effect models adjusting for potential confounders.

    Results: At baseline, 68 participants (8.6%) had prediabetes and 45 (5.7%) had diabetes. Compared to diabetes-free individuals, people with diabetes had a steeper decline over time in perceptual speed and verbal abilities. The annual declines in these domains were greater than the annual decline in memory. Prediabetes was associated with lower performance in memory in middle-age, but also associated with a less steep memory decline over the follow-up.

    Conclusions: Diabetes is associated with a faster decline in perceptual speed and verbal abilities, while prediabetes is associated with lower memory performance in middle-age. However, the detrimental effects of hyperglycemia seem to not affect memory over time.

  • 10.
    Seetharaman, Shyam
    et al.
    St. Petersburg College, Florida, USA.
    Andel, Ross
    University of South Florida, USA.
    McEvoy, Cathy
    University of South Florida, USA.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Finkel, Deborah
    Indiana University Southeast, USA.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blood glucose, diet-based glycemic load and cognitive aging among dementia-free older adults2015In: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, ISSN 1079-5006, E-ISSN 1758-535X, Vol. 70, no 4, p. 471-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Although evidence indicates that Type II Diabetes is related to abnormal brain aging, the influence of elevated blood glucose on long-term cognitive change is unclear. In addition, the relationship between diet-based glycemic load and cognitive aging has not been extensively studied. The focus of this study was to investigate the influence of diet-based glycemic load and blood glucose on cognitive aging in older adults followed for up to 16 years.

    METHODS: Eight-hundred and thirty-eight cognitively healthy adults aged ≥50 years (M = 63.1, SD = 8.3) from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging were studied. Mixed effects growth models were utilized to assess overall performance and change in general cognitive functioning, perceptual speed, memory, verbal ability, and spatial ability as a function of baseline blood glucose and diet-based glycemic load.

    RESULTS: High blood glucose was related to poorer overall performance on perceptual speed as well as greater rates of decline in general cognitive ability, perceptual speed, verbal ability, and spatial ability. Diet-based glycemic load was related to poorer overall performance in perceptual speed and spatial ability.

    CONCLUSION: Diet-based glycemic load and, in particular, elevated blood glucose appear important for cognitive performance/cognitive aging. Blood glucose control (perhaps through low glycemic load diets) may be an important target in the detection and prevention of age-related cognitive decline.

  • 11.
    Wikby, Anders
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Ferguson, Frederick
    Forsey, Rosalyn
    Thompson, Julie
    Strindhall, Jan
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Biomedical Platform.
    Löfgren, Sture
    Nilsson, Bengt-Olof
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Pawelec, Graham
    Johansson, Boo
    An immune risk phenotype, cognitive impairment, and survival in very late life: impact of allostatic load in Swedish octogenarian and nonagenarian humans.2005In: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, ISSN 1079-5006, E-ISSN 1758-535X, Vol. 60, no 5, p. 556-565Article in journal (Refereed)
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