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  • 1. Gatz, Margret
    et al.
    Johansson, Boo
    Pedersen, Nancy
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Reynolds, Chandra
    A cross-national self-report measure of depressive symptomatology1993In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 147-156Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Hassing, Linda B
    et al.
    Johansson, Boo
    Nilsson, Sven
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Pedersen, Nancy L
    Gatz, Margret
    McClearn, Gerald
    Diabetes Mellitus Is a Risk Factor for Vascular Dementia, but Not for Alzheimer's Disease: A population-based study of the oldest old2002In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 239-248Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Lin, Chung-Ying
    et al.
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Ku, Li-Jung Elizabeth
    Department of Public Health, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Measurement invariance across educational levels and gender in 12-item Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) on caregivers of people with dementia2017In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 29, no 11, p. 1841-1848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:: The Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) is a commonly used self-report to assess caregiver burden. A 12-item short form of the ZBI has been developed; however, its measurement invariance has not been examined across some different demographics. It is unclear whether different genders and educational levels of a population interpret the ZBI items similarly. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the measurement invariance of the 12-item ZBI across gender and educational levels in a Taiwanese sample.

    Methods:: Caregivers who had a family member with dementia (n = 270) completed the ZBI through telephone interviews. Three confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models were conducted: Model 1 was the configural model, Model 2 constrained all factor loadings, Model 3 constrained all factor loadings and item intercepts. Multiple group CFAs and the differential item functioning (DIF) contrast under Rasch analyses were used to detect measurement invariance across males (n = 100) and females (n = 170) and across educational levels of junior high schools and below (n = 86) and senior high schools and above (n = 183).

    Results:: The fit index differences between models supported the measurement invariance across gender and across educational levels (∆ comparative fit index (CFI) = −0.010 and 0.003; ∆ root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = −0.006 to 0.004). No substantial DIF contrast was found across gender and educational levels (value = −0.36 to 0.29).

    Conclusions:: The ZBI is appropriate for combined use and for comparisons in caregivers across gender and different educational levels in Taiwan. 

  • 4.
    Palmer, Kathy
    et al.
    Department of Psychology,Stockholm University,Stockholm,Sweden.
    Kabir, Zarina N.
    Department of Neurobiology,Care Sciences and Society,Karolinska Institutet,Stockholm,Sweden.
    Ahmed, Tanvir
    International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Hamadani, Jena D.
    International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Cornelius, Christel
    Aging Research Centre, NVS, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Aging Research Centre, NVS, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wahlin, Åke
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Prevalence of dementia and factors associated with dementia in rural Bangladesh: data from a cross-sectional, population-based study2014In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 26, no 11, p. 1905-1915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There are currently no published reports of dementia prevalence or factors associated with dementia occurrence in Bangladesh. The aims are to report the prevalence of definite and questionable dementia in rural Bangladesh, and examine factors potentially associated with dementia occurrence, including sociodemographic, clinical, social, and nutritional factors.

    Methods: We used data from a population-based, cross-sectional study from Matlab, in rural Bangladesh, on 471 persons aged 60+ years. Participants underwent a clinical examination including diagnosis of somatic disorders, and a structured interview including questions about sociodemographic and social factors.  Nutritional status was measured with the Mini Nutritional Assessment, and blood tests were conducted to assess a range of nutritional and clinical aspects. Age- and sex-specific dementia prevalence was calculated.  Crude and adjusted logistic regression was used to examine associations between dementia and clinical,  social, and nutritional factors. Dementia was diagnosed using a two-step procedure by physicians according to DSM-IV criteria.

    Results: The prevalence of questionable dementia was 11.5% and definite dementia was 3.6%. Dementia prevalence increased with increasing years of age (adjusted OR: 1.04; 95% CI = 1.002–1.1) and decreased with more years of education (adjusted OR: 0.8; 95% CI = 0.6–0.99). Being malnourished increased the odds of dementia almost six-fold (adjusted OR: 5.9; 95% CI = 1.3–26.3), while frequent participation in social activities was associated with a decreased odds (adjusted OR: 0.5; 95% CI = 0.2–0.9).

    Conclusions: The prevalence of dementia in rural Bangladesh is similar to other countries in the South Asia region, but lower than reports from other world regions. Malnutrition is strongly associated with dementia occurrence, and is a relevant area for future research within low-income countries.

  • 5.
    Sindi, S.
    et al.
    Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Center for Alzheimer Research, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Darin-Mattsson, A.
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Center for Alzheimer Research, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kulmala, J.
    Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Center for Alzheimer Research, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ngandu, T.
    Chronic Disease Prevention Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Laatikainen, T.
    Chronic Disease Prevention Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Soininen, H.
    Neurocenter, Neurology, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland.
    Kivipelto, M.
    Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Center for Alzheimer Research, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Midlife improvements in financial situation are associated with a reduced dementia risk later in life: The CAIDE 30-Year Study2019In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives:

    Perceived financial strain is associated with various health conditions, but it is unknown whether it is associated with an increased risk for dementia. The goal is to examine the associations between midlife perceptions of financial situation and dementia risk later in life.

    Methods:

    Participants were derived from the Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging, and Dementia population-based cohort study (n = 2000) (between 1972 and 1987, baseline mean age 50 years) in Finland. Participants returned for two re-examinations in late life (in 1998 and 2005–2008, mean age 71 and 78 years). In this study, 1442 subjects that participated in at least one re-examination (mean total follow-up 25 years) were included in analyses. Financial strain was measured using two questions in midlife on perceptions of financial situation and perceptions of changes in financial situation. For each question, participants were categorized into three groups reporting improvement, worsening, or stability, with the latter set as the reference group. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounding factors.

    Results:

    The group reporting better financial situation had a reduced risk for dementia (fully adjusted model: odds ratio (OR): 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.33–0.86). In contrast, the group reporting worse financial situation did not have an increased risk for dementia (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.53–2.02). Analyses on perceptions of current financial situation showed that the groups reporting satisfaction or dissatisfaction with financial situation did not differ in risk for dementia.

    Conclusion:

    This study is the first to show that midlife improvements in financial situation are associated with a reduced dementia risk later in life. Potential pathways related to stress reduction, improved lifestyle, and potential biological mechanisms are discussed.

  • 6.
    Wahlin, Åke
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health. Aging research center, NVS, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; School of medicine, the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Palmer, Katie
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sternäng, Ola
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health. Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hamadani, Jena D.
    International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Kabir, Zarina Nahar
    Division of Nursing, NVS, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Prevalence of depressive symptoms and suicidal thoughts among elderly persons in rural Bangladesh2015In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 27, no 12, p. 1999-2008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Depression, if broadly defined, is the commonest late-life mental disorder. We examined the distribution of depressive symptoms and suicidal thoughts, across age, sex, literacy, and marital status, among elderly individuals residing in rural Bangladesh and participating in a population-based study on health and aging.

    Methods: Prevalence figures of depressive symptoms were assessed with SRQ20 (n = 625), and possible social network and economic associations were examined. Morbidity accounts of depressive symptoms and suicidal thoughts were examined for a subsample that also underwent complete medical examination (n = 471).

    Results: We selected for analyses the items that corresponded to DSM-IV criteria and constructed a dichotomous variable. The prevalence was 45%, and most pronounced among the oldest women (70%). The overall prevalence of suicidal thoughts was 23%. Being a woman, illiterate or single were all risk factors for depressive symptoms and suicidal thoughts. These associations remained unaccounted for by the social network and economic variables. Co-residing with a child and having a high quality of contact were protectiveof both depressive symptoms and suicidal thoughts. The main findings were replicated in the subsample, where it was found that morbidities were also associated with the outcomes, independently of the four main predictors.

    Conclusions: Prevalence figures for depressive symptoms among elderly in rural Bangladesh are high.  Demographic, social network, and morbidity factors are independently associated with both depressive symptoms and suicidal thoughts. This is the first study to report prevalence figures for depressive symptoms in this population.

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