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  • 1.
    Areskoug Josefsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Fristedt, Sofi
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Occupational therapy students’ views on addressing sexual health2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sexual health is an important issue in daily life, but little is known about occupational therapy (OT) students’ views on these matters.

    Aim: To explore occupational therapy students’ views on addressing sexual health in their future professional role.

    Material and methods: A descriptive qualitative study involving 37 OT students in 5 focus groups was performed and analyzed using content analysis.

    Results: Three categories: ‘Sexual health is part of occupational therapy and but not of the OT educational program’; ‘Need for knowledge to identify and intervene related to sexual health problems’; and finally, ‘Communication about sexual health—unknown, untried, but necessary’, formed the theme, ‘Willing to try, wanting to know more, and recognizing not only the difficulties and challenges but also the importance of sexual health in OT practice’.

    Conclusions: OT-students consider sexual health as part of OT-practice, but experience lack of knowledge of sexual health related to disease/disability, cultural diversity, and age and sexual orientation. Educational programs need to cover these matters, including how to address sexual health in OT-practice, to enhance OT’s future competence related to promotion of sexual health for clients.

    Significance: Knowledge on students’ views are vital to guide education on this important, rather neglected, area. 

  • 2.
    Argentzell, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Lunds universitet, avd för arbetsterapi och gerontologi.
    Håkansson, Carita
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Eklund, Mona
    Lunds universitet, avd för arbetsterapi och gerontologi.
    Experience of meaning in everyday occupations among unemployed people with severe mental illness2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 49-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Knowledge about how people with severe mental illness find meaning in non-work occupations is important in order to develop programmes of meaningful daily occupations for this group.

    Purpose. To examine the meaning daily occupations may bring to those who are severely mentally ill and unemployed.

    Methods. Twelve unemployed people with severe mental illness were interviewed regarding their experience of meaning in daily occupations.

    Findings. Meaning was experienced in a balance between occupations that helped the informants control their mental illness. Themes of meaning were: feeling competent and being socially engaged, having routines and being productive, being creative and seeking knowledge, and taking care of body and mind. Substitutes for paid work were found in occupations such as taking care of the household or being productive at a day centre.

    Implications. People with severe mental illness should be allowed to play an active role in their rehabilitation process, using the occupational therapist for forming daily routines, creating a balance between work-like and restful occupations, finding occupations that meet one’s skills and training social behaviour. Besides, work-related occupations should be emphasized in the rehabilitation.

  • 3. Backman, Annika
    et al.
    Kåwe, Kerstin
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Relevance and focal view point in occupational therapists' documentation in patient case records2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 212-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Code of Ethics for Occupational Therapists stipulates how occupational therapists should think about the profession’s central concepts in practice, where ‘Health’ is one such concept. Other guiding principles for practice are the Occupational Therapy Process Model and the ARTUR Case Record Structure. The aim of this study has been to identify and describe how occupational therapists at a hospital in Sweden documented interventions in patient case records. A stratified and random sample of one hundred case records was evaluated in relation to a checklist. The results showed that only 21 percent of the case records were complete. Often, the notes were found under the wrong keyword and 12 percent of the occupational therapy cases were indistinct and did not belong to any of the intervention categories in which occupational therapists normally intervene. Despite this, the majority of the case records reflected the ICF’s Activity/Participation component, which could be interpreted to mean that the occupational therapists held holistic health notions in line with the code of ethics. In order to improve the occupational therapists’ documentation in patient case records, further discussions of the central concepts and guiding principles for occupational therapy are required.

  • 4.
    Bellner, Anna-Lena
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Working conditions Influencing Professionalization of Occupational and Physical Therapists: Part 1: A Quantitative Perspective1995In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 2, no 3-4, p. 145-152Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Bergström, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ahlstrand, Inger
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Thyberg, Ingrid
    Department of Rheumatology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Börsbo, Björn
    Division of Community Medicine, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Björk, Mathilda
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Sweden.
    ‘Like the worst toothache you’ve had’ – How people with rheumatoid arthritis describe and manage pain2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 468-476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease often associated with disability. Despite new treatments, pain and activity limitations are still present.

    Objectives: To describe how persons with RA experience and manage pain in their daily life.

    Methods: Seven semi-structured focus groups (FGs) were conducted and analyzed using content analysis.

    Results: The analysis revealed four categories: 1) Pain expresses itself in different ways referred to pain as overwhelming, aching or as a feeling of stiffness. 2) Mitigating pain referred to the use of heat, cold, medications and activities as distractions from the pain. 3) Adapting to pain referred to strategies employed as coping mechanisms for the pain, e.g. planning and adjustment of daily activities, and use of assistive devices. 4) Pain in a social context referred to the participants’ social environment as being both supportive and uncomprehending, the latter causing patients to hide their pain.

    Conclusions: Pain in RA is experienced in different ways. This emphasizes the multi-professional team to address this spectrum of experiences and to find pain management directed to the individual experience that also include the person’s social environment.

  • 6.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. AFR. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Occupational Therapist: A Chameleon in the Light of Paradigms1994In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 59-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this pilotstudy is to present a more disticnct profile of the profession, deriving inspiration from Törnebohm's theory of paradigms. Six occupational therapists answered in writing 12 open essay questions about their ideas on paradigmatic matters. The focus in the questions is within the occupational therapist's field of action view and results are presented as aspects of practice. The occupational therapist is like a chameleon in the field of health care. She alters between different roles, using various parts of her professional competence to support the patient in reaching a meaningful everyday life from the patient's own perspective. The flexibility of the profession may contribute to many occupational therapists' feelings of having av vague professional profile, but is fundamental and a prerequisite of good occupational therapy. A greater awareness of our professional paradigm creates conditions by which it can be improved and adapted to variable demands. and a greater possibility to express the profession to society.

  • 7.
    Björklund, Anita
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. AFR. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Borell, Lena
    Svensson, Tommy
    What Occupational Therapists Consider to be Worth Knowing: An Analysis of Swedish Occupational Therapists' Examination Papers 1984-96.1999In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 127-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine and characterize an aggregation of experienced occupational therapists´ exam papers with regard to the occupational therapists´ research interests, concerning especially ontological and strategical matters, during the time period 1984-1996. The title pages, summaries and results discussions of 84 papers were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively with the starting point in two of the components from Törnebohm´s structure of paradigms: the world view- and the field of action view-component. The occupational therapists´ interest in research subjects related to the field of action view component of paradigms, and applied research on strategical matters, dominates throughout the material. The interest in research subjects related to the world view component of paradigms, and basic research on ontological matters, increases in the last five year period. The increasing interest in more ontological matters seems as a natural and necessary progress for a profession which is deeply involved in knowledge aquired by experience. Only by the development of a “double-edged” knowledge, the profession has the possibility of developing and adapting to future demands.

  • 8.
    Björklund, Anita
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Svensson, Tommy
    Health, the Body and Occupational Therapy2000In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 26-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to identify and characterise conceptions of health in a group of experienced occupational therapists. Data-collection involved the occupational therapists´ personal accounts of the meaning of health and data analysis was accomplished qualitatively. The material was found to comprise 52 distinguishable articulations of the meaning of health, which were categorized under three main themes: 22 articulations of Health as “feeling fine“; 20 articulations of Health as ability to act; and 10 articulations of Health as an objective state of body and/or mind. The results show a very strong tendency towards holistic health conceptions and also toward a phenomenological view on the body. If this tendency should be taken to reflect current basic views within the profession this would indicate a movement away from biomedical frames of reference on the theoretical level. This would seem to imply consequent movements on the practice level away from organ focused interventions to the benefit of interventions in the person/context dimension of occupational performance. Studies of processes of change seem to be needed and we suggest that a paradigm theory approach probably be most pertinent.

  • 9.
    Björklund, Anita
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Svensson, Tommy
    Read, Sanna
    Holistic and biomedical concepts of health: A study of health notions among Swedish occupational therapists and a suggestion for developing an instrument for comparative studies.2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 141-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this study were to inquire into notions of health among a group of 439 Swedish occupational therapists and to test a model derived from a qualitative study by Björklund and Svensson in a representative sample of occupational therapists in Sweden. The data were collected through a questionnaire and were analyzed using descriptive statistics, cluster analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The means and ranking of the health notions showed that the Swedish occupational therapists most frequently hold holistic notions of health, and to a smaller extent biostatistical ones. Most Swedish occupational therapists indicate that being clearly conscious of one’s health notions is important both to themselves and to their profession. The test of the model provides a step towards developing an instrument for measuring notions of health that clearly distinguishes between holistic and biomedical ones and that could possibly be used for comparative studies.

  • 10.
    Borgestig, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Improving computer usage for students with physical disabilities through a collaborative approach: a pilot study2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 463-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an assistive technology (AT) intervention to improve the use of available computers as assistive technology in educational tasks for students with physical disabilities during an ongoing school year. Methods: Fifteen students (aged 12–18) with physical disabilities, included in mainstream classrooms in Sweden, and their teachers took part in the intervention. Pre-, post-, and follow-up data were collected with Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS), a computer usage diary, and with the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (PIADS). Teachers' opinions of goal setting were collected at follow-up. Results: The intervention improved the goal-related computer usage in educational tasks and teachers reported they would use goal setting again when appropriate. At baseline, students reported a positive impact from computer usage with no differences over time regarding the PIADS subscales independence, adaptability, or self-esteem. Discussion: The AT intervention showed a positive effect on computer usage as AT in mainstream schools. Some additional support to teachers is recommended as not all students improved in all goal-related computer usage. A clinical implication is that students' computer usage can be improved and collaboratively established computer-based strategies can be carried out by teachers in mainstream schools.

  • 11. Eklund, Mona
    et al.
    Morville, Anne-Le
    Metropolitan University College, Denmark.
    Psychometric evaluation of the Danish version of Satisfaction with Daily Occupations (SDO)2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 166-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: The Satisfaction with Daily Occupations (SDO) scale assesses satisfaction within the domains of work, leisure, domestic tasks, and self-care. The aim was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Danish version of the SDO when used with asylum seekers.

    METHODS: The participants were 93 Danes without known ill health and 43 asylum seekers. They completed the SDO and rated their perceived health, activity level, and general satisfaction with daily occupations. Translation into Danish and back-translation into Swedish was made by professional interpreters.

    RESULTS: Internal consistency was α = 0.75 for the Danish sample and α = 0.79 for the asylum seekers. The SDO distinguished between asylum seekers and the Danish sample, suggesting criterion validity. Concurrent validity, analysed against general satisfaction with daily occupations, was indicated for both samples. Discriminant validity was indicated against self-rated health for both samples and against activity level for the Danish sample. There was, however, a correlation of 0.65 between the SDO satisfaction score and activity level for the asylum seekers.

    CONCLUSION: The SDO exhibited satisfactory internal consistency and criterion and concurrent validity. The findings regarding discriminant validity were somewhat inconclusive. The Danish SDO may be regarded as psychometrically sound but further psychometric testing is needed.

  • 12.
    Evans, Kiah L.
    et al.
    Occupational Therapy Program, School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya J.
    Occupational Therapy Program, School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Richmond, Janet E.
    Occupational Therapy Program, School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    Wagman, Petra
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Millsteed, Jeannine
    Occupational Therapy Program, School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Viewpoints of working sandwich generation women and occupational therapists on role balance strategies2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 366-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Occupational therapists need to be cognizant of evidence-based role balance advice and strategies that women with multigenerational caring responsibilities can implement independently or with minimal assistance, as role balance may not be the primary goal during many encounters with this population. Hence, this study aimed to identify the viewpoints on the most helpful role balance strategies for working sandwich generation women, both from their own perspectives and from the perspective of occupational therapists. This was achieved through a Q methodology study, where 54 statements were based on findings from interviews, sandwich generation literature and occupational therapy literature. In total, 31 working sandwich generation women and 42 occupational therapists completed the Q sort through either online or paper administration. The data were analysed using factor analysis with varimax rotation and were interpreted through collaboration with experts in the field. The findings revealed similarities between working sandwich generation women and occupational therapists, particularly in terms of advocating strategies related to sleep, rest and seeking practical assistance from support networks. Differences were also present, with working sandwich generation women viewpoints tending to emphasize strategies related to coping with a busy lifestyle attending to multiple responsibilities. In contrast, occupational therapy viewpoints prioritized strategies related to the occupational therapy process, such as goal setting, activity focused interventions, monitoring progress and facilitating sustainable outcomes.

  • 13.
    Evans, Kiah L.
    et al.
    Occupational Therapy Program, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Engineering and Science, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    Millsteed, Jeannine
    Occupational Therapy Program, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Engineering and Science, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    Richmond, Janet E.
    Occupational Therapy Program, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Engineering and Science, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Girdler, Sonya J.
    Occupational Therapy Program, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Engineering and Science, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    The complexity of role balance: Support for the Model of Juggling Occupations2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 334-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This pilot study aimed to establish the appropriateness of the Model of Juggling Occupations in exploring the complex experience of role balance amongst working women with family responsibilities living in Perth, Australia.

    Methods: In meeting this aim, an evaluation was conducted of a case study design, where data were collected through a questionnaire, time diary, and interview.

    Results: Overall role balance varied over time and across participants. Positive indicators of role balance occurred frequently in the questionnaires and time diaries, despite the interviews revealing a predominance of negative evaluations of role balance. Between-role balance was achieved through compatible role overlap, buffering, and renewal. An exploration of within-role balance factors demonstrated that occupational participation, values, interests, personal causation, and habits were related to role balance.

    Conclusions: This pilot study concluded that the Model of Juggling Occupations is an appropriate conceptual framework to explore the complex and dynamic experience of role balance amongst working women with family responsibilities. It was also confirmed that the case study design, including the questionnaire, time diary, and interview methods, is suitable for researching role balance from this perspective.

  • 14.
    Evans, KIah L.
    et al.
    Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    Millsteed, Jeannine
    Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    Richmond, Janet E.
    Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Girdler, Sonya J.
    Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    The impact of within and between role experiences on role balance outcomes for working Sandwich Generation Women2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Women combining paid employment with dual caring responsibilities for children and aging parents, otherwise known as the sandwich generation, experience both benefits and costs related to role participation and quality of life. However, previous literature is inconclusive regarding the impact of this role combination on role balance. In the context of these mixed findings on role balance for working sandwich generation women, this study aimed to explore how within role characteristics and between role interactions are related to role balance for these women. This aim was achieved through the use of a questionnaire administered to 18 Australian working sandwich generation women. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlation coefficients, with findings suggesting the women studied tended to experience neither role balance or role imbalance. Within-role characteristics, particularly within the mother and family member roles, were related to role balance. In addition, between-role conflict and role interactions involving either the home maintainer or family member roles had the greatest impact on role balance.

  • 15.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Anund, A
    Sörensen, G
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    The transport mobility situation for children with autism spectrum disorders.2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 90-100Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Vogel, K
    Gregersen, NP
    The Test of Visual Perceptual Skills (non-motor) Upper Level is not a valid predictor for the outcome of driver education.2001In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 72-78Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Fristedt, Sofi
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Unsworth, Carolyn
    School of Occupational Therapy, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria , Australia.
    The inter-rater and test-retest reliability of the Self-care and Transfer scales, and intra-rater reliability of all scales of the Swedish Translation of the Australian Therapy Outcome Measures for Occupational Therapy (AusTOMs-OT-S)2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 182-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The Australian Therapy Outcome Measures for Occupational Therapy (AusTOMs-OT) are used internationally to measure the outcomes of occupational therapy services across diagnoses, ages, and health care settings. This study reports on the inter-rater and test-retest reliability of the Self-care and Transfer scales as well as the intra-rater reliability of all scales of the Swedish (AusTOMs-OT-S) translation.

    Methods: Fifteen occupational therapists rated 11 case study clients on two occasions, separated by two weeks. Test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability were calculated for the Self-care scale and Transfer scales. Moreover, intra-rater reliability was calculated for each of the 15 therapists across all 12 scales.

    Results: The inter-rater reliability intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were all found to be high to very high, ranging from ICC 0.762 to 0.904; the intra-rater reliability coefficients were also very good with 11 of the 15 therapists achieving ICCs of 0.745 or over, and finally the test-retest ICCs were also found to be high, ranging from 0.705 to 0.920.

    Conclusions: Although further research is required to confirm reliability, preliminary reliability of the AusTOMs-OT Swedish translation has been demonstrated and therapists can have confidence when using the scales.

  • 18. Hovbrandt, P
    et al.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Växjö universitet.
    Carlsson, G
    Very old people's experience of occupational performance outside the home: possibilities and limitations2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 77-85Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Håkansson, Carita
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Lissner, Lauren
    Göteborgs universitet, sekt för allmänmedicin.
    Björkelund, Cecilia
    Göteborgs universitet, sekt för allmänmedicin.
    Sonn, Ulla
    Göteborgs universitet, inst för arbetsterapi och fysioterapi.
    Engagement in patterns of daily occupations and perceived health among women of working age2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 110-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to examine how subjective experiences of engagement in patterns of daily occupations (gainful employment, domestic work, enjoyable and recreational occupations) were associated with perceived health among women of working age. The sample (n_488) was drawn from a longitudinal cohort study of women of working age in Gothenburg, Sweden. Participants were women 38 (n_202) and 50 (n_286) years of age. They completed a questionnaire including questions about occupational experiences in relation to their patterns of daily occupations, perceived health, and socioeconomic factors. The results of the present study showed that a combination of different experience dimensions of patterns of daily occupations was associated with perceived health among women of working age, even when adjusted for socioeconomic factors and age. The results provided occupational pattern-related health indicators, i.e. manageability, personally meaningful occupations, and occupational balance. To combine these health indicators can be a way for occupational therapists to enable women to develop strategies to promote health and to prevent stress and sick leave.

  • 20.
    Håkansson, Carita
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska akademin vid Göteborgs universitet.
    Svartvik, Lena
    Lidfeldt, Jonas
    Nerbrand, Christina
    Samsioe, Göran
    Scherstén, Bengt
    Nilsson, Peter M
    Self-rated health in middle-aged women: Associations with sense of coherence and socioeconomic and health-related factors2003In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 99-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to describe and analyse self-rated health in relation to sense of coherence and socioeconomic and health-related factors and to explore the associations between self-rated health and these factors in order to identify health resources and health limitations in a group of healthy middle-aged women. Healthy middle-aged women from a defined geographical area in Southern Sweden ( n =577) answered a postal survey with the sense of coherence scale and questions about socioeconomic and health-related conditions. The results showed that very good/rather good self-rated health was associated with high sense of coherence and good economic situation, and these factors can be seen as a health resource. Poor self-rated health was most strongly associated with perceived symptoms of tension, weak sense of coherence, treatment for depression, treatment for chronic disease, and difficult economic situation, and these factors can be seen as health limitations. In conclusion, only 29% of the women rated their health as very good and 41% of the women had symptoms of tension but they were not sick-listed. It is of major public health interest to improve the understanding of self-rated health and to develop health promotion for women and methods to prevent symptoms of tension and sick-listing.

  • 21.
    Janeslätt, Gunnel
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Disability and Habilitation, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Kottorp, Anders
    Department NVS, Division of Occupational Therapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden and Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Occupational Therapy.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Evaluating intervention using time aids in children with disabilities2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 181-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate complex intervention using time aids for children with intellectual and developmental disabilities who exhibit limitations in daily time management.

    Methods: Participating children (n = 47) (F17/M30) were aged 6–11 with ADHD, autism spectrum disorders, mild or moderate intellectual disability, spina bifida, and cerebral palsy. This study used a Randomized Block and Waiting List control group design, with 25 children allocated to control and 22 to intervention group. In total 10 children (21.3%), five from each group, dropped out, leaving 37 children in the data analysis.

    Results: Children in both groups gained significantly in time-processing ability between the first and second data collection, but the children in the intervention group improved time-processing ability significantly more than controls. The control group also displayed significant changes after receiving intervention between the second and third data collection. The intervention had a large effect (ES Cohen's d = 0.81) on time-processing ability and a medium effect (ES Cohen's d = 0.68) on managing one's time.

    Conclusions: This study provides preliminary evidence that time-processing ability and managing one's time can be improved by intervention using time aids in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities, supporting the need to consider time aids in intervention in these children.

  • 22.
    Jansson, Inger
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Perseius, Kent-Inge
    Nyckeln Competence Centre for Pedagogic in Healthcare, Kalmar County Hospital, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Anna Birgitta
    Unit for Research and Development, Kronoberg County Council, Växjö, Sweden.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Work and everyday activities: Experiences from two interventions addressing people with common mental disorders2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 295-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Lengthy sick leave makes demands on work ability enhancing interventions in primary health care. Problem-based method (PBM) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) are interventions aimed at people with common mental disorders. This study aimed to describe how individuals experienced interventions and the impact the interventions had on the individuals' ability to work and perform other everyday activities. Method: Fourteen women and two men, eight each from two interventions, were interviewed. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results: The analysis revealed one overarching theme: "Reaching safe ground or continuing to seek help". Four categories were identified: "From being passive to making one's own efforts in the rehabilitation process", "Being stuck on a treadmill or daring to change", "Evolving from routine to more aware behaviour", and "Fitting in or not fitting in with workplace situations". Conclusions: According to the participants, experiences from both PBM and CBT had a positive impact on their ability to work and perform other everyday activities in a more sustainable way. Reflecting on behaviour and achieving limiting strategies were perceived as helpful in both interventions, although varying abilities to incorporate strategies were described. In general, the results support the use of active coping-developing interventions rather than passive treatments.

  • 23.
    Johansson, Ann
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    The impact of occupational therapy and lifestyle interventions on older persons’ health, well-being, and occupational adaptation: A mixed-design study2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 207-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate whether a four-month occupational based health-promoting programme for older persons living in community dwellings could maintain/improve their general health and well-being. Further, the aim was to explore whether the programme facilitated the older persons’ occupational adaptation.

    Methods: The study had a quasi-experimental design, with a non-equivalent control group combined with semi-structured interviews. The intervention group comprised 22 participants, and the control group 18. Outcomes were measured using the Short Form 36, Life Satisfaction Index-Z and Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment. Content analysis, based on concepts from the Model of Occupational Adaptation, was used to analyse the interviews.

    Results: The intervention group showed statistically significant improvements in general health variables such as vitality and mental health, and positive trends for psychological well-being. There were no statistically significant differences between the intervention group and the control group, but the groups were not fully matched. The qualitative analysis based on Occupational Adaptation pointed out social aspects as a compliment to the overall results.

    Conclusions: Participating in meaningful, challenging activities in different environments stimulates the occupational adaptation process; this is something occupational therapists could use to empower older persons to find their optimal occupational lives

  • 24.
    Kjellström, Sofia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Golino, Hudson
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.
    Mining concepts of health responsibility using text mining and exploratory graph analysis2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Occupational therapists need to know about people’s beliefs about personal responsibility for health to help them pursue everyday activities.

    Aim: The study aims to employ state-of-the-art quantitative approaches to understand people’s views of health and responsibility at different ages.

    Methods: A mixed method approach was adopted, using text mining to extract information from 233 interviews with participants aged 5 to 96 years, and then exploratory graph analysis to estimate the number of latent variables. The fit of the structure estimated via the exploratory graph analysis was verified using confirmatory factor analysis.

    Results: Exploratory graph analysis estimated three dimensions of health responsibility: (1) creating good health habits and feeling good; (2) thinking about one’s own health and wanting to improve it; and 3) adopting explicitly normative attitudes to take care of one’s health. The comparison between the three dimensions among age groups showed, in general, that children and adolescents, as well as the old elderly (>73 years old) expressed ideas about personal responsibility for health less than young adults, adults and young elderly.

    Conclusions: Occupational therapists’ knowledge of the concepts of health responsibility is of value when working with a patient’s health, but an identified challenge is how to engage children and older persons. 

  • 25.
    Larsen, Anette E.
    et al.
    Dept. of Occupational Therapy, Institute of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, Metropolitan University College, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Morville, Anne-Le
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT. Dept. of Occupational Therapy, Institute of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, Metropolitan University College, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hansen, Tina
    Dept. of Occupational Therapy, Institute of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, Metropolitan University College, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Translating the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure to Danish, addressing face and content validity2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) is a recognized assessment tool within Danish occupational therapy (OT), and translated versions of the COPM have been implemented in Danish OT practice. However, a rigorous translation and cross-cultural validation process has not been applied to these versions.

    Aims: To produce a new Danish translation of the COPM evaluating its semantic, conceptual, operational and item equivalence while addressing its face and content validity.

    Methods: An iterative, multistage translation process was undertaken with (1) forward translation involving professional translators and bilingual OTs, (2) pilot testing and cognitive debriefing interviews with 15 OTs and 37 clients which were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively, and (3) finalization with adaptations, back translation and approval.

    Results: Content validity of COPM in terms of appropriateness, acceptability, intelligibility and comprehensiveness was found in 78–100% of the cases, and its ability to ensure a client-centred focus in the assessment process was confirmed. However, issues concerning the administration and content of the COPM were identified. Subsequently, two recommendations regarding the administration of the COPM were added to the Danish version.

    Conclusion: Semantic, conceptual, operational and aspects of item equivalence of the COPM into Danish were achieved and supported by face and content validity.

  • 26.
    Larsson, Helena
    et al.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Science and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Lundberg, Catarina
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Johansson, Kurt
    A Swedish Survey of Occupational Therapists' Involvement and Performance in Driving Assessments2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 215-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which occupational therapists (OTs) are involved in driving assessments in Sweden and how these assessments are performed. A questionnaire was sent to 154 geriatric, rehabilitation, and neurological clinics, and additionally directly to 19 OTs who had purchased a test battery specifically used for driving assessments. The response rate was 60%. Of those responding, 57% reported being involved in fitness-to-drive assessments. However, such assessments were carried out in various manners and diverse methods were used, ranging from unstandardized activity assessments to a test developed specifically for driving assessments. Only 19% used on-road driving tests as a complement to the clinical assessments. Apart from the lack of appropriate methods, the respondents said that they did not have sufficient knowledge to perform driving assessments and expressed a need for further education. In the future it seems necessary for OTs in Sweden to undergo specialized training and perform the assessments on a regular basis to maintain a high level of competence as driving assessors.

  • 27.
    Lindén, Charlotte
    et al.
    Samrehab/Akutblocket, Västerviks sjukhus, Västervik.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Living with rheumatoid arthritis and experiencing everyday life withTNF-a blockers2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 326-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe how persons with RA from an area in western Sweden experience everyday life with TNF-alfa-blockers. A purposive sampling of 11 women and four men, with an age ranging from 25 to 70 years, was conducted. A phenomenological approach was used in the study. The data were collected by unstructured in-depth interviews. The data analysis resulted in six code groups, of which four have appurtenant sub-groups. The six code groups are: "A noticeable change dominates the picture”; “Change in bodily and mental symptoms enables activity”; “Enabling care for oneself and others”; "Enabling improved or continued productivity”; “More rewarding leisure time”; and “Drawbacks of the medication”. The findings show that most of the informants had experienced dramatic changes in their daily lives since the medication reduced their symptoms, resulting in an increased level of activity.

    Keywords: Activities of daily life (ADL), consequences for occupational therapy, enabling activity, phenomenological approach

     

     

  • 28. Madsen, Esben Elholm
    et al.
    Morville, Anne-Le
    Metropolitan University College, Denmark.
    Larsen, Anette Enemark
    Hansen, Tina
    Is therapeutic judgement influenced by the patient's socio-economic status? A factorial vignette survey2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 245-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In Denmark patients are entitled to rehabilitation regardless of socio-economic status (SES). During this process therapists have to balance cost effectiveness with providing equal treatment. Aim To investigate whether occupational therapists and physiotherapists were influenced by the patient's SES.

    Material and method

    An experimental factorial vignette survey was used. Four different vignettes describing fictitious patient cases with different SES variables were randomly allocated to therapists working in somatic hospitals. Thereafter, the therapists judged specific clinical situations and general attitudes in relation to the patient's SES. Chi-square was used to test the statistical association between the variables.

    Results

    No statistically significant associations were found between the specific clinical situations and the patient's SES. A statistical significant association was found between general attitudes and the patient's SES. Subgroup analysis revealed a statistically significant association between the therapist's gender, age, and the therapeutic judgement in relation to SES.

    Conclusion

    In the specific clinical situations, Danish therapists seem to maintain their professional ethical principles, although they might face ethical dilemmas during their clinical decision-making. In order to prevent and resolve these dilemmas, they have to be made explicit. However, further research on how SES influences the health care professional's judgement is warranted.

  • 29. Marklund, B
    et al.
    Månsson, J
    Anderberg, C-P
    Hagberg, K
    Lyder, I
    Bengtsson, C
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Effects on sickness pattern of early mini-rehabilitation groups among patients with musculoskeletal problems in primary healthcare1999In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 90-94Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Morville, Anne-Le
    et al.
    Metropolitan University College, Denmark.
    Erlandsson, Lena-Karin
    Methodological challenges when doing research that includes ethnic minorities: a scoping review2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 405-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There are challenging methodological issues in obtaining valid and reliable results on which to base occupational therapy interventions for ethnic minorities. The aim of this scoping review is to describe the methodological problems within occupational therapy research, when ethnic minorities are included.

    METHOD: A thorough literature search yielded 21 articles obtained from the scientific databases PubMed, Cinahl, Web of Science and PsychInfo. Analysis followed Arksey and O'Malley's framework for scoping reviews, applying content analysis.

    RESULTS: The results showed methodological issues concerning the entire research process from defining and recruiting samples, the conceptual understanding, lack of appropriate instruments, data collection using interpreters to analyzing data.

    CONCLUSION: In order to avoid excluding the ethnic minorities from adequate occupational therapy research and interventions, development of methods for the entire research process is needed. It is a costly and time-consuming process, but the results will be valid and reliable, and therefore more applicable in clinical practice.

  • 31.
    Morville, Anne-Le
    et al.
    Metropolitan University College, Denmark.
    Erlandsson, Lena-Karin
    Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente
    Amris, Kirstine
    Eklund, Mona
    Satisfaction with daily occupations amongst asylum seekers in Denmark2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 207-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this study was to describe asylum seekers' satisfaction with daily occupations and activity level while in a Danish asylum centre, and whether this changed over time. Another aim was to describe whether exposure to torture, self-rated health measures, and ADL ability were related to their satisfaction with daily occupations and activity level.

    METHODS: A total of 43 asylum seekers at baseline and 17 at follow-up were included. The questionnaires Satisfaction with Daily Occupations, Major Depression Inventory, WHO-5 Wellbeing, Pain Detect, a questionnaire covering torture, and basic social information were used as well as Assessment of Motor and Process Skills.

    RESULTS: The results showed a low level of satisfaction with daily occupations at both baseline and follow-up. There was no statistically significant change in satisfaction or activity level between baseline and the follow-up. Associations between AMPS process skills--education, worst pain and activity level--were present at baseline, as was a relationship between AMPS process skills and satisfaction. At follow-up, associations between WHO-5 and satisfaction and activity level and between MDI scores and activity level were found.

    CONCLUSION: Asylum seekers experience a low level of satisfaction with daily occupations, both at arrival and after 10 months in an asylum centre. There is a need for further research and development of occupation-focused rehabilitation methods for the asylum seeker population.

  • 32. Mårtensson, L
    et al.
    Marklund, B
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Evaluation of a biopsychosocial rehabilitation programme in primary healthcare for chronic pain patients1999In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 157-165Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33. Mårtensson, L
    et al.
    Pettersson, L
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Patients with fibromyalgia and their conception of health after an intervention programme1995In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 2, no 3-4, p. 113-120Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34. Pettersson, Ingvor
    et al.
    Berndtsson, Inger
    Appelros, Peter
    Ahlström, Gerd
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Lifeworld perspectives on assistive devices: lived experiences of spouses of persons with stroke.2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 159-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to explore how spouses of persons with a disability following stroke describe their lived experiences regarding assistive devices in everyday life. A phenomenological lifeworld approach was used and conversational interviews were conducted with 12 spouses. Their lived experiences of assistive devices were explored in relation to four lifeworld existentials intertwined in everyday life. The results showed that lived body concerns aspects of feelings, habits, and incorporation of the devices with one's own body. The devices are, from the spouses' perspective, a prerequisite for their partner with stroke living at home. Successively the devices are incorporated into the couples' homes, and they provide a new view of the environment, aspects related to lived space. The devices bring about a changed relation to lived time, related to past, present, and future. Further, lived human relation concerns changed relationships to husbands/wives with stroke, including a great responsibility due to the devices and their usage. The results also included stigmatizing aspects and a twofold relationship to health professionals regarding participation in decisions about prescribing assistive devices. Understanding the unique meaning of assistive devices from the spouses' perspective is vital for occupational therapists prescribing such devices.

  • 35. Pooremamali, Parvin
    et al.
    Morville, Anne-Le
    Metropolitan University College, Denmark.
    Eklund, Mona
    Barriers to continuity in the pathway toward occupational engagement among ethnic minorities with mental illness2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 259-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnic minorities have particular needs and difficulties in terms of support for meaningful occupations, lack of access to and use of occupation-based rehabilitation services. They are not established in the labour market and are seldom in paid employment. This study aimed to investigate how mentally ill ethnic minority clients experience, feel and think about participation in occupation-based rehabilitation, and potential barriers they might encounter. Nine participants experiencing mental illness and receiving occupation-based rehabilitation were interviewed. Grounded theory methods were used in order to collect and analyze data. One core category, "barriers for a continuous path towards enriched and meaningful occupation" described the participants' experiences of a variety of barriers related to personal, occupational and system factors that hindered participation in occupation-based rehabilitation and influenced their need for occupational development and growth. The core category was composed of; personal-related barriers, occupational-related barriers, and system-related barriers as well as six related sub-categories. These barriers interacted continually across time and space in ways that increased the participants' sense of occupational deprivation and alienation. The findings also suggested that the issues of paid employment for ethnic minorities with mental illness should feature on the agenda of local, regional and state politicians and professionals involved in occupational rehabilitation.

  • 36. Rubenson, Camilla
    et al.
    Svensson, Eva
    Linddahl, Iréne
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Experiences of returning to work after acquired brain injury2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 205-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of returning to work after rehabilitation, from the viewpoint of people with acquired brain injury. A purposive sampling of eight informants was made, and data was collected through personal interviews with open questions. The data was then analyzed through qualitative content analyses in five steps, resulting in four main categories of experiences: “A new person”, “Stimulants and fellowship”, “Understanding and support” and “To reach insight” with appurtenant sub-categories. The overarching theme was “Returning to work after acquired brain injury is a long process”. The conclusion of our study is that returning to work after acquired brain injury requires motivated individuals, flexible work, accommodating labour management and prolonged environmental support. This study also shows that the informants need support for a long period of time to reach balance and to obtain a functional working role. In order to achieve this, one requires client-centred rehabilitation, professional teamwork, and longer follow-up periods than those of today.

  • 37. Selander, Helena
    et al.
    Johansson, Kurt
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Science and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Catarina
    Karolinska University Hospital, Traffic Medicine Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    The Nordic Stroke Driver Screening Assessment as predictor for the outcome of an on-road test.2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 10-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of the cognitive test battery Nordic Stroke Driver Screening Assessment (NorSDSA) has increased, sometimes as a stand-alone test to evaluate fitness to drive, also for non-stroke patients such as patients suffering from cognitive deficits/dementia, approaches that may be questioned. The objective of the study was to determine whether the NorSDSA could predict an on-road test result, for large sets of stroke ( n=74) and cognitive deficits/dementia participants ( n=116), respectively. The percentage of correctly classified was 62% for the stroke group and 50% for the cognitive deficits/dementia group. A discriminant analysis with pass/fail on the on-road test as grouping variable could classify 62% of the stroke participants and the cognitive deficit/dementia participants. Hence, the NorSDSA could not predict the outcome of the on-road test. Therefore, NorSDSA should not be used as a stand-alone test to determine the fitness to drive of individual participants. Also, its use with participants suffering from cognitive deficits/dementia appears to be less successful than for clients with stroke.

  • 38. Sommer, S M
    et al.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Bekiaris, A
    Panou, M
    Toward a Client-Centred Approach to Fitness-to-Drive Assessment in Elderly Drivers.2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 62-69Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Svidén, Gunilla
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Different Approaches to Learning among Occupational Therapy Students2000In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 132-137Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Svidén, Gunilla
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Hallin, Marlene
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Differences in Clinical Reasoning between Occupational Therapists working in Rheumatology and Neurology1999In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 63-69Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Ullenhag, Anna
    et al.
    Health Care Sciences Postgraduate School, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet Neuropediatric Unit, Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital Q2:07, Solna, Sweden.
    Almqvist, Lena
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalens University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena
    Health Care Sciences Postgraduate School, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet Neuropediatric Unit, Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital Q2:07, Solna, Sweden.
    Cultural validity of the Children's assessment of participation and enjoyment/Preferences for activities of children (CAPE/PAC)2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 428-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim was to evaluate whether the activity items of the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment/Preferences for Activities of Children (CAPE/PAC) were relevant for Swedish children.

    Subjects: A total of 337 typically developed children aged 6–17 years old.

    Methods: The CAPE/PAC was translated into Swedish in accordance with accepted translation procedures. By means of 14 group interviews with children with and without disabilities aged 6–15 years old and parents, available leisure activities were listed. These were matched to the items in the CAPE/PAC. Sixteen new potential activities were added and tested on 337 typical developed children from different regions of Sweden. A cutoff level of activities performed by >10% was set to identify relevant activities. Differences between the original and a proposed Swedish version were analysed using paired-samples t-tests of standardized mean scores.

    Results: Three new activity items were included, for 10 items new activity examples were added, and three not relevant items were excluded. In the Swedish version the outcome of standardized mean diversity score was significantly higher compared with the outcome of the original version. Conclusions:When using instruments in new contexts, it is not enough simply to translate; validation of the item relevance to the new context is essential.

  • 42.
    von Post, Helen
    et al.
    Advanced Palliative Home Care, Region Skåne, Helsingborg, Sweden.
    Wagman, Petra
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    What is important to patients in palliative care? A scoping review of the patient’s perspective2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, p. 1-8Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    The research conducted in palliative care is often medically oriented. There are few studies clarifying the patient's preferences, priorities and desires in palliative care. The occupational therapy research conducted mostly concerns occupational therapy interventions based on the profession's experiences. Further knowledge is needed regarding what patients in palliative care want to prioritize.

    Aim:

    The aim was to describe what patients in palliative care describe as important at the end of life.

    Methods:

    A scoping review was conducted using the inclusion criteria: articles published in 2004-August 2015; written in English; participants>18 years with life-threatening illness without possible cure; focusing on the patient?s experience.

    Results:

    Seventeen articles were included in the review and they were based on interviews. The theme 'Continuing occupational participation is important for people at the end of life' was identified. This included five sub-themes: maintaining previous occupational patterns; feeling needed; being involved in the social environment; leaving a legacy; and living as long as you live.

    Conclusions:

    The results show that continued occupational participation is important for people in palliative care. Occupational therapists can contribute to this by taking a highly person-centered approach and gaining information about what matters most for their clients.

  • 43.
    Wagman, Petra
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    How to contribute occupationally to ecological sustainability: A literature review2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 161-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Climate change is of great concern today, and is an important health issue. The changes are related to human occupations and, therefore, an occupational perspective can make important contributions to ecological sustainability. The aim of this scoping literature review was to explore and describe what has recently been written about how occupational therapy/therapists/science can contribute to ecological sustainability and the prevention of more severe climate change.

    Methods: Publications were used as data. Searches were conducted in databases, journals, reference lists, and citations. Fourteen items, with content related to the contribution of occupational therapy/therapists/science to climate change and ecological sustainability; written in English; having an occupational therapist among the authors; and published between 2008 and 2013; were included.

    Results: The results revealed four different ways that occupational therapists/scientists can contribute: by adapting to prevent climate change and to existing changes; by cooperating with others; by exploring people's occupational choices and the relationship between occupation and ecology; and by warning of the consequences of the changes.

    Conclusion: These ways of contributing can be used as a point of departure for further research on this important topic.

  • 44.
    Wagman, Petra
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Quality Improvement and Leadership in Health and Welfare.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Quality Improvement and Leadership in Health and Welfare.
    Håkansson, Carita
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Quality Improvement and Leadership in Health and Welfare.
    Occupational balance as used in occupational therapy: A concept analysis2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 322-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Occupational balance is a frequently used concept in occupational therapy, but it is complex and differences in content exist. Further knowledge would be valuable for scholars, practitioners, and measurement development. Concept analysis is a way to clarify concepts. The present concept analysis used Walker and Avant's procedure for analysing the concept of occupational balance, with 43 articles included in the analysis. The results showed that occupational balance can be defined as the individual's perception of having the right amount of occupations and the right variation between occupations. Three perspectives of occupational balance were identified: in relation to occupational areas, in relation to occupations with different characteristics, and in relation to time use. The knowledge gained may guide the use of the concept, and some suggestions are made for its use and for further research.

  • 45.
    Wagman, Petra
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Håkansson, Carita
    Lunds Universitet.
    Exploring occupational balance in adults in Sweden2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 415-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between occupational balance (measured by the occupational balance questionnaire [OBQ]) and self-rated health and life satisfaction. A secondary aim was to explore differences in occupational balance among adults in Sweden. Methods: The 153 participants (63% women), recruited using convenience sampling, answered a questionnaire comprising demographic questions, the OBQ, one item about self-rated health, and one about life satisfaction. The OBQ was analysed for correlation with subjective health and life satisfaction. The OBQ and its individual items were also analysed for correlations with age and for differences between men and women and participants living with children younger than 18 years versus not. Results: The OBQ was significantly positively correlated to self-rated health and life satisfaction, supporting the relationship between occupational balance and health. No significant correlation between age and the total OBQ was identified but some differences in occupational balance, related to whether the participant was living with or without children at home, were revealed. Conclusions: The results should be interpreted with caution due to the nature of the sample and data but they can serve as a point of departure for further studies and hypotheses regarding occupational balance in different populations.

  • 46.
    Wagman, Petra
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Håkansson, Carita
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund , Sweden.
    Introducing the Occupational Balance Questionnaire (OBQ)2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 227-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The concept of occupational balance is frequently used in occupational therapy but the fact that it has been defined and measured differently is a limitation. This article introduces the Occupational Balance Questionnaire (OBQ), which focuses on satisfaction with the amount and variation of occupations. It consists of 13 items measured on six-step ordinal scales. It has shown good content validity in a sample of 21 occupational therapists but other psychometric properties have not been investigated. The aim was to investigate the OBQ regarding internal consistency, test–retest reliability, and floor/ceiling effects. Methods: The OBQ was administered twice to a sample selected through convenience sampling. Internal consistency was investigated by Cronbach's alpha and test–retest reliability analysed with Spearman's Rho correlation for the total score and weighted kappa on each item. Potential floor/ceiling effects were explored by checking for the percentage of participants who scored lowest and highest. Results: The results demonstrated that the OBQ has good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.936) and sufficient test–retest reliability (Spearman's Rho for the total score was 0.926) and, thus, seems stable over time. No floor or ceiling effect was detected. Conclusions: The OBQ therefore showed promising reliability, although further instrument development studies to examine its construct validity are required.

  • 47.
    Wagman, Petra
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Quality Improvement and Leadership in Health and Welfare.
    Håkansson, Carita
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Quality Improvement and Leadership in Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Jacobsson, Christian
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Quality Improvement and Leadership in Health and Welfare.
    What is considered important for life balance? Similarities and differences among some working adults2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 377-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life balance seems subjective, health related, and multidimensional. However, the concept is complex. Exploring what people themselves consider more or less important for their life balance and whether this differs between people would develop new knowledge. Q methodology was chosen for the present study, in which 32 working men and women without recent long-term sick leave participated. They sorted 42 statements regarding life balance according to their importance for each participant's life balance. The analysis resulted in four different viewpoints concerning life balance. All four viewpoints considered good relationships with those closest to them, as well as knowing that these people were doing well, as important. Each viewpoint also showed a unique orientation towards what was considered important for life balance: occupational balance (viewpoint 1), self-actualization (viewpoint 2), self-awareness (viewpoint 3), and reciprocal relationships (viewpoint 4). The results. showed support for life balance as being a subjective, multidimensional, and health-related phenomenon. The results demonstrated the importance of relationships for life balance and heterogeneity in what people considered important for their own life balance.

  • 48.
    Wagman, Petra
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Lindmark, Ulrika
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Rolander, Bo
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue). Futurum, Academy for Health and Care, Jönköping County Council, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Wåhlin, Charlotte
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Center, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Carita
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Occupational balance in health professionals in Sweden2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 18-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Health care employees are often women, a group that has high degrees of sick leave and perhaps problems attaining occupational balance. However, people think differently about their everyday activities and it is therefore important to take their perceptions into account but occupational balance has not yet been measured in health professionals. The aim was to describe occupational balance in three different samples of health professionals in Sweden. A further aim was to investigate whether occupational therapists (OTs) rate their occupational balance differently from other health professionals.

    Material and method: Four hundred and eighty-two health professionals, employees in public dentistry, mental health care and OTs, aged 21–70 years participated. The participants’ occupational balance was measured using the occupational balance questionnaire (OBQ).Results: The ratings of occupational balance were similar to earlier studies and did not differ significantly between the samples. The OTs’ occupational balance was also similar to that of the other health professionals.

    Conclusion: The similarities in occupational balance indicate the same difficulties in attaining it.

    Significance: The result highlights the possibility that working people face similar difficulties in achieving occupational balance. Further research is warranted about how to attain it.

  • 49.
    Wagman, Petra
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Nordin, Maria
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Center of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Westerholm, Peter J. M.
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Domestic work division and satisfaction in cohabiting adults: Associations with life satisfaction and self-rated health2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 24-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The amount and perception of domestic work may affect satisfaction with everyday life, but further knowledge is needed about the relationship between domestic work division and health and well-being.

    Aim: To describe the division of, and satisfaction with, domestic work and responsibility for home/family in adults living with a partner. A further aim was to investigate the associations between these aspects and self-rated life satisfaction and health.

    Method: Data from the Work, Lipids and Fibrinogen survey collected 2009 were used, comprising 4924 participants living with a partner. Data were analyzed using logistic regression.

    Results: The majority shared domestic work and responsibility for home/family equally with their partner. However, more women conducted the majority of the domestic work and were less satisfied with its division. When both division and satisfaction with division was included in the analysis, solely satisfaction with the division and the responsibility were associated with higher odds for good life satisfaction. Regarding health, higher odds for good self-rated health were seen in those who were satisfied with their division of responsibility.

    Conclusion and significance: The results highlight the importance of taking into account not solely the actual division of domestic work but also the satisfaction with it.

  • 50.
    Westlin, Eva
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    A Delphi study of occurring information in housing adaptation certificates2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 357-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Since 1993, the Housing Adaptation Act has provided disabled people the opportunity to receive grants for adapting their homes. A housing adaptation certificate certifying the necessity of adaptations must accompany any application and if information in housing adaptation certificates is not sufficient, the applicant is risking not having necessary housing adaptations.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify and describe what information is missing, unnecessary or vague, in the housing adaptation certificates; to determine how often this occur, and how problematic this can be for the decision process.

    Material and methods: 105 housing adaptation grant managers took part in a three-round Delphi survey.

    Results: At least 65% consensus was reached regarding the following six statements: missing information about disability duration, possession of relevant assistive devices, consequences of the disability in housing, prognosis of consequences, who the informant is, or contains preferences for specific solutions. Missing, unnecessary or vague information pose serious or less serious problems and 38–72% of the participants reported that this often or always occur.

    Conclusion: Housing adaptation certificates need to be improved.

    Significance: The results of this study are used to design a checklist for use by housing adaptation certificate writers.

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