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  • 1. Donetto, S.
    et al.
    Malone, M.
    Sayer, L.
    Robert, Glenn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare). Florence Nightingale Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery, King's College London, United Kingdom.
    New models to support the professional education of health visitors: A qualitative study of the role of space and place in creating ‘community of learning hubs’2017In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 54, p. 69-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In response to a policy-driven workforce expansion in England new models of preparing health visitors for practice have been implemented. ‘Community of Learning hubs’ (COLHs) are one such model, involving different possible approaches to student support in clinical practice placements (for example, ‘long arm mentoring’ or ‘action learning set’ sessions). Such models present opportunities for studying the possible effects of spatiality on the learning experiences of students and newly qualified health visitors, and on team relationships more broadly.

    Objectives

    To explore a ‘community of learning hub’ model in health visitor education and reflect on the role of space and place in the learning experience and professional identity development of student health visitors.

    Design

    Qualitative research conducted during first year of implementation.

    Settings

    Three ‘community of learning hub’ projects based in two NHS community Trusts in London during the period 2013–2015. Participants Managers and leads (n = 7), practice teachers and mentors (n = 6) and newly qualified and student health visitors (n = 16).

    Methods

    Semi-structured, audio-recorded interviews analysed thematically.

    Results

    Participants had differing views as to what constituted a ‘hub’ in their projects. Two themes emerged around the spaces that shape the learning experience of student and newly qualified health visitors. Firstly, a generalised need for a ‘quiet place’ which allows pause for reflection but also for sharing experiences and relieving common anxieties. Secondly, the role of physical arrangements in open-plan spaces to promote access to support from more experienced practitioners.

    Conclusions

    Attention to spatiality can shed light on important aspects of teaching and learning practices, and on the professional identities these practices shape and support. New configurations of time and space as part of educational initiatives can surface new insights into existing practices and learning models. 

  • 2.
    Enskär, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Johansson, Inez
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Ljusegren, Gunilla
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Widäng, Ingrid
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Lecturers' experiences of participation in an international exchange2011In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 541-546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization is a trend in higher education and is judged to be essential to quality; however, there is a lack of publications on the outcome of lecturers' exchange. The aim of this study was to describe lecturers' experiences of participating in an international exchange. Twenty-six lecturers who had taken part in an exchange were invited to participate through writing a narrative. Data was analyzed with a qualitative method, and five categories emerged: Preparation and timing, challenges in teaching, demanding but worthwhile, broadening perspective and expanding network. The overall result showed that participating lecturers judged their international exchange to be a positive experience that had resulted in personal as well as professional development. However, a successful exchange requires planning, support and an open mind from all involved lecturers and institutions.

  • 3. Green, Barbara
    et al.
    Johansson, Inez
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Rosser, Megan
    Tengnah, Cassam
    Segrott, Jeremy
    Studying abroad: A multiple case study of nursing students' international experiences2008In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 28, no 8, p. 982-993Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the experiences of nursing students undertaking an international placement during their pre-registration education. The study took place in two schools – one in the United Kingdom, and one in Sweden. The move of nursing education into higher education enabled students to participate in international exchange programmes. Previous research demonstrates that students participating in such programmes may gain enhanced cultural awareness and experience personal and professional growth. The study comprised a multiple case study, utilising semi-structured individual and group interviews and documentary analysis. Eighteen students from the UK and 14 from Sweden participated. Participants described an increase in confidence, self-reliance and professional knowledge and skills resulting from their international placement. There was an awareness of how healthcare roles differ between countries and a change in attitudes to others from different backgrounds and cultures. The differences between the two cases were marginal. Whilst there was support from both home and host universities this varied between the international placement providers. The international placements were beneficial; however, there is a need for change in the preparation, support and monitoring of students, greater engagement with the partner institutions, and more effective mentoring of staff.

  • 4.
    Henricson, Maria
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Mårtensson, Jan
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Hedberg, Berith
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    The validation of the Supervision of Thesis Questionnaire (STQ)2018In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 65, p. 11-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The supervision process is characterized by differences between the supervisors’ and the students’ expectations before the start of writing a bachelor thesis as well as after its completion. A review of the literature did not reveal any scientifically tested questionnaire for evaluating nursing students’ expectations of the supervision process when writing a bachelor thesis.

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of a questionnaire for measuring nursing students’ expectations of the bachelor thesis supervision process.

    Design & Methods: The study had a developmental and methodological design carried out in four steps including construct validity and internal consistency reliability statistical procedures: construction of the items, assessment of face validity, data collection and data analysis.

    Settings & Participants: This study was conducted at a university in southern Sweden, where students on the “Nursing student thesis, 15 ECTS” course were consecutively selected for participation. Of the 512 questionnaires distributed, 327 were returned, a response rate of 64%.

    Results: Five factors with a total variance of 74% and good communalities, ≥0.64, were extracted from the 10-item STQ. The internal consistency of the 10 items was 0.68. The five factors were labelled: The nature of the supervision process, The supervisor's role as a coach, The students’ progression to self-support, The interaction between students and supervisor and supervisor competence.

    Conclusions: A didactic, useful and secure questionnaire measuring nursing students’ expectations of the bachelor thesis supervision process based on three main forms of supervision was created.

  • 5.
    Johansson, Linda
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Silén, Marit
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Gävle, Sweden.
    Research methods in nursing students’ Bachelor's theses in Sweden: A descriptive study2018In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 66, p. 187-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: During the nursing programme in Sweden, students complete an independent project that allows them to receive both a professional qualification as a nurse and a Bachelor's degree. This project gives students the opportunity to develop and apply skills such as critical thinking, problem-solving and decision-making, thus preparing them for their future work. However, only a few, small-scale studies have analysed the independent project to gain more insight into how nursing students carry out this task.

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to describe the methods, including ethical considerations and assessment of data quality, applied in nursing students’ independent Bachelor's degree projects in a Swedish context.

    Design: A descriptive study with a quantitative approach.

    Methods: A total of 490 independent projects were analysed using descriptive statistics.

    Results: Literature reviews were the predominant project form. References were often used to support the analysis method. They were not, however, always relevant to the method. This was also true of ethical considerations. When a qualitative approach was used, and data collected through interviews, the participants were typically professionals. In qualitative projects involving analysis of biographies/autobiographies or blogs participants were either persons with a disease or next of kin of a person with a disease.

    Conclusions: Although most of the projects were literature reviews, it seemed unclear to the nursing students how the data should be analysed as well as what ethical issues should be raised in relation to the method. Consequently, further research and guidance are needed. In Sweden, independent projects are not considered research and are therefore not required to undergo ethics vetting. However, it is important that they be designed so as to avoid possible research ethics problems. Asking persons about their health, which occurred in some of the empirical projects, may therefore be considered questionable. 

  • 6.
    Lindberg, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Pernilla
    Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Knutsson, Susanne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Reflective seminaries grounded in caring science and lifeworld theory – A phenomenological study from the perspective of nursing students2018In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 61, p. 60-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Creative strategies are needed in nurse education to integrate theory, practice and lived experiences. Towards that end, reflective seminars, conducted in congruence with reflective lifeworld theory and caring science, were implemented during a three-year nursing programme. The reflection seminars took place during the theoretical parts of education and the clinical placements. Each reflection group consisted of six to nine students, and the seminars were led by a lecturer from the university.

    Objectives

    This article aims to describe the experiences of learning about caring science by participating in reflective seminars that were integrated into courses during a three-year nursing education programme.

    Design

    A phenomenological approach was used, and qualitative group interviews were conducted.

    Setting

    The study was conducted at a university in southern Sweden.

    Participants

    Twenty three students, 19 women and four men, volunteered to participate. All participants were at the end of a three-year nurse education programme. Data were collected through four group interviews with five to seven participants in each group.

    Methods

    This study used a reflective lifeworld research approach based on phenomenological philosophy.

    Results

    The findings reveal that nursing students experience reflective seminars as being valuable for their professional development. The result is described in more detail via four meaning units: An obtained awareness of the value of reflection in clinical practice; Reflection contributes to an approach of thoughtfulness; Caring science has become second nature, and Reflection as a strength and a challenge at the threshold of a profession.

    Conclusions

    This study contributes to the understanding of reflective seminars grounded in lifeworld theory as a didactic strategy that enables students to increase their knowledge of caring science and develop their reflective skills.

  • 7.
    Nygårdh, Annette
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Sherwood, Gwen
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Nursing, United States.
    Sandberg, Therese
    Department of Orthopedics, Värnamo Hospital, Värnamo, Sweden.
    Rehn, Jeanette
    Department of Child Health Care, Värnamo, Sweden.
    Knutsson, Susanne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    The visibility of QSEN competencies in clinical assessment tools in Swedish nurse education2017In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 59, p. 110-117, article id S0260-6917(17)30207-1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Prospective nurses need specific and sufficient knowledge to be able to provide quality care. The Swedish Society of Nursing has emphasized the importance of the six quality and safety competencies (QSEN), originated in the US, in Swedish nursing education.

    PURPOSE: To investigate the visibility of the QSEN competencies in the assessment tools used in clinical practice

    METHOD: A quantitative descriptive method was used to analyze assessment tools from 23 universities.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Teamwork and collaboration was the most visible competency. Patient-centered care was visible to a large degree but was not referred to by name. Informatics was the least visible, a notable concern since all nurses should be competent in informatics to provide quality and safety in care. These results provide guidance as academic and clinical programs around the world implement assessment of how well nurses have developed these essential quality and safety competencies.

  • 8.
    Palese, Alvisa
    et al.
    University of Udine, department of Medical Science, Italy.
    Gnech, Denise
    University of Udine, department of Medical Science, Italy.
    Pittino, Daniel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Capretta, Franco
    University of Padua, Corso di Laurea i Infermieristica, Italy.
    Cossalter, Ornella
    University of Padua, Corso di Laurea i Infermieristica, Italy.
    Tonet, Saverio
    Nursing Board I.P.A.S.V.I. in Bellunom Belluno, Italy.
    Pais Dei Mori, Luigi
    Nursing Board I.P.A.S.V.I. in Bellunom Belluno, Italy.
    Grosso, Silvia
    University of Padua, Corso di Laurea i Infermieristica, Italy.
    Non-nursing tasks as experienced by nursing students: Findings from a phenomenological interpretative study2019In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 76, p. 234-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: During their clinical learning experience, students are exposed to the nursing profession as a powerful structural reality, experiencing the so-called professional socialisation, a process recognised as the basis of professional identity. Inside this process, students progressively acknowledge their professional identity as being composed of several competencies and, among these, also non-nursing tasks.

    OBJECTIVES: To explore non-nursing tasks in the context of nursing students' clinical learning experiences.

    DESIGN: An interpretative phenomenological study design was performed and carried out in 2016. The COnsolidated criteria for REporting Qualitative (COREQ) research principles were used in reporting study methods and findings.

    SETTING: Two Italian Bachelor of Nursing degree programmes located in Northern Italy.

    PARTICIPANTS: Students attending their nursing programmes who a) had successfully passed one or more theoretical examinations; b) had one or more clinical learning experiences in varied contexts (e.g. hospital, community); c) were attending the 1st, 2nd or 3rd year, and d) were willing to participate, were interviewed with an open-ended, face-to-face, audio-recorded interview.

    METHODS: A thematic analysis was performed.

    RESULTS: Participating students (n = 18) were between 20 and 25 years old and were attending the 1st to the 3rd (and final) academic year. Non-nursing tasks were experienced by them according to three main themes: a) "Being out of the scope of the learning experience," b) "Being forced by external and internal forces," and c) "Dealing with mixed outcomes by looking for a compromise." All students have reported learning to perform non-nursing tasks by shadowing clinical nurses and also practising these tasks by themselves. Internal and external forces prompted students to perform non-nursing tasks, which were recognised as having positive, negative, and neutral effects on themselves and on their learning outcomes.

    CONCLUSIONS: Non-nursing tasks are acquired since the beginning of the clinical experience, thus shaping the nursing students' professional identity. At the undergraduate nursing level, strategies should be implemented to prevent the phenomena that a) threaten the acquisition of more complex nursing competences expected by patients and society, and b) shape future generations to be flexible and to perform different tasks, included those below their role.

  • 9.
    Pergert, Pernilla
    et al.
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Af Sandeberg, Margareta
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Nina
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Márky, Ildikó
    Department of Paediatrics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Confidence and authority through new knowledge: An evaluation of the national educational programme in paediatric oncology nursing in Sweden2016In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 38, p. 68-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There is a lack of nurse specialists in many paediatric hospitals in Sweden. This lack of competence is devastating for childhood cancer care because it is a highly specialised area that demands specialist knowledge. Continuing education of nurses is important to develop nursing practice and also to retain them.

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate a Swedish national educational programme in paediatric oncology nursing.

    SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: The nurses who participated came from all of the six paediatric oncology centres as well as from general paediatric wards. At the time of the evaluation, three groups of registered nurses (n=66) had completed this 2year, part-time educational programme.

    DESIGN AND METHODS: A study specific questionnaire, including closed and open-ended questions was sent to the 66 nurses and 54 questionnaires were returned. Answers were analysed using descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis.

    RESULTS: The results show that almost all the nurses (93%) stayed in paediatric care after the programme. Furthermore, 31% had a position in management or as a consultant nurse after the programme. The vast majority of the nurses (98%) stated that the programme had made them more secure in their work. The nurses were equipped, through education, for paediatric oncology care which included: knowledge generating new knowledge; confidence and authority; national networks and resources. They felt increased confidence in their roles as paediatric oncology nurses as well as authority in their encounters with families and in discussions with co-workers. New networks and resources were appreciated and used in their daily work in paediatric oncology.

    CONCLUSIONS: The programme was of importance to the career of the individual nurse and also to the quality of care given to families in paediatric oncology. The national educational programme for nurses in Paediatric Oncology Care meets the needs of the highly specialised care.

  • 10.
    Silén, Marit
    et al.
    Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Johansson, Linda
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Aims and theoretical frameworks in nursing students' Bachelor's theses in Sweden: A descriptive study2016In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 37, p. 91-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Nursing students' independent projects in Sweden not only provide an opportunity to receive a professional qualification as a nurse but also gain a Bachelor's degree in nursing. The aim of these projects is to demonstrate knowledge and understanding within the major field of the education.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to describe and analyze the topics as well as theoretical frameworks and concepts in nursing students' independent projects, which lead to a Bachelor's degree, in a Swedish context.

    Design

    A total of 491 independent projects, written by nursing students in Sweden, were included in the study.

    Methods

    Topics together with theoretical frameworks and concepts in the projects were identified. Similar topics and theoretical frameworks and concepts, respectively, were grouped into subcategories, and similar subcategories were then merged into a main category. The number of entries in each category was counted for descriptive statistics in order to allow for the demonstration of magnitude.

    Results

    The most common topics concerned experiences and managing when having an illness, experiences of care and of being a caregiver, and healthcare staff's care and knowledge. The nursing theories/models that were most often used were Eriksson's Theory of Caritative Caring, Travelbee's Human-to-Human Relationship Model, and Orem's Self-care Theory. Among the non-nursing theories/models, perspectives and concepts lifeworld, ethical values and principles, existential concepts and quality of life/health-related quality of life, were most often used by these students.

    Conclusion

    There may be some difficulty in finding a topic for the project that is relevant for both a professional qualification as a nurse, as well as for achieving the requirements of a Bachelor's degree in nursing. The study indicates that there is a need to widen the student's understanding of different nursing theories/perspectives/models/concepts during nursing education so that students are familiar with a broad range of these when conducting their independent project.

  • 11.
    Sundler, Annelie J.
    et al.
    School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Björk, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Bisholt, Birgitta
    Department of Health Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Ohlsson, Ulla
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Engström, Agneta Kullén
    School of Health, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Margareta
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Student nurses' experiences of the clinical learning environment in relation to the organization of supervision: a questionnaire survey2014In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 661-666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim was to investigate student nurses' experiences of the clinical learning environment in relation to how the supervision was organized.

    Background

    The clinical environment plays an essential part in student nurses' learning. Even though different models for supervision have been previously set forth, it has been stressed that there is a need both of further empirical studies on the role of preceptorship in undergraduate nursing education and of studies comparing different models.

    Method

    A cross-sectional study with comparative design was carried out with a mixed method approach. Data were collected from student nurses in the final term of the nursing programme at three universities in Sweden by means of a questionnaire.

    Results

    In general the students had positive experiences of the clinical learning environment with respect to pedagogical atmosphere, leadership style of the ward manager, premises of nursing, supervisory relationship, and role of the nurse preceptor and nurse teacher. However, there were significant differences in their ratings of the supervisory relationship (p < 0.001) and the pedagogical atmosphere (p 0.025) depending on how the supervision was organized. Students who had the same preceptor all the time were more satisfied with the supervisory relationship than were those who had different preceptors each day. Students' comments on the supervision confirmed the significance of the preceptor and the supervisory relationship.

    Conclusion

    The organization of the supervision was of significance with regard to the pedagogical atmosphere and the students' relation to preceptors. Students with the same preceptor throughout were more positive concerning the supervisory relationship and the pedagogical atmosphere.

  • 12.
    Wu, Xi Vivien
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare. Alice Centre for Nursing Studies, Singapore.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Lee, Cindy Ching Siang
    Alice Centre for Nursing Studies, Singapore.
    Wang, Wenru
    Alice Centre for Nursing Studies, Singapore.
    A systematic review of clinical assessment for undergraduate nursing students2015In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 347-359Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Consolidated clinical practicum prepares pre-registration nursing students to function as beginning practitioners. The clinical competencies of final-year nursing students provide a key indication of professional standards of practice and patient safety. Thus, clinical assessment of nursing students is a crucial issue for educators and administrators.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to explore the clinical competency assessment for undergraduate nursing students.

    DATA SOURCES: PubMed, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and EBSCO were systematically searched from January 2000 to December 2013.

    METHODS: The systematic review was in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Published quantitative and qualitative studies that examined clinical assessment practices and tools used in clinical nursing education were retrieved. Quality assessment, data extraction, and analysis were completed on all included studies.

    RESULTS: This review screened 2073 titles, abstracts and full-text records, resulting in 33 included studies. Two reviewers assessed the quality of the included studies. Fourteen quantitative and qualitative studies were identified for this evaluation. The evidence was ordered into emergent themes; the overarching themes were current practices in clinical assessment, issues of learning and assessment, development of assessment tools, and reliability and validity of assessment tools.

    CONCLUSION: There is a need to develop a holistic clinical assessment tool with reasonable level of validity and reliability. Clinical assessment is a robust activity and requires collaboration between clinical partners and academia to enhance the clinical experiences of students, the professional development of preceptors, and the clinical credibility of academics.

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