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  • 1.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    et al.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran and Department of Public Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Plante, Thomas G.
    Psychology Department, Santa Clara University, Alumni Science Hall, Santa Clara, United States.
    Saffari, Moshen
    Health Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    The Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnarie (SCSORF): A validation study of Iranian Muslim patients undergoing dialysis2014In: Journal of religion and health, ISSN 0022-4197, E-ISSN 1573-6571, Vol. 53, no 6, p. 1885-1897Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire (SCSORF) is an often used and validated scale that is uncommonly utilized in culturally diverse populations. The purpose of this research investigation was to adapt the SCSORF for use among Iranian Muslim patients undergoing dialysis and to examine the reliability and validity of the scale among this population. A total of 428 patients (228 females, 200 males, M age = 52.2 years, SD = 10) were selected from five dialysis center in Tehran and Qazvin, Iran. A comprehensive forward–backward translation system was used for cross-cultural translation. Patients completed a baseline questionnaire obtaining demographic and clinical information as well as the SCSORF, the Age Universal Religious Orientation Scale (AUROS), the religious life inventory (RLI), and the Duke University religion index (DUREL). 2 weeks later, patients were asked to complete the SCSORF once again. Reliability of the SCSORF was examined using internal consistency and test-rest reliability. Convergent validity and factor structure using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were also examined. Cronbach’s α for the single construct of the SCSORF was 0.89 with adequate test–retest reliability measured over a 2 week period. SCSORF scores were significantly correlated with AUROS, RLI and the DUREL. The EFA generated a single factor solution for the SCSORF while these results were confirmed by the CFA in an independent sample. Findings demonstrated that the SCSORF has favorable reliability, convergent validity, and divergent validity among Iranian Muslim patients undergoing dialysis and is recommended for use by clinicians (e.g., nephrologists) to measure strength of religious faith among patients.

  • 2.
    Saffari, Mohsen
    et al.
    Health Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Amini, Hossein
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Sheykh-oliya, Zarindokht
    Health Education Department, School of Health, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Koenig, Harold G.
    Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States.
    Validation of the Persian version of the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) in Pregnant Women: A Proper Tool to Assess Spirituality Related to Mental Health2017In: Journal of religion and health, ISSN 0022-4197, E-ISSN 1573-6571, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 2222-2236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing spirituality in healthy pregnant women may lead to supportive interventions that will improve their care. A psychometrically valid measure such as the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) may be helpful in this regard. The current study sought to adapt a Persian version of DSES for use in pregnancy. A total of 377 pregnant women were recruited from three general hospitals located in Tehran, Iran. Administered scales were the DSES, Duke University Religion Index, Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith scale, and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, as well as demographic measures. Reliability of the DSES was tested using Cronbach’s alpha for internal consistency and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for test–retest stability. Scale validity was assessed by criterion-related tests, known-groups comparison, and exploratory factor analysis. Participant’s mean age was 27.7 (4.1), and most were nulliparous (70%). The correlation coefficient between individual items on the scale and the total score was greater than 0.30 in most cases. Cronbach’s alpha for the scale was 0.90. The ICC for 2-week test–retest reliability was high (0.86). Relationships between similar and dissimilar scales indicated acceptable convergent and divergent validity. The factor structure of the scale indicated a single factor that explained 59% of the variance. The DSES was found to be a reliable and valid measure of spirituality in pregnant Iranian women. This scale may be used to examine the relationship between spirituality and health outcomes, research that may lead to supportive interventions in this population. 

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