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  • 1.
    Andersson, Lina
    et al.
    Department of Economics and Statistics, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Department of Economics and Statistics, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Hussain, Shakir
    School of Medicine, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Ethnic origin, local labour markets and self-employment in Sweden: A Multilevel Approach2013In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 885-910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the importance of ethnic origin and local labour markets conditions for self-employment propensities in Sweden. In line with previous research, we find differences in the self-employment rate between different immigrant groups as well as between different immigrant cohorts. We use a multilevel regression approach in order to quantify the role of ethnic background, point of time for immigration and local market conditions in order to further understand differences in self-employment rates between different ethnic groups. We arrive at the following: The self-employment decision is to a major extent guided by factors unobservable in register data. Such factors might be, that is, individual entrepreneurial ability and access to financial capital. The individual’s ethnic background and point of time for immigration play a smaller role for the self-employment decision but are more important than local labour market conditions.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Ejermo, Olof
    Lund University.
    How does accessibility to knowledge sources affect the innovativeness of corporations?: evidence from Sweden2005In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 741-765 Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the innovative performance of 130 Swedish corporations during 1993-1994. The number of patents per corporation is explained as a function of the accessibility to internal and external knowledge sources of each corporation. A coherent way of handling accessibility measures, within and between corporations located across regions, is introduced. We examine the relative importance of intra- and interregional knowledge sources from 1) the own corporation, 2) other corporations, and 3) universities. The results show that there is a positive relationship between the innovativeness of a corporation and its accessibility to university researchers within regions where own research groups are located. Good accessibility among the corporation's research units does not have any significant effects on the likelihood of generation of patents. Instead the size of the R&D staff of the corporation seems to be the most important internal factor. There is no indication that intraregional accessibility to other corporations' research is important for a corporation's innovativeness. However, there is some indication of reduced likelihood for own corporate patenting when other corporate R&D is located in nearby regions. This may reflect a negative effect from competition for R&D labor.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    Spatial dependence and the representation of space in empirical models2009In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 159-180Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Andersson, Åke E.
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Johansson, Börje
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Inside and outside the black box: organization of interdependencies2018In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 501-516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production theory has remained substantially unchanged since the publication of the theory of production by Frisch (Theory of production, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, 1928; Nord613 Tidskr Tek Økon 1:12–27, 1935). The theory is based on the idea of a firm deciding on the possible input and output combinations of a single unit of production. His theory was substantially copied in contributions by Carlson (A study on the pure theory of production, University of Chicago, Chicago, 1939) and Schneider (Einführung in die Wirtschaftstheorie. 4 Bände, Mohr, Tübingen, 1947), and later by practically all textbooks in microeconomics. The idea is to model the firm as a “black box” in which a finite number of externally purchased inputs are transformed into a finite number of outputs to be sold in the market(s). Most of the time, the prices are externally determined. Often, the production process is summarized by some simplified production function as, for example, in the form of a CES function. Another and conceptually richer approach is the formulation of an activity analysis model. In the latter case, simple internal interdependencies can be included. In this paper, we indicate how internal interdependencies can also be modeled within a special CES framework. In recent decades, there has been a remarkable growth in the number of production units of firms such as IKEA, Walmart and Apple to name a few such global networking firms. Most of the analysis of these network firms has been modeled by logistics and other operations-research analysts (Simchi-Levi et al. 2008) and to a limited extent by researchers in business administration schools. Very little has been done in economics. We propose a modeling approach consistent with the microeconomic theory. 

  • 5.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    The geography of innovation and entrepreneurship2015In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This introduction to the special issue “The Geography of Innovation and Entrepreneurship” in the Annals of Regional Science surveys a collection of nine papers which consider agglomeration economies and spatial heterogeneity of regions and firms through the lenses of innovation and entrepreneurship. They all make use of extensive and detailed data sources that enable models to provide a richer picture of how firms, industries and regions are affected by innovation and entrepreneurship but also how these entities shape and foster renewal. These factors include spatial concentration, industry composition, labor market characteristics, immigration, firm characteristics, R&D activities and R&D collaboration. The papers add to the understanding of the geography of innovation and entrepreneurship by suggesting alternative ways of identifying spillovers, combing and integrating internal and external knowledge sources, and by estimating the impact on innovation, new firm formation and growth.

  • 6.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Wallin, Tina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Access to banks and external capital acquisition: Perceived innovation obstacles2018In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 61, no 1, p. 161-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine whether low access to banks is perceived as problematic when obtaining financial capital for innovation activities. Data on innovation obstacles from the Swedish Community Innovation Survey are combined with geo-coded data at the firm level, which allows us to proxy access to external capital by the Euclidian distance from each firm to its nearest bank and the supply within a radius of five kilometres. The results indicate that both a longer distance to the nearest bank and fewer banks in the vicinity are related to experiencing greater difficulties in obtaining external financial capital for innovations.

  • 7.
    Bjerke, Lina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Johansson, Sara
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS).
    Patterns of innovation and collaboration in small and large firms2015In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 221-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the patterns of innovation and collaboration by using unique regional survey data on more than 600 Swedish firms. The data also include the smallest firms, which have been largely neglected in the existing literature on innovations. In the context of collaboration, however, small firms are of particular interest because external interactions and joint projects can be expected to play a very central role in innovation processes in firms where internal resources are very limited. The results show that the probability of innovation is higher among collaborating firms, yet not all types of collaborations matter. Extra-regional collaborations appear as most important in promoting firm innovation, and collaboration seems to be most favourable when the partners involved have some organizational or knowledge relatedness. Small firms, in particular, seem to gain from such extra-regional linkages.

  • 8.
    Bjerke, Lina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Mellander, Charlotta
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS).
    Moving home again? Never! The locational choices of graduates in Sweden2017In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 707-729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two major challenges in Europe’s rural areas are an aging population and the diminishing share of human capital. While this pattern has been occurring for a long time, the effects are becoming acutely visible and impactful. The long-term loss of younger individuals has in many ways “drained” the labor market and the economic market power of rural areas. This is the context of our research: the locational choice of university graduates from an urban–rural perspective. Using micro data covering the entire Swedish population, we identify all university graduates from the year 2001. We analyze them with respect to whether they live in a rural or urban region before starting university and where they live after graduation at two points in time: 5 and 10 years. We use a series of multinomial logit regressions to determine what factors affect their short-term and long-term choices of location. We find that having children is one of the most influential factors for moving back home after graduation, irrespective of type of region. We find only minor differences between the two time perspectives.

  • 9. Blum, U.
    et al.
    Haynes, K
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    The Regional and Urban Effects of High Speed Trains: Introduction to the Special Issue1997In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 1-20Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Dzansi, James
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Do Remittance Inflows Promote Manufacturing Growth?2013In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 89-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies show that manufacturing growth is fundamental to sustained economic growth and development. However, recent Dutch disease perspective studies suggest that remittance inflows have the potential to impede manufacturing growth of the recipient economies. This paper contributes to the literature by investigating the effect of remittance inflows on manufacturing growth directly. The main claim of the paper is that the Dutch disease perspective identifies only one of the several channels through which remittance inflows impacts on manufacturing growth and hence unlikely to reflect the ultimate impact of remittances on manufacturing growth. This study uses the 3-digit level manufacturing data on a sample of 40 remittance-dependent economies over the period from 1991 to 2004. The empirical results indicate positive and robust effect of remittance inflows on manufacturing growth. This finding implies that one of the mechanisms through which remittance inflows could lift standards of living in poor countries is via the impact on manufacturing growth.

  • 11.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis, Östersund, Sweden.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Attributes influencing self-employment propensity in urban and rural Sweden2013In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 479-514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policies aiming at promoting entrepreneurship are in general formed on national levels, without any consideration of differences between urban and rural areas. Usually, cities are provided with better and more modern infrastructure; cities have better supply of physical, financial and human capital, and connected services, and cities have a more modern industrial structure in the sense that their shares of growing industry are higher. Thus, it is possible that policies for entrepreneurship, which in general are designed for urban areas, might be less effective when they are implemented in rural areas. A first step to test the validity of this hypothesis could be to investigate the differences between cities and countryside regarding self-employment propensity and factors affecting the choice to become self-employed. Based on an exceptionally rich data set containing very detailed socio-economic and geographical information on all residents in Sweden, this paper examines: (a) the scope and structure of self-employment propensity in urban and rural areas, respectively, in Sweden, divided into full-time and part-time self-employment, and (b) the importance of a number of attributes that may have an impact on individuals' propensity to start an enterprise in the two area types. Variables being tested are connected to demography and education, labor market status, plant characteristics, self-employment experience, financial resources, family links and regional attributes. The main results indicate that self-employment entry is influenced by the same factors in the same way in urban and rural areas. However, countryside's industrial structure has a smaller share of growing industries. The fact that countryside's startups follow the existing industrial structure means that this "modernity gap" between densely built up areas and countryside remains. From a policy perspective, this must be seen as a serious problem for countryside's growth potential. This gives an argument for designing a special entrepreneurship policy for the countryside in order to increase its share of growing trades and thereby modernize its industrial structure.

  • 12.
    Florida, Richard
    et al.
    Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto.
    Mellander, Charlotta
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, The Prosperity Institute of Scandinavia (PIS). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Holgersson, Thomas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Statistics.
    Up in the air: The role of airports for regional economic development2015In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 197-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our research examines the role of airports in regional development. Specifically, we examine two things: (1) the factors associated with whether or not a metro will have an airport, and (2) the effect of airport activities on regional economic development. Based on multiple regression analysis for U.S. metros, our research generates four key findings. First, airports are more likely to be located in larger metros with higher shares of cultural workers and warmer winters. Second, airports add significantly to regional development measured as economic output per capita. Third, the effect of airports on regional development occurs through two channels—their capacity to move both people and cargo, with the former being somewhat more important. Fourth, the impact of airports on regional development varies with their size and scale.

  • 13.
    Florida, Richard
    et al.
    Martin Prosperity Institute, Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto, Canada.
    Mellander, Charlotta
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS).
    Stolarick, Kevin
    OCAD University, Toronto, Canada.
    Human capital in cities and suburbs2016In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 91-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on talent or human capital generally focuses on the metro level and neglects the relative effects of its distribution between center cities and their surrounding suburbs. This research examines the connection between human capital in urban centers (defined here as principal cities) versus suburbs on the economic performance of US metropolitan areas. The findings indicate that this distribution of human capital has significant connection to metro economic performance, with suburban human capital being more strongly related to performance than human capital in the principal city. This result also varies by metro size.

  • 14.
    Fukao, Kyoji
    et al.
    Hitotsubashi University, Kunitachi, Japan.
    Kravtsova, Victoria
    Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.
    Nakajima, Kentaro
    Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.
    How important is geographical agglomeration to factory efficiency in Japan's manufacturing sector?2014In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 659-696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the productivity spillovers from efficient factories have been investigated using factory-level data of Japan's Census of Manufactures. The following three steps have been performed by estimating: first, efficiency of each factory using a nonparametric data envelopment analysis model for each industry, second, geographical distances to the most efficient factory in the prefecture and Japan overall are third, determinants of factories' performance. Results suggest that clustering occurs in each industry and efficient factories concentrate in certain regions. The share of efficient firms in total firms is particularly high in the Chubu and Tohoku regions. For many industries closeness to the most efficient factories plays a statistically significant positive role in the efficiency of manufacturing factories in Japan. However, this is not the case in high-tech industries.

  • 15.
    Hacker, R Scott
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    The Impact of International Capital Mobility on the Volatility of Labor Income2000In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 157-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    If project risk is positively related to project return, then the greater diversification available from international capital mobility also leads to more investment in the riskier projects with high expected returns. This results in internationally immobile laborers facing greater risk in the demand for their services, since these services are provided to riskier projects and the laborers do not receive the diversification benefit that capitalists do. This paper develops a model which shows that when there is more capital mobility between two countries, there is a tendency for both countries to experience an increase in the volatility of labor income under perfect wage flexibility, and this impact is stronger in the country less richly endowed with labor and financial wealth.

  • 16.
    Hacker, R Scott
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Einarsson, Henrik
    The Pattern, Pull, and Potential of Baltic Sea Trade2003In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 15-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the current conditions of trade in the Baltic Sea region and considers the strength of trade affinities between countries and country groups within that region. The evidence supports a strong affinity between Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania to the Baltic Nordic countries. The paper also considers how sensitive Swedish exports are to per capita GDP of importing countries and how that varies across industries. Some of the evidence supports a positive relation between product differentiation and the per-capita GDP sensitivity. Among this evidence is the finding that for Swedish exports, distance sensitivity and per-capita GDP sensitivity are negatively related.

  • 17.
    Johansson, Börje
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Evoultion, Interaction and Welfare: An Introduction1998In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 295-298Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Johansson, Börje
    Umeå University.
    Regional industrial analysis and vintage dynamics1991In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Forslund, Ulla M
    Assessing road investments: accessibility changes, cost benefit and production effects1995In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 155-174Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Klaesson, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Agglomeration Dynamics of Business Services2011In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 20p. 373-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important characteristic of the economic development in Europe and North America during the last few decades is a fast expansion of the business-service sector. The present paper aims at modeling the location dynamics of three categories of firms: (i) knowledge-intensive business-service firms, (ii) ordinary business-service firms and other firms, where the latter form the rest of the economy. In the theoretical framework, business-service firms have random-choice preferences and respond in a non-linear way to time distances in their contact efforts to customer firms. Business-service firms make their location decisions in response to local, intra-regional and extra-regional access to market demand. The econometric analysis makes use of information about time distances between zones in urban areas as well as between urban areas in the same agglomeration and between urban areas in different agglomerations. The empirical analysis shows how the number of jobs in the different sectors change in response to accessibility to purchasing power. The estimation results show that the change processes feature non-linear dependencies with varying spatial reach.

  • 21.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Roy, John R
    A model of trade flows in differentiated goods1993In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 95-115Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Westin, Lars
    Affinities and frictions of trade networks1994In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 243-261Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Johansson, Sara
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS).
    R&D Accessibility and Regional Export Diversity2007In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 501-523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the influences of accessibility to R&D on the export diversity in Swedish regions. A theoretical model with fixed R&D cost predicts that spatial knowledge spillovers generate external economies of scale in R&D activities. These external effects are presumed to increase regions' innovative capacity. Moreover, the model implies that the effects of R&D on regional export performance are reflected by the size of the export base rather than by the export volumes. The empirical analysis focuses on three different indicators of export diversity: the number of exported goods, the number of exporting firms and the number of export destinations. The hypothesis that regional accessibility to R&D facilities in the private business sector, on the one hand, and university research departments on the other hand, increases the export diversity in regions is tested in a spatial cross-regressive model. Since knowledge cannot be regarded as a spatially trapped resource the empirical analysis includes two measures of R&D accessibility: intra-regional and inter-regional. The empirical results indicate that the three indicators of regional export diversity are positively affected by the intra-regional accessibility to company R&D in commodity groups that have a relatively high R&D-intensity in production. Inter-regional accessibility to company R&D has significant positive impacts on the number of export goods and the number of export destinations also in less R&D-intensive industries. In the case of university R&D, the empirical results are weaker, in particular in the case of intra-regional accessibility. Yet, the inter-regional accessibility to university R&D has a significant positive impact on the number of export goods and the number of export destinations in the majority of commodity groups.

  • 24.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Product Development, Innovation Networks, and Agglomeration Economies1997In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 235-258Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    The Identification of Functional Regions: Theory, Methods, and Applications2006In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Zhang, W.-B
    The Role of Universities in Regional Development: Endogenous Human Capital and Growth in a Two-Region Model2001In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 179-197Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Karlsson, Joel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School. Department of Economics and Statistics, Linnaeus University Centre for Labour Market and Discrimination Studies, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Mansson, Jonas
    Department of Economics and Statistics, Linnaeus University Centre for Labour Market and Discrimination Studies, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Getting a full-time job as a part-time unemployed: How much does spatial context matter?2014In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 179-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the extent to which differences in the probability to exit from part-time unemployment to a full-time job are accountable for by spatial contextual factors and individual characteristics. To correctly incorporate contextual effects, a multilevel analysis is applied using a mixed-effects model to explore whether contextual factors account for differences in the probability of transition to full-time employment between individuals with different characteristics. The results indicate that there is a contextual effect and that there are some spatial spill-over effects from neighbouring municipalities, and that the unemployment rate partly explains the context variability. Furthermore, the contextual effect is found to be especially large for individuals without a university degree.

  • 28.
    Klaesson, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Monopolistic Competition, Increasing Returns, Agglomeration, and Transport Costs2001In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 375-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a model where production concentrated in one place is compared with dispersed production. Concentrated production can attain a higher level of productivity but must incur transport costs. Dispersed production, on the other hand, has a lower productivity level but need no transportation. In order to avoid unnecessary complications, output per capita is used as an objective function. Transport cost is measured in units of output and will therefore affect the objective function directly. The model uses a linkage approach where a final output is produced under constant returns to scale. This production has increasing returns to the number of differentiated inputs. The differentiated intermediate inputs are produced subject to increasing returns to scale in a framework of Chamberlinian monopolistic competition. The size of the market determines the number of intermediate inputs that the local economy can accommodate. In this way the model formalises Adam Smith's theorem on the division of labour being limited by the extent of the market. The paper examines how the break-even point between the two ways of organising production is affected by (i) changes in transport cost and market density and (ii) shifts in technology for producers of intermediaries and the final output.

  • 29.
    Klaesson, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Norman, Therese
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Market potential and the employment growth of knowledge-intensive services: comparing different geographical resolutions2015In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 157-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to empirically understand the geographical reach of different markets, it is vital to use an appropriate geographical resolution. Using too large observational units risks hiding the interesting relationships within the regional boundaries. In this study, we aim to investigate and compare similar analyses performed on different geographical levels, with a special focus on innovative industries. Accessibility to markets, services and infrastructure is thought to be major determinants of the potential for economic development and welfare of a region. Earlier empirical research establishing the relationship between agglomeration forces and regional growth typically includes a measure for accessibility or market potential as an explanatory factor. The geographical scale that conventional accessibility measures operate on is usually on the level of municipalities or similar, even when theory suggests that a more disaggregated scale is desirable. Most often the reason for this is limitations in available data. In many cases, the researcher is left with a geographical level based on administrative borders. Analyses on more disaggregated levels allow the researcher to better pinpoint the actual accessibility that each firm faces. In order to shed light on the importance of these issues, this paper utilizes an exploratory approach to investigate the relationship between the spatial distribution and growth of knowledge-intensive services (KIS) and the accessibility to economic activity (market potential). We use regional employment growth in KIS as a proxy for regional innovativeness. The relationship is estimated on two different geographical levels using Swedish data. The more conventional model is estimated with the 290 municipalities in Sweden as the units of analysis. In the Swedish context, this represents the geographically smallest administrative level. In the more novel model, we use the 298 so-called SAMS areas of Jönköping County in Sweden. Our results show that the detailed level is particularly important for the analysis of the growth of the more advanced sectors of the economy, in our setting, the high-tech knowledge-intensive services.

  • 30.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    The neighborhood or the region? Reassessing the density-wage relationship using geocoded data2014In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 367-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I analyze the effects of sub-city-level density of economic activity on wages. Using a geocoded dataset on employment and wages in the city areas of Sweden, the analysis is based on squares representing "neighborhoods" (, "districts" (, and "agglomerations" (. The wage-density elasticity depends on spatial resolution, with the elasticity being highest in neighborhood squares, where a doubling of density is associated with wage increases of 1.2 %, or roughly the size of the elasticity for region density. Moving from a mean-density neighborhood to the densest neighborhood would on average increase wages by 9 %. The results are consistent with (i) the existence of a localized density spillover effect and (ii) quite sharp attenuation of human capital spillovers. An implication of the findings is that if the data source is not sufficiently disaggregated, analyses of the density-wage link risk understating the benefits of working in dense parts of regions, such as the central business districts.

  • 31.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Öner, Özge
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Location and co-location in retail: a probabilistic approach using geo-coded data for metropolitan retail markets2014In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 385-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we employ geo-coded data at a fine spatial resolution for Sweden’s metropolitan areas to assess retail co-location. Retail clusters and their place in urban space are assessed from several angles. The probability of a specific type of retail unit to be established in a 250 by 250 m square is modelled as a function of (i) the presence of other similar retail establishments, (ii) the presence of stores that belong to other retail sectors and (iii) other characteristics of the square area, and its access to demand in the pertinent urban landscape. The analysis clarifies which types of retail clusters one can expect to find in a metropolitan region, as well as their relationship to the urban landscape. We analyse three distinct types of stores: clothing, household appliances, and specialized stores. Stores with high intensities of interaction are co-located, and predominantly located close to the urban cores, consistent with predictions from bid rent theory and central place theory. We further document negative location tendencies between shops that sell frequently purchased products and shops that sell durables. Moreover, our results highlight the importance of demand in the close surroundings, which is particularly strong for small-scale establishments.

  • 32. Lejpras, Anna
    et al.
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Locational Conditions, Cooperation, and Innovativeness: Evidence from Research and Company Spin-Offs2011In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 543-575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper has two goals. First, it analyzes the extent to which the innovativeness of spin-offs, originating either in a research facility or from another company, is influenced by locational conditions. Second, it provides evidence on how important local cooperation links are in comparison to nonlocal ones. Using a sample of approximately 1,500 East German firms from knowledge-intensive sectors, we estimate a structural equation model applying the partial least squares method. We find that proximity to local research institutes and universities is the most influential factor for the cooperation intensity of spin-offs. Furthermore, the higher the cooperation intensity, the greater the innovativeness of a firm. Moreover, the results indicate that it is not the local but the nonlocal cooperation ties that are more conducive to innovativeness of research spin-offs. The findings also highlight that the innovativeness of research spin-offs with solely local links is strongly dependent on support from various authorities and institutions.

  • 33.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Ekberg, Jan
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Immigrant-native earnings differentials: SUR estimation applied on three generations2010In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 705-720Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Locational conditions and firm performance: introduction to the special issue2011In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 487-494Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Sun, Xianhua
    et al.
    School of Economics, Chongqing Technology and Business University, Chongqing, China.
    Xiong, Ailun
    School of Management, Chongqing Technology and Business University, Chongqing, China.
    Li, Hongyi
    Business School, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE). Division of Urban and Regional Studies, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Li, Yuheng
    Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Does social capital influence small business entrepreneurship?: Differences between urban and rural China2019In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the relationship between social capital and small business entrepreneurship in China. Unlike previous studies that focus solely on rural or urban residents, this paper pays more attention to the differences between them. According to our study, social capital has both positive and negative impacts on small business entrepreneurship. Based on the data drawn from China General Social Survey, we find that the impact of social capital differs significantly between rural and urban areas. In rural China, residents who have higher social capital tend to have entrepreneurial behaviors, while higher social capital leads to lower intention of small business entrepreneurship in urban China. Individuals whose parents have the experiences of small business tend to have small business entrepreneurial activities; individuals who are better educated tend to find regular jobs instead of having their own small business. The results suggest that small business entrepreneurship in rural China might be “entrepreneurship by necessity”. 

  • 36.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    A Brief History of Time, Space, and Growth: Waldo Tobler’s First Law of Geography Revisited2013In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 917-924Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current knowledge economy, the most important production factor, human knowledge, is much more mobile than the dominating production factors of previous periods. This means that theories of spatial development, formulated during the manufacturing-industrial era, might not be wholly applicable today. One of the basic assumptions of spatial theory is formulated in Waldo Tobler's first law of geography: "everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things." This article discusses the validity of this law in today's knowledge economy. While several factors have made distance less important, a crucial factor for innovation and growth-tacit knowledge-is still highly dependent on face-to-face contacts. This suggests that Waldo Tobler's first law of geography plays an important role also in the knowledge economy.

  • 37.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Comments on President Jack Osman's Presentation2007In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 13-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 38.
    Wixe, Sofia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Pettersson, Lars
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Segregation and individual employment: a longitudinal study of neighborhood effects2019In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we study whether individuals who reside in segregated neighborhoods in Sweden have lower propensity to be employed. We employ full population micro-data, which allow us to follow the same group of individuals over 21 years and make it possible to apply an individual fixed effects strategy to reduce issues of self-selection and individual heterogeneity. The results show that individuals in segregated neighborhoods are less likely to be employed compared to individuals living in non-segregated neighborhoods. This observation is most significant in metropolitan regions. Furthermore, the relationship appears to be particularly attributed to males of foreign background. However, it is not the spatial separation between immigrants and natives that lies behind the negative relationship between segregation and employment, but rather the distress of neighborhoods.

1 - 38 of 38
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