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  • 1.
    Abelsson, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Rystedt, Ingrid
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Lindwall, Lillemor
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Learning by simulation in prehospital emergency care: an integrative literature review2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 234-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Acquiring knowledge and experience on high-energy trauma is often difficult due to infrequent exposure. This creates a need for training which is specifically tailored for complex prehospital conditions. Simulation provides an opportunity for ambulance nurses to focus on the actual problems in clinical practice and to develop knowledge regarding trauma care. The aim of this study was to describe what ambulance nurses and paramedics in prehospital emergency care perceive as important for learning when participating in simulation exercises.

    METHODS: An integrative literature review was carried out. Criteria for inclusion were primary qualitative and quantitative studies, where research participants were ambulance nurses or paramedics, working within prehospital care settings, and where the research interventions involved simulation.

    RESULTS: It was perceived important for the ambulance nurses' learning that scenarios were advanced and possible to simulate repeatedly. The repetitions contributed to increase the level of experience, which in turn improved the patients care. Moreover, realism in the simulation and being able to interact and communicate with the patient were perceived as important aspects, as was debriefing, which enabled the enhancement of knowledge and skills. The result is presented in the following categories: To gain experience, To gain practice and To be strengthened by others.

    CONCLUSION: Learning through simulation does not require years of exposure to accident scenes. The simulated learning is enhanced by realistic, stressful scenarios where ambulance nurses interact with the patients. In this study, being able to communicate with the patient was highlighted as a positive contribution to learning. However, this has seldom been mentioned in a previous research on simulation. Debriefing is important for learning as it enables scrutiny of one's actions and thereby the possibility to improve and adjust one's caring. The effect of simulation exercises is important on patient outcome.

  • 2.
    Ahlström, Gerd
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Wenneberg, Stig
    Coping with illness-related problems in persons with progressive muscular diseases: the Swedish version of the Ways of Coping Questionnaire.2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 368-375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most widely used self-assessment inventories of coping is the Ways of Coping Questionnaire. The aims of the study were to describe coping with illness-related problems in persons with muscular diseases and to investigate the influence of demographic variables. Also, the reliability of the Swedish version of the Ways of Coping Questionnaire was to be evaluated. Forty-four persons with muscular dystrophy and 32 persons with postpolio syndrome, along with a comparison group of 214 students, completed the questionnaire. The findings of this study show that there are some different coping patterns in students as compared with persons with chronic disease. The coping strategy Distancing was used more and the strategy Accepting Responsibility used less frequently in the chronic disease groups and may be an expression of the inevitable physical limitations caused by the progressiveness of muscular dystrophy and postpolio syndrome. Furthermore, persons with muscular dystrophy also used less problem-focused coping in the form of Confrontive Coping and Planful Problem Solving when compared with the postpolio and student groups. In addition, women in the three groups employed the strategy of Seeking Social Support more often than did men. Regarding the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Ways of Coping Questionnaire, internal consistency was acceptable for the total score, but lower and not acceptable for several of the subscales. In the student group, but not in the chronic disease groups, there were low correlations between subscales, which indicate discriminative ability. More research is necessary to further investigate the reliability and validity of the Swedish version of the Ways of Coping Questionnaire before this instrument can be used routinely to assess coping patterns in patients with chronic disease.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Bodil T.
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Elgán, C
    Axelsson, ÅB
    Radiographers' areas of professional competence related to good nursing care2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 401-409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Radiographers' ability and competence is a matter of vital importance for patients. Nursing care is an integral part of the radiographer's work. The demand for high competence in clinical activities has increased in diagnostic radiology and has had an impact on the development of the profession.

    AIM: The aim was to describe the radiographer's areas of professional competence in relation to good nursing care based on critical incidents that occur in the course of radiological examinations and interventions.

    METHOD: A descriptive design with a qualitative approach, using the Critical Incident Technique was employed. Interviews were conducted with a strategic sample of registered radiographers (n = 14), based at different hospitals in Sweden.

    ETHICAL ISSUES: The appropriate ethical principles were followed. All the participants provided informed consent, and formal approval for conducting the research was obtained according to national and local directives.

    RESULTS: The data analysis resulted in two main areas; direct and indirect patient-related areas of competence, which describe the radiographers' skills that either facilitate or hinder good nursing care. In the direct patient-related area of competence, four categories emerged, which illustrate good nursing care in the patient's immediate surroundings. In the indirect patient-related area of competence, four categories illuminated good nursing care that is provided without direct contact with the patient.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study highlights the different areas of the radiographer's unique professional competence. The findings provide insight into the radiographer's profession, on one hand as a carer and on the other as a medical technologist as well as highlighting the importance of each role. The radiographer's work encompasses a variety of components--from caring for the patient to handling and checking the technical equipment.

  • 4.
    Bellner, Anna-Lena
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Senses of Responsibility: A Challenge for Occupational and Physical Therapists in the Context of Ongoing Professionalization1999In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 55-62Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Bergh, I.
    et al.
    Gunnarsson, M.
    Allwood, Jens
    Department of Linguistics, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Odén, A.
    Sjöström, B.
    Steen, B.
    Descriptions of pain in elderly patients following orthopaedic surgery2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 110-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were to investigate what words elderly patients, who had undergone hip surgery, used to describe their experience of pain in spoken language and to compare these words with those used in the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) and Pain-O-Meter (POM). The study was carried out at two orthopaedic and two geriatric clinical departments at a large university hospital in Sweden. Altogether, 60 patients (mean age = 77) who had undergone orthopaedic surgery took part in the study. A face-to-face interview was conducted with each patient on the second day after the operation. This was divided into two parts, one tape-recorded and semi-structured in character and one structured interview. The results show that a majority of the elderly patients who participated in this study verbally stated pain and spontaneously used a majority of the words found in the SF-MPQ and in the POM. The patients also used a number of additional words not found in the SF-MPQ or the POM. Among those patients who did not use any of the words in the SF-MPQ and the POM, the use of the three additional words ’stel’ (stiff), ’hemsk’ (awful) and ’räd(d)(sla)’ (afraid/fear) were especially marked. The patients also combined the words with a negation to describe what pain was not. To achieve a more balanced and nuanced description of the patient’s pain and to make it easier for the patients to talk about their pain, there is a need for access to a set of predefined words that describe pain from a more multidimensional perspective than just intensity. If the elderly patient is allowed, and finds it necessary, to use his/her own words to describe what pain is but also to describe what pain is not, by combining the words with a negation, then the risk of the patient being forced to choose words that do not fully correspond to their pain can be reduced. If so, pain scales such as the SF-MPQ and the POM can create a communicative bridge between the elderly patient and health care professionals in the pain evaluation process. ©2005 Nordic College of Caring Sciences.

  • 6.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. AFR. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Focus on Occupational Therapists' Paradigms1999In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 165-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study has an explorative design with its starting point in Törnebohm´s theory of paradigms. The primary aim of the study was to identify and characterize seven experienced occupational therapists´ perceptions of their profession, especially regarding world view and field of action view. The secondary aim was to find out if there were similarities among the respondents´ personal paradigms that could constitute a potential, local ideology for the group. Qualitative data were collected using audio- and video-taped, thematic discussions which involved focus groups on three occasions during the autumn of 1996. Within the two paradigm components world view and field of action view the data were analysed qualitatively. The results show several unifying factors and dissimilarities were limited to specifications within the unifying factors, with regard to the respondents´ notions. The unifying factors could be described as a potential, local ideology for the group.

  • 7.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT. Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Wahlin, Åke
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Alehagen, Urban
    Department of Cardiology and Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ulander, Martin
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Johansson, Peter
    Department of Cardiology and Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Sex-specific associations between self-reported sleep duration, depression, anxiety, fatigue and daytime sleepiness in an older community-dwelling population2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, no 1, p. 290-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore whether associations between self-reported sleep duration, depressive symptoms, anxiety, fatigue and daytime sleepiness differed in older community-dwelling men and women. Design: Cross-sectional.

    Methods: A community-dwelling sample of 675 older men and women (mean age 77.7 years, SD 3.8 years) was used. All participants underwent a clinical examination by a cardiologist. Validated questionnaires were used to investigate sleep duration, depressive symptoms, anxiety, fatigue and daytime sleepiness. Subjects were divided into short sleepers (≤6 hours), n = 231; normal sleepers (7-8 hours), n = 338; and long sleepers (≥9 hours), n = 61. ancovas were used to explore sex-specific effects.

    Results: Depressive symptoms were associated with short sleep in men, but not in women. Fatigue was associated with both short and long sleep duration in men. No sex-specific associations of sleep duration with daytime sleepiness or anxiety were found.

    Conclusion: Nurses investigating sleep duration and its correlates, or effects, in clinical practice need to take sex into account, as some associations may be sex specific. Depressive symptoms and fatigue can be used as indicators to identify older men with sleep complaints.

  • 8. Carlsson, M
    et al.
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Wenestam, C-G
    The oldest old: Patterns of adjustment and dependence1991In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 93-100Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Carlsson, Margareta
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Wenestam, C-G
    The oldest old: Patterns of adjustment and life experiences1991In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 203-210Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Chang, Milan
    et al.
    Faculty of Health Promotion, Sports and Leisure Studies, School of Education, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Geirsdottir, Olof G.
    The Icelandic Gerontological Research Institute, National University Hospital of Iceland & Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Sigurdarsdottir, Sigurveig H.
    School of Social Science, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Ramel, Alfons
    The Icelandic Gerontological Research Institute, National University Hospital of Iceland & Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Associations between education and need for care among community dwelling older adults in Iceland2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 885-891Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Older adults in Iceland have good access to social services that support them in maintaining an independent life, although receiving informal care is common for community living older adults in Iceland. The aim of this study was to examine whether the need for care as well as receiving formal and informal care is associated with education among older adults in Iceland.

    METHODS: Among a national sample of 782 Icelandic community dwelling old adults (mean age 76.9 ± 7.4 years, 55% women), a telephone survey was conducted. The survey included questions on: socioeconomic status, social network, health status, activities of daily living and formal/informal care.

    RESULTS: A full data set was available for 720 subjects and among these, 349 (48.5%) had no need for care, 197 (27.4%) received informal care only, 31 (4.3%) received formal care only, and 143 (19.9%) received both type of care. Participants with higher education were significantly less likely to need care (OR 0.67, 95% CI, 0.47-0.97, p = 0.031) when compared with those who had primary education. Categorisation by age showed that this difference was only significant in participants younger than 80 years. Education was not related to formal care, but adults with higher education were less likely to receive informal care compared with older adults who had primary education (OR: 0.65, 95%CI: 0.46, 0.93, p = 0.018).

    CONCLUSIONS: People with higher education were significantly less likely to need care and this association was mainly present among those aged below 80 years. Further, in participants that needed care, the likelihood of receiving informal care was lower in highly educated participants, but no differences in formal care were observed between educational levels.

  • 11.
    Christensson, Lennart
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Unosson, Mitra
    Bachrach-Lindström, Margareta
    Ek, Anna-Christina
    Attitudes of nursing staff towards nutritional nursing care2003In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 223-231Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Dahlviken, Rønnaug M.
    et al.
    Institute of Nursing, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Mathisen, Lars
    Lovisenberg Diaconal University College, Oslo, Norway.
    Women's experiences of Takosubo cardiomyopathy in a short-term perspective: A qualitative content analysis2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 258-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a reversible condition mimicking acute myocardial infarction. The phenomenon is associated with emotional and physical stressful trigger events. Evidence-based patient counselling should be based on disease-specific knowledge of patient experiences.

    Aim

    The aim of the study was to describe women's experiences of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a short-term perspective.

    Design

    The study design was explorative and descriptive.

    Method

    Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 women diagnosed with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, 1 day to 9 months after hospitalisation. The transcriptions underwent qualitative content analysis.

    Findings

    The main theme that emerged was Takotsubo cardiomyopathy as a continuous process of making sense and adapting. To begin with, understanding and coping with signs and symptoms were described as having a diversity of signs and symptoms, taking actions towards signs and symptoms, receiving treatment for suspected ST/non ST-elevation myocardial infarction diagnosis and finally being diagnosed with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Understanding the context of illness was expressed as getting treated for Takotsubo cardiomyopathy diagnosis and having previous stressful conditions of life. The changing perspective that emanated was a combination of having prospects and expectations and experiencing limitations. Finally, managing to live with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy was manifested as returning home with the illness and receiving follow-up health care.

    Conclusion

    Information on regaining prior health status and capacity within a short-term perspective may not be accurate. These women struggle and require education and counselling from healthcare professionals to comprehend and manage having a Takotsubo cardiomyopathy diagnosis. Women experiencing Takotsubo cardiomyopathy may be a target group for holistic and individual health care with a longer duration of follow-up.

  • 13.
    Edbom, T
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Malmberg, K
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Lichtenstein, P
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Larsson, J-O
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    High sense of coherence in adolescence is a protective factor in the longitudinal development of ADHD symptoms2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 541-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The key feature of salutogenesis is that good health can be directly sustained by positive factors. The Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale was developed by Antonovsky as a measure related to the concept of salutogenesis including aspects of comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness.

    Aim:  The aim was to investigate whether Sense of Coherence can serve as a salutogenetic factor modifying the long-term development of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms.

    Subjects and methods:  Twin study of Child and Adolescent Development (TCHAD) is a longitudinal study of all twin pairs born in Sweden between May 1985 and December 1986. The present project is a sub-sample of 312 individuals (135 boys and 177 girls). At 16 years of age, the young persons and their parents were interviewed with K-SADS especially symptoms of ADHD. The young person also completed the SOC questionnaire. At 21 years of age, the young person completed a questionnaire about symptoms of ADHD.

    Findings:  Higher (worse) ADHD scores at 16 years of age were associated with higher (worse) ADHD scores at 21 years of age. However, this relationship was stronger for lower (worse) SOC. A higher (better) SOC at 16 years was associated with lower (better) ADHD at 21 years and this relationship was stronger for higher (worse) ADHD at 16 years.

    Conclusion:  A high Sense of Coherence in adolescence was a protective factor for the long-term development of ADHD.

  • 14. Elgán, C
    et al.
    Axelsson, A
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Being in charge of life: perceptions of lifestyle among women of retirement age2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 730-735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the perceptions of lifestyle among women of retirement age.

    Background: Women go through many transitions during their lives, which impact on their lifestyle and possibly their outlook on life. Family circumstances such as motherhood and marital status change over time and the menopause is also likely to influence their view of life.

    Method: Data were collected through interviews with 20 women, aged 61–70, selected by means of strategic sampling. The interviews were analysed using a phenomenographic approach.

    Findings: Three structural aspects emerged: being healthy as life turns out, living life in their own way, and taking care of everyday life. The women described lifestyle as a means of being healthy, having an active role in society, being content with what one has and the need to adapt oneself to limiting circumstances. Lifestyle was also associated with being in charge and making one’s own choices in life based on one’s own values. They reported that they were independent and made decisions about their life. The informants considered that lifestyle was an asset that helped them to cope with everyday life and to make the most of each day.

    Conclusion: Lifestyle is a tool that requires independence, the right to self‐determination over everyday life and adjustment to limitations in order to ensure the psychological well‐being of women of retirement age. Further research is needed in order to delineate the possible association between lifestyle and psychological well‐being.

  • 15. Elgán, C
    et al.
    Dykes, AK
    Samsioe, G
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Lunds universitet.
    Young women's lifestyle behaviours and their bone mineral density changes: a grounded theory analysis2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 39-45Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16. Elmqvist, Carina
    et al.
    Brunt, David
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Ekebergh, Margaretha
    Being first on the scene of an accident: experiences of 'doing' prehospital emergency care2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 266-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prehospital emergency care includes the care and treatment of patients prior to them reaching hospital. This is generally a field for the ambulance services, but in many cases firemen or police can be the ones to provide the first responses. The aim of this study was to describe and understand experiences of being the first responder on the scene of an accident, as described by policemen, firemen and ambulance staff. A lifeworld perspective was used in four different traumatic situations from southern Sweden. The data consisted of 13 unstructured interviews with first responders. The phenomenological analysis showed that experiences of being the first responder on the scene of an accident is expectations of doing a systematic course of action, dressed in the role of a hero, and at the same time being genuine in an interpersonal encounter. This entails a continuous movement between 'being' and 'doing'. It is not a question of either - or, instead everything is to be understood in relation to each other at the same time. Five constituents further described the variations of the phenomenon; a feeling of security in the uncertainty, a distanced closeness to the injured person, one moment in an eternity, cross-border cooperation within distinct borders and a need to make the implicit explicit. This finding highlights the importance of using policemen and firemen in doing life support measures while waiting for the ambulance staff, and would in turn increase the importance of the relationship between the different professionals on the scene of an accident.

  • 17. Forsberg, Anette
    et al.
    Ahlström, Gerd
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Holmqvist, Lotta Widén
    Falling ill with Guillain-Barré syndrome: patients' experiences during the initial phase.2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 220-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Research describing the personal experiences of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is limited, but is important for identifying the patients' need of support. The aim of this study was to describe experiences of falling ill with GBS, with the focus on the onset of disease, the diagnosis and the illness progress during hospital care. METHODS: The study included 35 persons, 20-78 years old. They were interviewed 2 years after the onset of GBS. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: The onset was described as either an incomprehensible, prolonged, increasing deterioration with puzzling sensations or as a frightening, rapid onset with a sudden loss of body control. The majority of the persons relied heavily on the reassurance of a positive prognosis, and expressed immense confidence in being able to recover. During the early phase at the hospital, a rapid and steady course of improvement inspired hope in many persons. In contrast, even in this early phase of hospital care some individuals expressed doubts of a slow recovery. Feelings of fear and insecurity were evident when losing body functions, thus causing helplessness. Sensations of pain, numbness and lost body image increased their vulnerability. Half of the ventilator-treated persons expressed vivid memories of scary hallucinations. CONCLUSION: The onset is characterized by an incomprehensible bodily deterioration or a frightening, rapid paralysis. In the initial phase, there is hope for recovery, which for many individuals is reinforced by a steady recovery. In contrast, early psychosocial support may be necessary for some persons with an alarmingly slow recovery.

  • 18.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    The case study as a research strategy1997In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 3-4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Falk, B
    Ladeborn, B
    Landin, K
    Larsson, PA
    The effect of a caring rehabilitation programme on diet habits, blood lipids and body weight after myocardial infarction1988In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 2, p. 185-186Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Högstedt, B
    Lidell, E
    Larsson, PA
    Recovery after myocardial infarction: effects of a caring rehabilitation programme1991In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 23-32Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Lidell, E
    Larsson, PA
    A caring perspective on rehabilitation after myocardial infarction: a theoretical framework and a suggestion for a rehabilitation programme1989In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 129-135Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Gaber, Sophie
    et al.
    Department of Health Care Sciences, Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Healthcare Sciences and e-Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Klarare, A.
    Mattsson, E.
    Rosenblad, A. K.
    A comparison of perceptions of caring behaviours among women in homelessness, Registered Nurses and nursing students2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 959-969Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The population of women in homelessness in Europe is increasing and women in homelessness experience multiple healthcare needs. However, there is insufficient understanding about how perceptions of caring behaviours compare between women in homelessness as patients and nurses in their clinical practice.

    Aim: This study aimed to investigate perceptions of caring behaviours among women in homelessness, Registered Nurses and nursing students. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used with convenience sampling to recruit groups of women in homelessness (n = 37), Registered Nurses (n = 92) and nursing students (n = 142) in Stockholm, Sweden. Between August 2019 and December 2020, data were collected through face-to-face interviews or online, using the Caring Behaviours Inventory-24 instrument. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and group-comparing hypothesis tests.

    Results: Overall, women in homelessness’ perceptions of caring behaviours were significantly lower than nursing students (p < 0.001), who in turn scored significantly lower than Registered Nurses (p < 0.001). The Knowledge and Skill domain had the highest score, and the Connectedness domain had the lowest score in all three groups. The ranking of the individual items according to score varied between the groups. However, all three groups had the highest score for the Knowing how to give shots, IVs, etc., item and the lowest score for the Helping the patient to grow item.

    Conclusion: Healthcare providers and nurse educators should consider incongruences and congruences in caring behaviours to better prepare Registered Nurses and nursing students to contribute to increased health equity, and more targeted clinical practice for women in homelessness. 

  • 23.
    Gabrielsson-Järhult, Felicia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Nilsen, Per
    Division of Community Medicine, Department of Medical Health Sciences, Linköping University.
    On the threshold: older people's concerns about needs after discharge from hospital2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 135-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Discharge from hospital is often strenuous for older people and requires adjustments from living an independent life to being in need of care and support. This study aims to explore older people’s concerns about their needs after discharge. Twenty-seven observations recorded at hospital discharge planning meetings were analysed with content analysis. An overarching theme emerged: being in a life transition, which reflected the older person’s vulnerable and ambiguous situation in the discharge process. The theme was developed from three categories: obtaining a secure life situation, need of continuous care and support, and influencing and regaining independence. The findings highlight that older patients want to influence their care after discharge. They strive to regain independence and express their concerns about how to obtain a secure life situation through care organized to fit their individual needs. Knowledge about older people’s concerns is important for health care providers and social workers involved in planning and individualized care and services.

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  • 24. Gavois, H
    et al.
    Paulsson, G
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Mental health professional support in families with a member suffering from severe mental illness: a grounded theory model2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 102-109Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Gerbild, Helle
    et al.
    Health Sciences Research Centre, UCL University College, Odense, Denmark; Center for Sexology Research, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark; Department for Behavioural Sciences, Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway.
    Areskoug Josefsson, Kristina
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Marie Larsen, Camilla
    Health Sciences Research Centre, UCL University College, Odense, Denmark; Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Schantz Laursen, Birgitte
    Center for Sexology Research, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark; Clinical Nursing Research Unit & Sexological Centre, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Communication about physical activity to reduce vascular erectile dysfunction: A qualitative interview study among men in cardiac rehabilitation2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 839-851Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physical activity, a core intervention in cardiac rehabilitation, can reduce vascular erectile dysfunction (ED). ED is a common sensitive problem for men with cardiac diseases, decreasing their quality of life. Cardiac health professionals rarely provide information about ED or its relation to physical activity. Developing health professionals’ communicative component of the complex intervention ‘Physical Activity to reduce Vascular Erectile Dysfunction’ (PAVED) is important. Understanding the receiver needs is essential in designing a complex intervention.

    Aim: To elucidate men's perspectives on cardiac health professionals’ communication about PAVED.

    Ethical issues: An Institutional Data Protection Agency approved the study.

    Methods: An interpretive data-driven thematic analysis was applied to individual, qualitative semi-structured interviews with 20 Danish men attending cardiac rehabilitation.

    Results: The men wanted health professionals’ communicating about ED, as it was perceived as a major problem diminishing masculinity and tabooed by health professionals. Men wanted help for self-help, which may be possible with the aid of competent health professionals’ communication about how to prevent, reduce and cope with ED - including information about PAVED. The men wanted health professionals’ communication about ED in various contexts: general information in groups, sexual counselling for individuals and couples and written material.

    Study limitations: Recruitment was done from a Danish municipality's cardiac rehabilitation, and the transferability of the results may be limited to similar contexts.

    Conclusion: Erectile dysfunction was experienced as a major biopsychosocial problem for the men and their partners. The men had a need for health professionals’ communication about sexuality, ED and information about PAVED as well as about prevention, reduction and management of ED. The men had a need for professional communication about sexual health.

  • 26.
    Golsäter, Marie
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Harder, Maria
    School of Health Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Nurses' encounters with children in child and school health care: negotiated guidance within a given frame2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 591-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Throughout childhood, children take part in health visits according to a health-monitoring programme. The visits are aimed to promote the children's development and health and to strengthen them to take own responsibility for their health. Nurses' actions when encountering children at these visits are not explored to any great extent. Exploring nurses' actions can facilitate their reflections on their actions towards children and thereby promote children's involvement in such visits.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to explore nurses' actions when encountering children at health visits.

    Method: A qualitative explorative design, based on 30 video recordings of health visits in child and school health care, was used in this study. These visits were ordinary real-life health visits. The data were subjected to qualitative content analysis. The right to conduct video recordings during health visits was approved by appropriate research ethics committees.

    Results: The findings show that nurses, in order to carry out the health visits, encounter children through negotiated guidance. This guidance is understood as the process through which the nurses reach agreement with the children, and is comprised of directed and pliable strategies. At one moment, the nurse can use a directed strategy to inform the child and at the next moment a pliable strategy to provide the child space within the given frame, the health-monitoring programme. By using these strategies intertwined, the nurse can provide the child space within the given frame and, at the same time, fulfil his/her responsibility to promote children's health and development.

    Conclusion: The results highlight nurses' challenging and complex assignment of guiding children to promote their engagement in the health visits, thereby enabling the nurses to promote the children's health and development according to the national health-monitoring programme.

  • 27.
    Gullvåg, Marianne
    et al.
    Department of Cardiology, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.
    Gjeilo, Kari Hanne
    Department of Cardiology, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.
    Fålun, Nina
    Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Bergen, Norway.
    Norekvål, Tone M.
    Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Bergen, Norway.
    Mo, Rune
    Department of Cardiology, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.
    Broström, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT. Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Bergen, Norway.
    Sleepless nights and sleepy days: a qualitative study exploring the experiences of patients with chronic heart failure and newly verified sleep-disordered breathing.2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 750-759Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing, including obstructive sleep apnoea and central sleep apnoea, is a common disorder among patients with chronic heart failure. Obstructive sleep apnoea is often treated with continuous positive airway pressure, but central sleep apnoea lacks a clear treatment option. Knowledge of how sleep-disordered breathing is experienced (e.g. difficulties and care needs) and handled (e.g. self-care actions) by the patients is limited, but needed, to provide patient-centred care.

    AIM: To explore how newly verified sleep-disordered breathing is experienced by patients with chronic heart failure.

    METHODS: Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analysed with qualitative content analysis. Seventeen participants (14 men, three women), mean age 60 years (range 41-80) diagnosed with chronic heart failure and objectively verified sleep-disordered breathing (nine obstructive, seven central and one mixed) were strategically selected from heart failure outpatient clinics at two Norwegian university hospitals.

    RESULTS: Patients with chronic heart failure and newly verified sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) described experiences of poor sleep that had consequences for their daily life and their partners. Different self-care strategies were revealed, but they were based on 'common sense' and were not evidence-based. The awareness of having SDB was varied; for some, it gave an explanation to their trouble while others were surprised by the finding.

    CONCLUSION: Patients with chronic heart failure and sleep-disordered breathing experienced reduced sleep quality, influencing their daily life. Possible underlying causes of disrupted sleep, such as sleep-disordered breathing, should be identified to establish proper patient-centred treatment strategies. There is a need for new strategies to approach patients with chronic heart failure (i.e. those with central sleep apnoea) who are not subject to continuous positive airway pressure treatment for their sleep-disordered breathing.

  • 28.
    Gunnarsson, Nina Veetnisha
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Marklund, Birgitta
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ahlstedt, Staffan
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Borell, Lena
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nordström, Gun
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Allergy-like conditions and health-care contacts among children with exclusion diets at school.2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 46-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:  To find out whether children with exclusion diet at school had allergy-like conditions that could explain their food avoidance, the objective of this study was to describe health-care contacts and diagnostic testing among schoolchildren with exclusion diet and compare the magnitude of allergy-like conditions between those children who had vs. had not consulted health-care professionals. Telephone interviews were conducted with the parents of 230 schoolchildren, aged 6–18 years, with certificates for exclusion diets at school.

    Results:  The majority of the schoolchildren (85%) had consulted health-care professionals for food-related problems, and 68% were doctor-diagnosed as having food hypersensitivity. Those who had consulted health-care professionals specifically for their food-related problems had more complex and severe problems compared with those who had not consulted health-care professionals. Breathing difficulties (27/196) and anaphylaxis (9/196) related to intake of food were reported only for those who had sought health-care professionals (n = 196). Regardless of whether the children had consulted the health-care professionals, their food-related problems were consistent with food hypersensitivity. Schoolchildren avoided food items known to be associated with food hypersensitivity such as tree nuts, fruit, egg, peanut, lactose and fish. Furthermore, 83% of the 230 children also had allergic diseases (i.e. asthma, eczema or hay fever) or were hypersensitive to other substances besides food, and 83% had at least one sibling or parent with hypersensitivity to foods or other substances.

    Conclusions and implications for the school nurse:  Schoolchildren with food certificates for exclusion diets, based on parents’ statements, have food-related and allergy-like problems that may well motivate exclusion diets at school. The school nurses can rely on the parents’ information as to what foods their children should avoid, even when doctor diagnoses have not been made or health-care consultations have not been carried out.

  • 29.
    Gustafsson, Ida
    et al.
    Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Spångby, Malin
    Child Health Services, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Arvidsdal, Ann
    Child Health Services, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Golsäter, Marie
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Child Health Services, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden; Department of Health, Medicine and Caring, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Palmér, Lina
    Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    The Existential Breastfeeding Difficulty Scale’s influences on the caring dialogue—Child healthcare nurses’ lived experiences2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 558-566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Breastfeeding is experienced as an existential journey, and breastfeeding difficulties put mothers in existentially vulnerable situations. For care to be caring, it must be based on the mother's breastfeeding story. Previous research show that healthcare professionals struggle to perform individualised breastfeeding care. The Existential Breastfeeding Difficulty Scale (ExBreastS) was developed to support an existential focus in caring dialogues and was introduced in child healthcare in Sweden.

    The aim of this study is to describe child healthcare nurses' lived experience of how the Existential Breastfeeding Difficulty Scale (ExBreastS) influences the caring dialogue.

    Seventeen child healthcare nurses with experience in using ExBreastS as a basis for caring dialogues with breastfeeding mothers were interviewed, in groups, pairs or individually. The interviews were analysed using a thematic analysis based on descriptive phenomenology.

    The results show that the caring dialogue becomes re-evaluated when using ExBreastS because existential aspects of breastfeeding is acknowledged. ExBreastS also visualises new perspectives of the mother's breastfeeding experiences. However, the use of ExBreastS also risks overshadowing the caring dialogue when the nurses focus too much on the instrument.

    The use of ExBreastS supports caring dialogues—and caring care—by highlighting the existential aspects of breastfeeding/breastfeeding difficulties and the uniqueness of every mothers' breastfeeding experience. However, the instrument sometimes evokes a vulnerability in the nurses that calls for support from the care organisation.

  • 30.
    Hagelin, Carina Lundh
    et al.
    Department of Health Care Sciences, Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    Department of Health Care Sciences, Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ek, Kristina
    Department of Nursing, School of Health Sciences, Skövde University, Skövde, Sweden.
    Henoch, Ingela
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Österlind, Jane
    Department of Health Care Sciences, Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Browall, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Affiliated with the Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Teaching about death and dying-A national mixed-methods survey of palliative care education provision in Swedish undergraduate nursing programmes2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 545-557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In coming decades, the number of people affected by illnesses who need palliative care will rise worldwide. Registered Nurses are in a central position in providing this care, and education is one of the necessary components for meeting coming requirements. However, there is a lack of knowledge about palliative care in undergraduate nursing education curricula, including the extent of the education provided and the related pedagogical methods.

    AIM: The aim was to investigate the extent, content and pedagogical methods used and to explore lecturers' experiences of being responsible for teaching and learning about palliative care for undergraduate nursing students on nursing programmes at Swedish universities.

    SETTING: All 24 universities responsible for providing undergraduate nursing education in Sweden participated.

    PARTICIPANTS: One lecturer with in-depth knowledge about palliative care or end-of-life care education participated in the quantitative (n = 24) and qualitative (n = 22) parts of the study.

    METHOD: A mixed-method research study with an explorative design was used. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse quantitative data, and content analysis for qualitative, with both also analysed integratively.

    RESULTS: Few undergraduate nursing programmes included a specific course about palliative care in their curricula, however, all universities incorporated education about palliative care in some way. Most of the palliative care education was theoretical, and lecturers used a variety of pedagogical strategies and their own professional and personal experience to support students to understand the palliative care approach. Topics such as life and death were difficult to both learn and teach about.

    CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for substantial education about palliative care. Lecturers strive on their own to develop students' understanding and increase the extent of palliative care education with innovative teaching strategies, but must compete with other topics. Palliative care teaching must be prioritised, not only by the universities, but also by the national authority.

  • 31.
    Hansson, Helena
    et al.
    Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet and Associate Professor at Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Björk, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Santacroce, Sheila Judge
    Beerstecher-Blackwell Distinguished Scholar at School of Nursing, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
    Raunkiaer, Mette
    Danish Knowledge Centre for Rehabilitation and Palliative Care (REHPA), Odense University Hospital, University of Southern Denmark, Nyborg, Denmark.
    End-of-life palliative home care for children with cancer: A qualitative study on parents' experiences2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 917-926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    There is insufficient knowledge available about the impact of paediatric palliative care at home on meeting family needs and ensuring the highest quality of care for the dying child. The aim of this study was to elucidate parents' experiences of how and why home-based paediatric palliative care impacted the entire family during their child's final phase of life.

    Methods

    The study used a qualitative design. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the bereaved parents of children who had received palliative care at home from a paediatric cancer hospital department programme that was based on collaboration with community nurses and the paediatric palliative care service. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, and qualitative content analysis was applied. The Ecocultural theory was used to explain the findings.

    Results

    Three main themes emerged: (1) involvement enabling a sense of control and coping, (2) sustaining participation in everyday family life routines and (3) making room for presence and comfort during and after the end-of-life trajectory.

    Conclusion

    End-of-life palliative care at home can enable parents and other family members to maintain a sense of control, presence and semblance of everyday life. It contributes to managing and alleviating the burden and distress during the last phase of the child's life and during bereavement. We suggest that healthcare professionals support family members in participation and daily life routines and activities during a child's EOL care, as it affects the well-being of the entire family.

  • 32.
    Hansson, Karin S.
    et al.
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Växjö Central Hospital.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Brunt, David
    School of Health Sciences and Social Work, Växjö University.
    Hansson, Bo
    School of Social Sciences, Växjö University.
    Rask, Mikael
    School of Health Sciences and Social Work, Växjö University.
    The meaning of the experiences of persons with chronic pain in their encounters with the health service2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 444-450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The meaning of the experiences of persons with chronic pain in their encounters with the health service Chronic pain causes great suffering for those affected and treating it is one of the most common assignments in the health service. The aim of the study was to investigate the meaning of the experiences of persons with chronic pain in their encounters with health service staff. The study had a descriptive design with a phenomenological approach based on the perspective of caring science. Interviews were carried out with eight patients. The study showed that patients experienced a positive approach and that the staff had understood the serious nature of the situation. A positive approach can communicate hope and help to strengthen the patient. It is important to ask the patient about how he/she experiences his/her situation and thus gain an insight into this person's lifeworld. Participation entailed being active oneself and calling attention to one's needs and wishes for treatment. The study also showed that a negative approach by the staff played a prominent part in their experiences and appeared to be engraved in their memories. A negative approach is felt as being insulting and belittling. Patients with chronic pain felt that they were discredited and that their experience of their situation was called into question. They had to fight to get care and had to suggest treatments and examinations. There were also patients who had neither been asked about their pain experience nor had the opportunity to assess their pain with an assessment scale. Some of the phases in Travelbee's relationship model could be seen in several of the encounters but not all. The participants did not always feel that the manner of the nursing staff was empathetic or sympathetic, which led to greater suffering.

  • 33.
    Hellström, Ingrid
    et al.
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    Department of Health Care Science/Palliative Research Centre, Ersta Sköndal University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Department of Nursing and Care, The Swedish Red Cross University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Jonas
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Development of older men’s caregiving roles for wives with dementia2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 957-964Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This secondary analysis of qualitative interviews describes how older Swedish men approach the caregiver role for a wife with dementia, over time. An increasing number of male caregivers will become primary caregivers for partners living with dementia at home, and they will likely be caregivers for an extended period of time. It has been stated that caregiving experiences influence how older men think of themselves. The theoretical starting point is a constructivist position, offering an understanding of older caregiving men's constructions and reconstructions of themselves and their caregiver roles. Seven men, who were cohabiting with their wives, were interviewed on up to five occasions at home during a 5- to 6-year period. The findings comprise three themes; me and it, me despite it, it is me, depict how these men gradually take on and normalise the caregiving tasks, and how they develop and internalise a language based on their caring activities. The results provide understanding about the relationship between men as caregivers and how this influences them as individuals. By careful attention to each caregiving man's individual needs rather than making gendered assumptions about men and caring, the aim of the caregiver support for men might best target men's own meaning to the caring in their the everyday practices.

  • 34. Hildingh, C
    et al.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Determination of perceived health among elderly coronary patients1992In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 187-188Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35. Hildingh, C
    et al.
    Segesten, K
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Elderly persons' social network and need for social support after their first myocardial infarction1997In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 5-11Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36. Hindsén, U
    et al.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    The nurse in clinical practice: a qualitative analysis of nursing competence1995In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 139-144Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37. Häggström Nordin, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Sandberg, Jonas
    Hanson, Ulf
    Tydén, Tanja
    “It’s everywhere!”: Thoughts and reflections about pornography among young people in Sweden2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 386-393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pornography is one of the most sought-after topics on the Internet, and is easily available for anyone, including children and adolescents. At youth centres, nurse-midwives have noticed that young people have different kinds of questions about sexual practices compared with a few years ago. The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of thoughts and reflections about pornography consumption, and its possible influence on sexual practices, among young women and men. The staff at a youth centre in a city in central Sweden asked the visitors if they had seen pornography and if they wanted to be interviewed about their experiences. Ten young women and eight men, aged 16–23 years, participated. In-depth interviews were performed and open-ended questions about pornography and sexuality were posed. The interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed according to grounded theory. The core category ‘Living with the current sexual norm’ depicted how pornography created sexual expectations and demands, for instance, to perform certain sexual acts. The informants expressed contradictory feelings towards pornography and felt that sexuality was separated from intimacy. A moral attitude was described and examples of stereotypic gender roles were given. To deal with the current sexual norm, informants had different individual handling strategies and attitudes to pornography, namely liberal, normalization, distance, feminist or conservative. Limitations of this study were the small sample size and that results from a qualitative research study cannot be generalized. The results contribute to an understanding of how pornographic material can influence young peoples’ thoughts, reflections and sexual behaviour. This indicates the importance, for personnel at youth centres and schools, to discuss sexual behaviour and how sexuality is portrayed in pornographic material with young people.

  • 38. Ivarsson, Ann-Britt
    et al.
    Sidenvall, Birgitta
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Carlsson, Marianne
    The factor structure of the Burden Assessment Scale and the perceived burden of caregivers for individuals with severe mental disorders.2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 396-401Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Iversen, Clara
    et al.
    Department of Sociology Uppsala University Uppsala Sweden.
    Broström, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT. Department of Clinical Neurophysiology Linköping University Hospital Linköping Sweden .
    Ulander, Martin
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology Linköping University Hospital Linköping Sweden .
    Balancing task focus and relationship building: Asking sleepy patients about traffic risk in treatment initiation consultations2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 895-903Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The use of traffic risk assessment questions is an understudied area in nursing research. Obstructive sleep apnoea is associated with an increased risk of traffic accidents. Therefore, traffic safety authorities demand adherent continuous positive airway pressure use. Nurses act as coaches to achieve treatment adherence, but they are also obliged to act as state agents by prohibiting obstructive sleep apnoea patients from drowsy driving.

    Objective: To examine how nurses and obstructive sleep apnoea patients manage traffic risk assessment questions in the relation-building context of treatment initiation consultations.

    Methods: To study, in detail, the actual practice of risk assessment, we used conversation analysis of 19 video-recorded initial treatment consultations with nurses and recently diagnosed obstructive sleep apnoea patients.

    Ethics: The study received ethical approval from the Central Ethical Review Board in Linköping (registration number 214/231-32) and follows the ethical guidelines for qualitative research.

    Results: Patients influence how nurses phrase questions about traffic risk by taking a stance to daytime sleepiness prior to the risk question. Nurses ask traffic risk questions in a way that assumes that driving is unproblematic if patients have not previously indicated problems. It may pose a significant problem when nurses, by accepting patients' prior stance when asking about traffic risk, orient to relationship building rather than task focus.

    Conclusion: To clarify the difference between their two potentially conflicting roles, nurses need to refer to existing laws and official guidelines when they raise the issue of risk in treatment initiation consultations. Nurses should also ask risk assessment questions in a problem-oriented communicative environment. Traffic risk assessment is sensitive yet important, as obstructive sleep apnoea is a highly prevalent problem causing excessive sleepiness. It is essential to acknowledge nurses' double roles with regard to coaching continuous positive airway pressure treatment and assessing traffic risk. 

  • 40.
    Iversen, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Department of Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
    Kolltveit, Beate-Christin H
    Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Bergen, Norway.
    Hernar, Ingvild
    Department of Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
    Mårtensson, Jan
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Haugstvedt, Anne
    Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Bergen, Norway.
    Transition from paediatric to adult care: a qualitative study of the experiences of young adults with type 1 diabetes.2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 723-730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of the present study was to explore how young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) experienced the transition from paediatric to adult health care services.

    DESIGN: A qualitative, explorative design was used.

    METHODS: Eleven young adults with T1D receiving adult diabetes care at a hospital in western Norway participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using Interpretive Description, an inductive approach inspired by grounded theory, ethnography and phenomenology, and specifically designed to explore phenomena in clinical practice aiming to generate new knowledge and skills.

    RESULTS: Four main themes regarding the adolescents' experiences of the transfer from paediatric to adult care emerged: (i) limited information about the transition; (ii) transition from frequent, thorough and personal follow-up to a less comprehensive and less personal follow-up; (iii) the importance of being seen as a whole person; (iv) limited expectations of how the health care services were organised.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that the existing routines for transfer between paediatric and adult care are not optimal. The participants expressed that they were not prepared for the dissimilarities in follow-up and were predominantly less pleased with the adult care follow-up.

    RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The findings support a need for structured transition programmes, that is programmes that contribute to young adults with T1D receiving a safe and positive transition at an otherwise demanding life phase. Young peoples' individual needs for the transition to and follow-up in adult care may be promoted by an approach based on person-centred care.

  • 41.
    Jarling, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Rydström, Ingela
    Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Ernsth-Bravell, Marie
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Nyström, Maria
    Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Dalheim-Englund, Ann-Charlotte
    Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    A responsibility that never rests – the life situation of a family caregiver to an older person2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 44-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    When the ageing population increases, the burden and responsibility of close family members will likely increase. Those closely related who assume a great responsibility can be significantly affected in health, well-being and daily life.

    Aim

    This study aims to describe the life situation when family caregivers are imposed responsibility for an older person with complex care needs in their own home.

    Methods

    In this Swedish qualitative study, ten family caregivers were strategically selected in order to achieve variations in the life situation. A reflective lifeworld research design based on phenomenological philosophy was used throughout the data collection with the lifeworld interviews and the analytic process.

    Findings

    In terms of extensive responsibility, the life situation is complex and involves emotions that are difficult to manage. In essence, a paradoxical life situation is described which is experienced as both voluntarily and nonchosen at the same time. The responsibility never rests. The essential meaning is further illustrated with three constituents: loss of freedom, contradictory feelings and affected relationships.

    Conclusion

    A life situation with extensive responsibility for an older family member interferes with the whole life situation with an impact on health and relationships with other people. The findings are crucial for professional caregivers in order to capture the nature of family support in a way that enables a meaningful life for both the family caregiver and the older person being cared for. Knowledge of this will give professional caregivers an increased awareness of the life situation of family caregivers and provide a better understanding of the support they are longing for, and, in some countries, such as Sweden, also are entitled to by law.

  • 42. Johansson, G
    et al.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Young adults' views on dental care: a qualitative analysis1996In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 197-204Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Johansson, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Unit for Research and Development in Primary Care, Futurum - Academy for Health and Care, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Marit
    Unit for Research and Development in Primary Care, Futurum - Academy for Health and Care, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Dahlin, Sofia
    Unit for Research and Development in Primary Care, Futurum - Academy for Health and Care, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden; Department of Health, Medicine and Caring, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lingfors, Hans
    Unit for Research and Development in Primary Care, Futurum - Academy for Health and Care, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Golsäter, Marie
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Child Health Services, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Healthcare professionals' experiences of targeted health dialogues in primary health care2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In Sweden, population-based targeted health dialogues are an important part of health promotion and disease prevention in primary health care. Targeted health dialogues are performed with a pedagogical approach to allow individuals to reflect over their resources, situation and motivation to change lifestyle habits together with a healthcare professional.

    AIM: The aim of this study was to explore healthcare professionals' experiences of targeted health dialogues in primary health care.

    METHODS: Three focus group interviews were conducted with 20 healthcare professionals. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis.

    RESULTS: The main category A possibility to promote healthy behaviours and prevent disease describes how the targeted health dialogues were experienced as a valuable opportunity to promote health among inhabitants. The significance of the primary healthcare centre's health promotion and prevention strategies was emphasised to enable the targeted health dialogues as a part of the assignment to promote health. These strategies were expressed as shared focus and organisational space and support making it possible for example to reach all socioeconomic groups. The work with targeted health dialogue was described as a complex task requiring extensive competence. Furthermore, the pedagogical tool including the visual health profile was experienced to have an important impact on the dialogue offering direction for actions to promote health and prevent disease.

    CONCLUSIONS: Targeted health dialogues can be a valuable opportunity for healthcare professionals in primary health care to promote a healthy lifestyle among inhabitants. Certain preconditions at both the meso- and the micro level is however required for this to come about.

  • 44. Johansson, P
    et al.
    Oléni, M
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Patient satisfaction with nursing care in the context of health care: a literature study2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 337-344Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45. Karlsson, I
    et al.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Hellström, L
    Eliasson, A
    Ekerving, C
    Andersson, L
    Larsson, PA
    Do physically active people cope better with Biopsychosocial stress after a myocardial infarction1988In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 179-183Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Kilander, Helena
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Eksjö Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden; Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Division of Nursing Sciences and Reproductive Health, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Alehagen, Siw
    Division of Nursing Sciences and Reproductive Health, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hammarström, Sofia
    Region Västra Götaland, Knowledge Centre for Sexual Health, Gothenburg, Sweden; Division of Society and Health, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Golsäter, Marie
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Child Health Services, Jönköping, Sweden; Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Identifying sexual risk-taking and ill health in the meeting with young people-experiences of using an assessment tool2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 1189-1196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Identifying young people exposed to sexual risk-taking or violence is fundamental, when seeking to strengthen their health. However, young people seldom share sexual health concerns or experiences of violence with healthcare professionals (HCPs). Studies evaluating how use of a risk assessment tool influences the dialogue about sexual health and violence are sparse.

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to explore HCPs' experiences of using the SEXual health Identification Tool (SEXIT) in encounters with young people at Swedish youth clinics.

    METHOD: Three focus group interviews were conducted with 21 HCPs from nine youth clinics, where SEXIT had been introduced. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis.

    RESULTS: Three themes were identified. The theme, Facilitates dialogue about sexuality and vulnerability, describes how the questionnaire pertaining to SEXIT helped to normalise and help both HCPs and young people to take part in the dialogue about sensitive issues. Need for a trustful encounter presents HCPs' ethical concerns regarding how the questionnaire affects the integrity of young people and trust-making. Sensitive topics entail challenges describes HCPs' challenges when dealing with sensitive issues. Additionally, it describes needs for knowledge and collaboration when targeting vulnerable young people.

    CONCLUSIONS: The HCPs stated that using SEXIT developed their ability to address sensitive issues and helped both them and young people to take part in the dialogue about sexuality and exposure to violence. SEXIT involves experiences of ethical concerns regarding integrity and trust-making. It also entails challenges in having dialogues about sensitive issues, how to deal with risk assessment outcomes and in improvements regarding inter-professional collaborations.

  • 47. Koinberg, IL
    et al.
    Holmberg, L
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Breast cancer patients' satisfaction with a spontaneous system of check-up visits to a specialist nurse2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 209-215Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Koldestam, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Accident and Emergency, Region Jönköping County, Jonkoping, Sweden.
    Rolander, Bo
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Social Work. Futurum, Academy for Health and Care, Jönköping County Council, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Broström, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT. Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Bergen, Norway.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Linnaeus University, Vaxjo, Sweden.
    Knutsson, Susanne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Undergraduate nursing student's attitudes to learning during clinical practice in different semesters when using a conceptual learning model grounded in a caritative caring perspective: A cross-sectional study2024In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 294-305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To describe undergraduate nursing students' attitudes to learning during clinical practice in different semesters when using the conceptual learning model, Model for Improvements in Learning Outcomes (MILO) grounded in a caritative caring perspective.

    Background: With the intention to support interlinking between theory and praxis and offer understanding and structure to facilitate learning, MILO, theoretically grounded in hermeneutics and a caritative caring perspective based on ethical values, was implemented. MILO consists of four contextual concepts (peer learning, co-clinical teachers, student-centred and student-active supervision) and four intrapersonal concepts (nursing, a reflective approach, a critical approach, quality and safety).

    Methods: A descriptive comparative quantitative study design was applied at a Swedish university, 3 hospitals and 13 municipalities in one county. Cross-sectional data collected via a questionnaire developed to assess attitudes to learning related to MILO's contextual and intrapersonal concepts and their applications were used.

    Results: 209 students in semester 3, 4 and 6 participated in 6 different clinical practice courses. In comparison, intrapersonal concepts, that is, the student's own characteristics and abilities were viewed to be of greater value for learning than contextual, that is, organisational-related concepts in all semesters. Understanding the needs of others and reflective learning were rated to be of major importance. Students in semester 3 valued the use of the applications the highest. To be supervised in pairs was rated the lowest in semester 6. Some of the concepts and their applications were to great extent not applied.

    Conclusions: In all semesters, fundamentals in caritative caring and characteristics and abilities related to the individual student were rated to be of greater importance for learning than environmental support. Providing students opportunities to develop independency seems essential. Use of a learning model such as MILO is dependent on a bearing of a caritative caring culture and a shared understanding between all involved in student learning during clinical practice.

  • 49.
    Kroksmark, Tomas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, School Based Research and Professional Development.
    Westman-Kumlin, I
    The First Encounter: Physiotherapists' Conceptions of Establishing Therapeutic Relationships1992In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 37-44Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Kullberg, Kerstin
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Sidenvall, Birgitta
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Åberg, Anna Cristina
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    'I start my day by thinking about what we're going to have for dinner': A qualitative study on approaches to food-related activities among elderly men with somatic diseases2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 227-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to address the question of how older men with somatic diseases living in ordinary housing approach the question of food-related activities. Further, any food-related activity adaptations consequent to effects of diseases and of alterred life circumstances were explored. Interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of 18 co-living and singel-living men, 64-84 years old. They were diagnosed with Parkinson's disease, rhematoid arthritis, or stroke. In the analysis a thematic framework was used. The findings revealed three food-related approaches, namely 'Cooking as a pleasure', describing joy in cooking; 'Cooking as a need', indicating no habit or skills in cooking; and ' Food is served', that is being served meals by a partner. It was found that gender-related roles in particular, but also changed life circumstances, activity limitations, personal interests, and a wish to maintain continuity and independence, affected the men's approaches to these activities. This knowledge may be useful in attempts to facilitate and support food-related activities among elderly men with diseases. Health-care efforts in promoting food-related activities should preferably be individualised in respect to older men's approach to these activities.

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