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  • 1.
    Ahacic, Kozma
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kennison, Robert F.
    Department of Psychology, California State University, Los Angeles, California.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Alcohol abstinence, non-hazardous use and hazardous use a decade after alcohol-related hospitalization: registry data linked to population-based representative postal surveys2014In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, no 874, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Although there is evident association between alcohol-related hospitalization and alcohol use, the relationship has not been well examined. This study analyzed the extent of alcohol abstinence, non-hazardous use and hazardous use among people who had experienced alcohol-related hospitalization during the preceding decade.

    METHOD:

    Registry data concerning alcohol-related hospitalizations between 1996 and 2007 were linked to two representative surveys, in 2006 and 2007, of residents of Stockholm County. Relevant contrasts were modeled, using logistic regression, in the pooled sample (n = 54 955). Ages were 23-84 years at follow-up.

    RESULTS:

    Among persons previously hospitalized (n = 576), half reported non-hazardous use. Non-hazardous use was less prevalent than in the general population--and the extent of non-hazardous use did not change over time following hospitalization. There were no significant age differences, but non-hazardous use was less frequent among people with repeated episodes of care. One in six was abstinent. Abstinence was more common among the old, while hazardous use (exceeding 14 drinks per week for men, and 9 drinks per week for women) decreased with age. Abstinence also increased over time; among persons hospitalized ten years ago, the abstinence rate was twice that of the general population. Associations with hazardous use over time were less conclusive. Hazardous use among those previously hospitalized decreased over time in one sample but not in the other. After pooling the data, there were indications of a decrease over time following hospitalization, but more prevalent hazardous use than in the general population.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Following alcohol-related hospitalization, abstinence increased, and there was no evidence of regression towards the mean, i.e., towards non-hazardous use. Abstinence was also more widespread among previously hospitalized persons of older ages. With advancing age, changing hazardous alcohol habits among previously hospitalized appears to yield a trend towards promotion of abstinence.

  • 2.
    Elinder, Liselotte S.
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Heinemans, Nelleke
    Centre for Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Solna, Sweden.
    Zeebari, Zangin
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Patterson, Emma
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Longitudinal changes in health behaviours and body weight among Swedish school children - Associations with age, gender and parental education - The SCIP school cohort2014In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to develop health promotion initiatives it is important to identify at what age gender and socioeconomic inequalities in health-related behaviours emerge. The aim of this longitudinal study was to analyse how health-related behaviours and weight status differed by age-group, gender, family socio-economic status and over time in three cohorts of school children. Methods. All children in grades 2, 4 and 7 in a Swedish semi-urban municipality were invited to participate (n = 1,359) of which 813 (60%) consented. At baseline and after 2 years a health questionnaire was answered by all children. Height and weight was measured. Fourteen outcomes were analysed. The main and interaction effects of time, gender and parental educational level on the health-related behaviours, weight status and body mass index standard deviation score (BMIsds) were analysed by the Weighted Least Squares method for categorical repeated measures and Analysis of Variance. Results: Nine of 12 health behaviours deteriorated over the two years: consumption of breakfast and lunch, vegetables and fruit, intake of sweetened drinks, TV viewing, club membership, being outdoors, and school recess activity; two behaviours were unchanged: intake of sweets, and active transport. Only sports participation increased with time. Girls consumed more vegetables, less sweetened drinks, performed less sports, were less physically active during recess, and had lower BMIsds, compared to boys. Those with more highly educated parents had more favourable or similar behaviours compared to those with less educated parents in 10 out of 12 health behaviours, the only exception being intake of sweets and being outdoors, and had lower BMIsds. Conclusions: This study adds to our knowledge regarding the temporal development of health behaviours and weight status in school children. Differences with regard to gender and socioeconomic status were seen already at a young age. These results contribute to our understanding of several important determinants of obesity and chronic diseases and may inform future interventions regarding how to decrease gender and social inequalities in health.

  • 3.
    Fransson, Eleonor
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    de Faire, Ulf
    Ahlbom, Anders
    Reuterwall, Christina
    Hallqvist, Johan
    Alfredsson, Lars
    The effect of leisure-time physical activity on the risk of acute myocardial infarction depending on body mass index: a population-based case-control study.2006In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 6, p. 296-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Fransson, Eleonor
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Nyberg, Solja T
    Heikkilä, Katriina
    Alfredsson, Lars
    De Bacquer, Dirk
    Batty, G David
    Bonenfant, Sébastien
    Casini, Annalisa
    Clays, Els
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Kittel, France
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Knutsson, Anders
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L
    Nordin, Maria
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Suominen, Sakari
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Westerholm, Peter
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Zins, Marie
    Theorell, Töres
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Comparison of alternative versions of the job demand-control scales in 17 European cohort studies: the IPD-Work consortium2012In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 12, no 62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Job strain (i.e., high job demands combined with low job control) is a frequently used indicator of harmful work stress, but studies have often used partial versions of the complete multi-item job demands and control scales. Understanding whether the different instruments assess the same underlying concepts has crucial implications for the interpretation of findings across studies, harmonisation of multi-cohort data for pooled analyses, and design of future studies. As part of the 'IPD-Work' (Individual-participant-data meta-analysis in working populations) consortium, we compared different versions of the demands and control scales available in 17 European cohort studies.

    Methods Six of the 17 studies had information on the complete scales and 11 on partial scales. Here, we analyse individual level data from 70 751 participants of the studies which had complete scales (5 demand items, 6 job control items).

    Results We found high Pearson correlation coefficients between complete scales of job demands and control relative to scales with at least three items (r > 0.90) and for partial scales with two items only (r = 0.76-0.88). In comparison with scores from the complete scales, the agreement between job strain definitions was very good when only one item was missing in either the demands or the control scale (kappa > 0.80); good for job strain assessed with three demand items and all six control items (kappa > 0.68) and moderate to good when items were missing from both scales (kappa = 0.54-0.76). The sensitivity was >0.80 when only one item was missing from either scale, decreasing when several items were missing in one or both job strain subscales.

    Conclusions Partial job demand and job control scales with at least half of the items of the complete scales, and job strain indices based on one complete and one partial scale, seemed to assess the same underlying concepts as the complete survey instruments.

  • 5.
    Guo, Cheng
    et al.
    Medical Management Centre, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tomson, Göran
    Medical Management Centre, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Keller, Christina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    Söderqvist, Fredrik
    Center for Clinical Research, Uppsala University, Västerås Hospital, Västerås, Sweden.
    Prevalence and correlates of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents2018In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the prevalence of positive mental health and its correlates are still scarce compared to the studies on mental disorders, although there is growing interest of assessing positive mental health in adolescents. So far, no other study examining the prevalence and determinants of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents has been found. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study used a questionnaire including Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) and items regarding multiple aspects of adolescent life. The sample involved a total of 5399 students from grade 8 and 10 in Weifang, China. Multivariate Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the associations between potential indicators regarding socio-economic situations, life style, social support and school life and positive mental health and calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals.

    RESULTS: More than half (57.4%) of the participants were diagnosed as flourishing. The correlated factors of positive mental health in regression models included gender, perceived family economy, the occurrence of sibling(s), satisfaction of self-appearance, physical activity, sleep quality, stress, social trust, desire to learn, support from teachers and parents as well as whether being bullied at school (OR ranging from 1.23 to 2.75). The Hosmer-Lemeshow p-value for the final regression model (0.45) indicated adequate model fit.

    CONCLUSION: This study gives the first overview on prevalence and correlates of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents. The prevalence of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents is higher than reported in most of the previous studies also using MHC-SF. Our findings suggest that adolescents with advantageous socio-economic situations, life style, social support and school life are experiencing better positive mental health than others.

  • 6.
    Nilsen, Charlotta
    et al.
    Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet/Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Andel, Ross
    School of Aging Studies, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, USA.
    Darin-Mattsson, Alexander
    Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet/Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet/Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Psychosocial working conditions across working life may predict late-life physical function: a follow-up cohort study2019In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 1125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Increasing life expectancy has made understanding the mechanisms underlying late-life health and function more important. We set out to investigate whether trajectories of change in psychosocial working conditions are associated with late-life physical function.

    METHODS: Two Swedish surveys, linked at the individual level, were used (n = 803). A psychosocial job exposure matrix was used to measure psychosocial working conditions during people's first occupation, as well as their occupation every five years thereafter until baseline in 1991. Physical function was measured in 2014. Random effects growth curve models were used to calculate intraindividual trajectories of working conditions. Predictors of physical function were assessed with ordered logistic regression.

    RESULTS: A more active job at baseline was associated with increased odds of late-life physical function (OR 1.15, CI 1.01-1.32). Higher baseline job strain was associated with decreased odds of late-life physical function (OR 0.75, CI 0.59-0.96). A high initial level followed by an upward trajectory of job strain throughout working life was associated with decreased odds of late-life physical function (OR 0.32, CI 0.17-0.58).

    CONCLUSIONS: Promoting a healthier workplace by reducing chronic stress and inducing intellectual stimulation, control, and personal growth may contribute to better late-life physical function.

  • 7.
    Nilsen, Charlotta
    et al.
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andel, Ross
    School of Aging Studies, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.
    Fors, Stefan
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Meinow, Bettina
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Darin Mattsson, Alexander
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Associations between work-related stress in late midlife, educational attainment, and serious health problems in old age: a longitudinal study with over 20 years of follow-up2014In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, no 878, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    People spend a considerable amount of time at work over the course of their lives, which makes the workplace important to health and aging. However, little is known about the potential long-term effects of work-related stress on late-life health. This study aims to examine work-related stress in late midlife and educational attainment in relation to serious health problems in old age.

    METHODS:

    Data from nationally representative Swedish surveys were used in the analyses (n = 1,502). Follow-up time was 20-24 years. Logistic regressions were used to examine work-related stress (self-reported job demands, job control, and job strain) in relation to serious health problems measured as none, serious problems in one health domain, and serious problems in two or three health domains (complex health problems).

    RESULTS:

    While not all results were statistically significant, high job demands were associated with higher odds of serious health problems among women but lower odds of serious health problems among men. Job control was negatively associated with serious health problems. The strongest association in this study was between high job strain and complex health problems. After adjustment for educational attainment some of the associations became statistically nonsignificant. However, high job demands, remained related to lower odds of serious problems in one health domain among men, and low job control remained associated with higher odds of complex health problems among men. High job demands were associated with lower odds of complex health problems among men with low education, but not among men with high education, or among women regardless of level of education.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The results underscore the importance of work-related stress for long-term health. Modification to work environment to reduce work stress (e.g., providing opportunities for self-direction/monitoring levels of psychological job demands) may serve as a springboard for the development of preventive strategies to improve public health both before and after retirement.

  • 8.
    RezaeiNiaraki, Masoumeh
    et al.
    Research Committee, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Roosta, Sadaf
    Research Committee, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Alimoradi, Zainab
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Allen, Kelly-Ann
    Educational Psychology and Inclusive Education, Faculty of Education, Monash University and the Centre for Positive Psychology, Melbourne Graduate School of Education, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    The association between social capital and quality of life among a sample of Iranian pregnant women.2019In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 1497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Quality of life (QoL) is a multidimensional concept that is affected by various factors. According to the literature, social capital is one of the key determinants of QoL that improves the living conditions of the entire community. This study aimed to investigate the association between social capital and QoL in pregnant women.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 240 pregnant women with a mean age of 27.98 years who were referred to healthcare centers in Qazvin, Iran. A two-stage random sampling method was used to select the health centers and participants. Social capital, QoL, demographic and obstetric characteristics were assessed.

    RESULTS: The mean scores of social capital, physical and mental dimensions of quality of life were 67.43, 70.2 and 71.88 respectively. All dimensions of social capital except for family and friends' connection and tolerance of diversity had positive significant correlations with the physical and mental health dimensions of quality of life (r = 0.17 to 0.28 p < 0.05). A univariate regression model revealed that social capital had a significant association with both the physical health (B = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.19-0.61, p < 0.001) and mental health (B = 0 .44, 95% CI: 0.18-0.58, p < 0.001) dimensions of pregnant women's quality of life. In the adjusted model, each unit increase of social capital increased pregnant women's QoL in both the physical health and mental health dimensions.

    CONCLUSION: Social capital has a significant association with women's QoL during pregnancy. Therefore, QoL during pregnancy could be improved by considering physical, psychological and social components of their healthcare.

  • 9.
    Torsheim, Torbjørn
    et al.
    Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Eriksson, Lilly
    Swedish National Institute of Health, Östersund, Sweden.
    Schnohr, Christina Warrer
    Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hansen, Fredrik
    Research Centre for Health Promotion, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Bjarnason, Thoroddur
    Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Akureyri, Akureyri, Iceland.
    Välimaa, Raili
    Department of Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Screen-based activities and physical complaints among adolescents from the Nordic countries2010In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 10, no 324, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    A positive association between time spent on sedentary screen-based activities and physical complaints has been reported, but the cumulative association between different types of screen-based activities and physical complaints has not been examined thoroughly.

    METHODS:

    The cross-sectional association between screen-based activity and physical complaints (backache and headache) among students was examined in a sample of 31022 adolescents from Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Iceland and Greenland, as part of the Health behaviour in school-aged children 2005/06 (HBSC) study. Daily hours spent on screen-based activities and levels of physical complaints were assessed using self-reports.

    RESULTS:

    Logistic regression analysis indicated that computer use, computer gaming and TV viewing contributed uniquely to prediction of weekly backache and headache. The magnitude of associations was consistent across types of screen based activities, and across gender.

    CONCLUSION:

    The observed associations indicate that time spent on screen-based activity is a contributing factor to physical complaints among young people, and that effects accumulate across different types of screen-based activities.

  • 10.
    Welmer, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Karolinska Institutet.
    Rydwik, Elisabeth
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Angelman, Sara
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Wang, Hui-Xin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Education-related differences in physical performance after age 60: a cross-sectional study assessing variation by age, gender and occupation2013In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Having a low level of education has been associated with worse physical performance. However, it is unclear whether this association varies by age, gender or the occupational categories of manual and non-manual work. This study examined whether there are education-related differences across four dimensions of physical performance by age, gender or occupational class and to what extent chronic diseases and lifestyle-related factors may explain such differences.

    Methods: Participants were a random sample of 3212 people, 60 years and older, both living in their own homes and in institutions, from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care, in Kungsholmen, Stockholm. Trained nurses assessed physical performance in grip strength, walking speed, balance and chair stands, and gathered data on education, occupation and lifestyle-related factors, such as physical exercise, body mass index, smoking and alcohol consumption. Diagnoses of chronic diseases were made by the examining physician.

    Results: Censored normal regression analyses showed that persons with university education had better grip strength, balance, chair stand time and walking speed than people with elementary school education. The differences in balance and walking speed remained statistically significant (p < 0.05) after adjustment for chronic diseases and lifestyle. However, age-stratified analyses revealed that the differences were no longer statistically significant in advanced age (80+ years). Gender-stratified analyses revealed that women with university education had significantly better grip strength, balance and walking speed compared to women with elementary school education and men with university education had significantly better chair stands and walking speed compared to men with elementary school education in multivariate adjusted models. Further analyses stratified by gender and occupational class suggested that the education-related difference in grip strength was only evident among female manual workers, while the difference in balance and walking speed was only evident among female and male non-manual workers, respectively.

    Conclusions: Higher education was associated with better lower extremity performance in people aged 60 to 80, but not in advanced age (80+ years). Our results indicate that higher education is associated with better grip strength among female manual workers and with better balance and walking speed among female and male non-manual workers, respectively.

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