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  • 1.
    Wikby, Anders
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Stenström, Ulf
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Hörnquist, J O
    Andersson, P O
    Coping behaviour and degree of discrepancy between retrospective and prospective self-ratings of change in quality of life in type 1 diabetes mellitus1993In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 10, no 9, p. 851-854Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Xu, Z
    et al.
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.
    Qi, X
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.
    Dahl, Anna
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Xu, W
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.
    Waist-to-height ratio is the best indicator for undiagnosed Type 2 diabetes2013In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 30, no 6, p. e201-e207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims

    Early detection of diabetes is important for the prevention of diabetic complications. The best adiposity index for indicating Type 2 diabetes mellitus remains unclear. We aimed to identify the optimal adiposity measure among BMI, waist circumference, waist–hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio to indicate undiagnosed Type 2 diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in Chinese adults.

    Methods

    A total of 7567 participants aged 20–79 years were included in this study. Impaired fasting glucose was defined as a fasting plasma glucose level of 6.1–6.9 mmol/l in participants without diabetes. Undiagnosed Type 2 diabetes was identified as fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/l when neither a history of diabetes nor use of hypoglycaemic drugs was present. Body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured following standard procedures. Data were analysed using logistic regression and areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves.

    Results

    Of the 7567 participants, 536 were defined as having impaired fasting glucose and 690 were patients with Type 2 diabetes, including 290 (3.8%) persons with undiagnosed diabetes. In multivariate logistic regression, the odds ratios of waist-to-height ratio (≥ 0.5) were stronger than BMI (≥ 24 kg/m2), waist circumference (≥ 85 cm in men and ≥ 80 cm in women) and waist–hip ratio (≥ 0.85) for undiagnosed Type 2 diabetes and impaired fasting glucose. Among the four indices, waist-to-height ratio ≥ 0.5 showed the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for diagnosing undiagnosed Type 2 diabetes (0.725, 95% CI 0.693–0.756) and impaired fasting glucose (0.662, 95% CI 0.638–0.687).

    Conclusions

    By comparison with BMI, waist circumference and waist–hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio ≥ 0.5 may be the best indicator for undiagnosed Type 2 diabetes and impaired fasting glucose.

  • 3. Zhang, H.
    et al.
    Xu, Weili
    Aging Research Center.
    Dahl, Anna
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Xu, Z.
    Wang, H-X.
    Qi, X.
    Relation of socio-economic status to impaired fasting glucose and Type 2 diabetes: findings based on a large population-based cross-sectional study in Tianjin, China2013In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 157-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Studies on the relationship between socio-economic status and Type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Chinese population are sparse. We aimed to examine the relation of socio-economic status as represented by income, education and occupation to impaired fasting glucose, Type 2 diabetes, and the control of Type 2 diabetes in a large Chinese population.

    Methods: This study included 7315 individuals who were aged 20-79 years and living in Tianjin, China. Impaired fasting glucose and Type 2 diabetes were ascertained according to the 1999 World Health Organization criteria. Data were analysed using multinomial and binary logistic regression, with adjustment for potential confounders.

    Result: Among all participants, 532 (7.3%) persons had impaired fasting glucose, 688 (9.4%) persons had Type 2 diabetes, including 288 (3.9%) previously undiagnosed Type 2 diabetes. In fully adjusted multinomial logistic regression, compared with higher income (≥ 2000 yuan, $243.3/month), lower income (< 1000 yuan, $121.70/month) showed odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 3.31 (2.48-4.41) for impaired fasting glucose, 4.50 (3.07-6.61) for undiagnosed Type 2 diabetes and 4.56 (3.20-6.48) for diagnosed Type 2 diabetes. These results remained significant in the analysis stratified by education and occupation. Furthermore, persons who were retired were more likely to have impaired fasting glucose [odds ratio 1.91 (1.40-2.45)], undiagnosed Type 2 diabetes [odds ratio 2.01) 1.40-2.89] and diagnosed Type 2 diabetes [odds ratio 3.02 (2.12-4.22)]. Among the patients with Type 2 diabetes previously diagnosed, lower education (less than senior high school), non-manual work and unemployment were related to worse glycaemic control (fasting blood glucose level > 8.5 mmol/l).

    Conclusions: Lower income and retirement are associated with increased odds of impaired fasting glucose and Type 2 diabetes in Tianjin, China. Education and occupation may play a role in glycaemic control among patients with Type 2 diabetes.

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